YOUNG IMMIGRANTS’ POLITICAL  PARTICIPATION ON THE INTERNET IN             GERMANY :COMPARING GERMAN-EAST-EUROPEANS AND    ...
Outline1.   Introduction2.   Theory3.   Methods and Data4.   Results     4.1. Political Online Participation – Excerpt    ...
Introduction• digital divide vs. digital empowerment of  immigrant groups• (digital) political integration of immigrants• ...
TheoryPolitical participation on the Internet:1. Information activities online: e.g. reading online   news2. Communication...
Theoretical BackgroundTheory-synthesis of rational-choice and resourcemodels to explain political online participation →Fa...
Data & Methodology• Survey-Data , N= 2,082 (ages of 14 to 26), German  respondent (n=771) left out for this analysis• Surv...
Data & MethodologyTwo groups, based on origin1. Young East-Europeans, mainly from Poland   and former Soviet Union, n=2212...
Data & MethodologyStatistical Methodology:• Descriptive statistics (means, frequencies)• Variance-Analyses (Eta)• Structur...
Results: Political Online Participation                             Immi-    East-    Turkey                             g...
On-/Offline Participation
On-/Offline ParticipationWhich political issues are related to intensepolitical Internet usage?•   Internet freedom/preven...
GenderSignificance of gender differences: Eta Immigrants: 0.130**;Eta Turkey: 0.133*; Eta East-Europe: n.s.**: p < 0.01 (A...
Education
Socioeconomic StatusSignificance of socio-economic status: all Etas are n.s.   apart from Eta East-Europe: 0.173* with p <...
Model:German-East-Europeans
Model: German-Turks
Some additional notes• Surprising that German-Turks are more active  politically on the Internet than German-East-  Europe...
Conclusions•   Immigrants use the Internet for political purposes to raise    their voice, therefore, e-Participation is a...
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Young Immigrants’ Political Participation on the Internet in Germany : Comparing German-East-Europeans and German-Turks

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Spaiser Viktoria, Bielefeld Graduate School in History and Sociology, University of Bielefeld Germany

“Young immigrants´ political participation on the Internet in Germany”

I will discuss results from my research project on young immigrants’ political participation on the Internet in Germany with a focus on young people with Turkish and East-European background. Statistical analysis on the basis of survey data was conducted. It compared three groups: ethnic Germans, young people with Turkish and East-European (former Soviet-Union and Poland) origin. Young people with Turkish background turned out to be particularly politically active online, while young East-Europeans are least participative on the Internet. Statistical models show that this is on the one hand related to the social context, which is rather politicized in the case of Turkish respondents. On the other hand young people with Turkish background seem to be more prone to become politically active on the Internet due to their grievances caused by discrimination experiences. In combination with strong political efficacy grievance drives these young people to take up action online. Additionally, the models reveal other important factors to explain political participation on the Internet, like Internet skills. Altogether, the results suggest that disadvantaged immigrant groups are not necessarily constrained by the so-called digital divide. They even may use the Internet for political empowerment under certain conditions.

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Young Immigrants’ Political Participation on the Internet in Germany : Comparing German-East-Europeans and German-Turks

