A Little HistoryAt first, the Incas were simply a smalltribe that lived in the city of Cuzco.They worshiped gods of nature. Theybelieved in omens and dreams. Around1430 C.E, a neighboring tribeattacked the Incas.The Incas won! That was thebeginning of the Inca Empire.
GEOGRAPHY ANDES MOUNTAINS * North to south were the Andes Mountains - home of the Inca civilization. * The mountains dominated Incan society. * The mountain peaks were worshiped as gods.
GEOGRAPHY * The Andes created a natural barrier between the coastal desert on one side and the jungle on the other. * The snow-capped mountains were full of deep gorges.
GEOGRAPHY * The Inca built bridges across the gorges so they could reach all parts of their empire quickly and easily. * These mountain gorges were natural barriers. If an enemy approached, the Incas could simply burn the bridges.
GEOGRAPHY AMAZON JUNGLE * On one side of the Andes was the Amazon jungle. * The Incas must have entered the jungle occasionally, as they did know about the many valuable things that could be found in the Amazon, like wood and fruit and natural medicines.
GEOGRAPHY * But they never established settlements there. They had no desire to live in the jungle. * The Incas expanded north and south instead.
GEOGRAPHY COASTAL DESERT * Between the mountains and the Pacific Ocean is a coastal desert 2000 miles long and between 30-100 miles wide.
GEOGRAPHY * The desert provided a wonderful natural barrier. * There are fertile strips where small rivers and streams run from the Andes mountaintops to the sea.
RELIGION* Practiced several polytheistic religions* Viracocha was the creator of the Sun, the Moon and the Stars.
GOVERNMENTSapa Inca*Inca : means emperor*Sapa :means the only emperor- The Sapa Inca ruled everything and owned everything. The Inca was not just a ruler. The Inca was believed to be a direct descendant of the sun god, Inti.
ARCHITECTURE* The Incas built the best planned cities in the ancient Americas.* Most Incan cities did not have walls around them.* The Incas build beautiful cities.* The architecture was formal yet simple.
CONTRIBUTIONSCalendar* Each calendar month hosted a different religious festival.* The Incan calendar was divided into 12 months. Each month was divided into 3 weeks. Each week had 10 days.
CONTRIBUTIONSMusical Instruments* They invented many wind and percussion instruments.* Drums and flutes were very popular.* The panpipe was the most popular.
CONTRIBUTIONSSystems of Measurements:Quipus* Using a base of ten, the quipus had a main string about two feet long.* The quipus allowed messages to be carried by the Inca runners from one end of the empire to the other.
ACHIEVEMENTSImportant to the success of the Inca Empire:* Communication : roads, runners* Specialized Professions :engineers,metal workers, stone masons, other artisans
ACHIEVEMENTS* Service Tax :huge free labor force* Technology : terrace farming, surplus crops, irrigation systems* Strong Central Government: all powerful Inca, strict laws, basic needs satisfied