Scalp and Face


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By: Dr, Pamela Fabie

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Scalp and Face

  1. 1. By: Dr. Pamela Josefina T. Fabie
  2. 2.  Soft tissue covering the cranial vault It is hair bearing area of the skull Extends from supra orbital margin anteriorly to external occipital protuberance & superior nuchal line posteriorly On each side to superior temporal line
  3. 3. S- SkinC- connective tissue (superficial fascia)A- Aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)L- Loose areolar tissueP- Pericranium
  4. 4. Skin A layer of thin skin containing numerous hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands covers the scalp.Connective tissue A thick, dense, subcutaneous connective tissue is anchored firmly to the skin above and the membranous layer below. Fibrous and dense containing blood vessels and nerves
  5. 5. Aponeurosis Is formed by the gales aponeurotica.Loose Connective Tissue Allows freedom of movement of the superficial three layers over the top of the skullPeriocranium The periosteum of the skull. Firmly anchored to the underlying bone.
  6. 6. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE Called dangerous layer of scalp-emissary veins open here and carry any infections inside the brain (venous sinus) Bleeding lead to black eye Caput succedaneum in new born PERICRANIUM Injury deep to it take the shape of bone called cephalhaematoma
  7. 7. a. EYESb. NOSEc. EARS
  8. 8. The FaceBoundaries:1. Superior - Hairline2. Inferior- Lower border of the andible
  9. 9. Regions of the Face1. Forehead2. Temporal3. Orbital4. External nose5. Zygomatic6. Oral7. Cheeks8. Mental9. External ear
  10. 10. Eyelids (Palpebrae)- Form a curtain for the ocular globe or the eyeball.External features:1. Palpebral fissure - transverse elliptical opening between the upper and lower eyelid.2. Palpebral commissure (canthus( - the lateral and medial junctions of the upper and lower eyelids.3. Superior palpebral margins - covers the superior 1/5 of the iris when the lids are open.
  11. 11. External features:4. Inferior palpebral margins - cuts across the lower border of the iris when the lids are open.5. Cilia or eyelashes - project from the palpebral margins intwo or three irregular rows.6. Plica semilunaris - a cresent fold at the medial angle of the eye that separates the white of the eye from the medial, reddish-colored lacrimal lake.
  12. 12. External features:7. Lacrimal lake - small, raised, triangular are bordered by the plica semilunaris; a raised, reddish area within the lake is the caruncle.8. Superior and inferior papillae - are small, raised bumps at the junction of the ciliated hairless margins of the lids; at the apex of which is the lacrimal punctum.9. Conjuctivum - mucous membrane inner lining of the lid.
  13. 13. Root Tip Dorsum AlaColumna Anterior naris (nostril)
  14. 14. External Nose:-The framework is composed of the nasal bones,septal cartilage, lateral cartilages, and alar cartilages.-Skin of the nose is continues beyond the externalnares into the vestibule of the nose, with nasal hairs tofilter larger particles of dusts in the air.
  15. 15. External Ear- Contains a single elastic cartilage which provides support to the external ear.- Skin is tightly bound to the cartilage with no intervening subcutaneous layer.- Skin and cartilage is thrown into several folds.
  17. 17. Bones involved:1. Maxilla2. Zygomatic Bone3. Sphenoid Bone4. Frontal Bone5. Palatine Bone6. Ethmoid Bone7. Lacrimal Bone.
  18. 18. Roof- orbital plate of the frontal bone- lesser wings of sphenoid.
  19. 19. Lateral wall- Zygomatic process of the frontal bone- Orbital plate of the zygomatic bone- Orbital plate of the greater wings of sphenoid
  20. 20. Medial wall- Frontal process of the maxilla- Lacrimal bone- Orbital plate of ethmoid bone- Body of sphenoid
  21. 21. Floor- Orbital plate of the maxilla- Orbital plate of the zygomatic bone- Orbital process of the palatine bone
  22. 22. Base Superiorly – frontal bone Medially - frontal process of the maxilla Laterally - frontal process of the zygomatic bone Inferiorly - Maxilla medially - zygomatic bone laterally
  23. 23. Apex- Formed by the convergence of the four walls
  24. 24. Bones involved:1. Nasal Bone2. Frontal Bone3. Ethmoid Bone4. Sphenoid Bone5. Vomer6. Maxilla7. Palatine Bone8. Lacrimal Bone9. Inferior nasal Concha
  25. 25. Anterior – pyriform aperturePosterior - Pharynx through the posterior nares
  26. 26. Superior Wall:1. Anterior – nasal bone -nasal process of the frontal bone2. Middle - cribriform plate of ethmoid bone3. Posterior - body of the sphenoid
  27. 27. Median Wall:- Perpendicular plate of ethmoid- Vomer.
  28. 28. Inferior Wall:- Palatine process of the maxilla- Horizontal plate of palatine bone
  29. 29. Lateral Wall: a. Superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid bone b. Inferior nasal conchae