  1. 1. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS’ POLITICAL PARTICIPATION ON THE INTERNET IN GERMANY :COMPARING GERMAN-EAST-EUROPEANS AND GERMAN-TURKS Viktoria Spaiser International Joint Workshop on Immigrant Inclusion by E- Participation, Helsinki
  2. 2. Outline1. Introduction2. Theory3. Methods and Data4. Results 4.1. Political Online Participation – Excerpt 4.2. Online and Offline Political Participation 4.3. Political Online Participation & Gender 4.4. Political Online Participation & Education 4.5. Model for young people from East-Europe 4.6. Model for young people from Turkey5. Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction• digital divide vs. digital empowerment of immigrant groups• (digital) political integration of immigrants• Immigrants’ agendas in the political long tail?• Do only immigrant elites participate online?
  4. 4. TheoryPolitical participation on the Internet:1. Information activities online: e.g. reading online news2. Communication activities online: e.g. political online-debates, writing political blogs, networking, coordinating political activities, …3. Participation activities online: e.g. protest email campaigns, online petitions, digital civil disobedience,…
  5. 5. Theoretical BackgroundTheory-synthesis of rational-choice and resourcemodels to explain political online participation →Factors of influence:• Political discontentment and/or grievance (relative deprivation, discrimination experience)• Political efficacy• Social incentives / social capital: young people’s socio-political milieu• Education• Internet skills
  6. 6. Data & Methodology• Survey-Data , N= 2,082 (ages of 14 to 26), German respondent (n=771) left out for this analysis• Survey in school classes, including all types of German schools• Survey from November 2009 – March 2010 in four German cities Bielefeld, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt → clustered sample
  7. 7. Data & MethodologyTwo groups, based on origin1. Young East-Europeans, mainly from Poland and former Soviet Union, n=2212. Young people with Turkish origins, n=497
  8. 8. Data & MethodologyStatistical Methodology:• Descriptive statistics (means, frequencies)• Variance-Analyses (Eta)• Structural Equation Models (SEM)• Missing Data handled with Full Information Maximum Likelihood
  9. 9. Results: Political Online Participation Immi- East- Turkey grants Europeonline at least 92% 92.8% 92.5%news rarelyonline at least 37.9% 32% 42.3%debates onceonline at least 21% 18.4% 23.4%content oncecoordina- at least 68% 56.4% 74.3%ting action infrequentlyprotest at least 20.3% 17.8% 20.8%email once
  10. 10. On-/Offline Participation
  11. 11. On-/Offline ParticipationWhich political issues are related to intensepolitical Internet usage?• Internet freedom/preventing Internet censorship• Data security/ (digital) civil rights• Fundamental political changes in Germany• Anti-racism/ anti-fascism• Human rights• Supporting marginalized groups• Intercultural dialogue (German-Turks)
  12. 12. GenderSignificance of gender differences: Eta Immigrants: 0.130**;Eta Turkey: 0.133*; Eta East-Europe: n.s.**: p < 0.01 (ANOVA)*: p < 0.05 (ANOVA)
  13. 13. Education
  14. 14. Socioeconomic StatusSignificance of socio-economic status: all Etas are n.s. apart from Eta East-Europe: 0.173* with p < 0.05 Significance of socio-economic status: all Etas are n.s. apart from Eta East-Europe: 0.173* with p < 0.05
  15. 15. Model:German-East-Europeans
  16. 16. Model: German-Turks
  17. 17. Some additional notes• Surprising that German-Turks are more active politically on the Internet than German-East- Europeans, because – On average lower Internet skills: Tur.: M=1.38, SD=0.67 vs. East: M=1.47, SD=0.70 – Related to lower socioeconomic status: Tur.: M=46.67, SD=13.12 vs. East: M=56.90, SD=13.74 – But German-Turks included in rather politized milieus: Tur.: M=1.70, SD=0.93 vs. East: M=1.21, SD=0.71 – Therefore higher level of political efficacy: Tur.: M=1.44, SD=0.76 vs. East: M=1.21, SD=0.80 – Finally, stronger incentives
  18. 18. Conclusions• Immigrants use the Internet for political purposes to raise their voice, therefore, e-Participation is a chance• However, different immigrant groups have different incentives, backgrounds, resources and therefore e- participation needs• Bottom-up approach: immigrant communities build cyber- spaces for participation themselves. Authorities, politicians etc. should go to this spaces and listen to the voices; more important than producing new spaces for immigrants from above• Still (digital) divides: e.g. women, Internet skills (necessary to find ways to reduce Internet skills discrepancies) to avoid an establishment of second-level digital (democratic) divide

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