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  1. 1. Narrative / Interactivity / Play / Games (According to Zimmerman)
  2. 2. Narrative <ul><li>Initial state, change in that state, insight brought about by the change (causality) </li></ul><ul><li>Events represented through a medium (i.e. language, images) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of pattern or structure. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Interactivity <ul><li>Cognitive Interactivity (the way we actively construct meanings of the text in our minds) </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Interactivity (formal structural interactions with the text, i.e. clicking links, filling out forms, moving objects) </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-Interactivity (extending the meaning of a text as in fan fiction or parody videos) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Play <ul><li>“ Free play of movement within a structure. Play </li></ul><ul><li>exists because of and also despite the more rigid </li></ul><ul><li>structures of a system.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Defining Games <ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior-Constraining Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Artificiality (separate from real life) </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifiable Outcome (can be won or lost) </li></ul><ul><li>“Interactive, Narrative Systems of Play” </li></ul>