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  1. 1. Arrangement
  2. 2. Kinds of cases (kairos) <ul><li>Honorable: immediate audience support </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult: Audience hostile to rhetor and/or to the issue raised. </li></ul><ul><li>Mean: Audience thinks the issue is trivial </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous: audience is unsure or has mixed feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Obscure: issue is difficult to understand. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Parts of Oration <ul><li>Exordium (introduction and/or insinuation) Narrative (concise statement of the argument) Partition (a &quot;mapping statement&quot; outlining the key issues to be addressed / arguments to be made) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Parts of Oration II <ul><li>Confirmation (the key body section where the rhetor makes arguments in favor of her position) </li></ul><ul><li>Refutation (the key body section where the rhetor addresses and rebuts possible counterarguments) </li></ul><ul><li>Peroration (Concluding summary, pathetic appeals, ethical appeals) </li></ul>