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Mediated participation. ‘New’ technologies’ claims to increased participation, novelty and uniqueness


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Mediated participation. ‘New’ technologies’ claims to increased participation, novelty and uniqueness

  1. 1. Mediated participation. ‘New’ technologies’claims to increased participation, novelty and uniqueness Nico Carpentier Reifova Helsinki – November 2011
  2. 2. Volume 25,Issue 4-5,2011
  3. 3. „Disputes on the nature of the audience seem to involve tworelated dialectics. The first is a tension between the idea that theaudience is a mass public versus the idea that it is a smallcommunity. The second is the tension between the idea that theaudience is passive versus the belief that it is active‟ (Littlejohn in„Theories of human communication‟ (1996: 310)). Micro Active Passive Macro
  4. 4. The active/passive Adimension in the Particulation of the audience 1
  5. 5. Passive models • Sender-message-receiver model of Shannon and Weaver • DeFleur‟s model adding a feedback loop • Media effects research • etcActive models • Eco‟s aberrant decoding theory • Hall‟s encoding/decoding model • Uses and gratifications theory • etcThe „traditional‟ active/passive dimension emphasizes the active role of the individual viewer in processes of signification
  6. 6. The participation/ Ainteraction dimension Pin the articulation of the 1b audience
  7. 7. ActiveParticipation Interaction in media with media production content Passive
  8. 8. T H Participation in society R O U Active G H Participation Interaction in media with mediaInteraction with production content IN I N Passive
  9. 9. Participation
  10. 10. Participation ≠ Interaction
  11. 11. Participation and em/power/ment„The widespread use of the term […] has tended to mean thatany precise, meaningful content has almost disappeared;―participation‖ is used to refer to a wide variety of differentsituations by different people (Pateman, 1972: 1)Partial participation: a process in which two or more partiesinfluence each other in the making of decisions but the finalpower to decide rests with one party only (Pateman, 1972:70)Full participation: a process where each individual member ofa decision-making body has equal power to determine theoutcome of decisions. (Pateman, 1972: 71)„It appears that power and control are pivotal subconceptswhich contribute to both understanding the diversity ofexpectations and anticipated out-comes of peoplesparticipation. White (1994: 17)
  12. 12. Minimalist media participation Maximalist media participation- focusing on control by media - balancing control and professionals participation- participation limited to access - attempting to maximise and interaction participation- focussing on micro-participation - combining macro- and micro-- media as non-political participation- unidirectional participation - broad definition of the political- focussing on a homogeneous as a dimension of the social audience - multidirectional participation - focussing on heterogeneity
  13. 13. MiThe micro/macrodimension in the Maarticulation of the audience 2 A brief note
  14. 14. The specificity of the online active audience
  15. 15. Claim 1: The shiftfrom one-to-many to many-to-many communication
  16. 16. The people formerlyThe People Formerly Known known as the audience are those as the Audience who were on the receiving end of a media system that ran one way, in a broadcasting pattern, with high entry fees and a few firms competing to speak very loudly while the rest of the population listened in isolation from one another— and who today are not in a situation like that at all. (Rosen, 2008: 163)
  17. 17. • homogenisation of audiencearticulations and practices• audience activity and the longhistory of participatory practices
  18. 18. BBC‟s Video NationThe BBC‟s Video Nation as a participatory media practice. Signifying everyday life, cultural diversity and participation in an online community
  19. 19. Claim 2: The re-articulation of theaudience into the „produser‟
  20. 20. • conflation of user, producer andaudience • user ≈ active / audience ≈ passive • user + audience ≈ active / passive?• lack of attention for the receptionof online content
  21. 21. Case: Reception of nine films • nine groups of youngsters • Flemish science week • on “the Flemish YouTube” • reception study • 131 respondents • 15 focus groups
  22. 22. The films • bizarre questions • sound difficult to understand • raindrops on the lens • sometimes no introduction • … nor a clear storyline • … nor articulated• focused on everyday life, with a “normal” view of EDL,without aesthetisation or narrative structure• the raw data of everyday, without much decoration• camera wonders from conversation to conversation,being engaged in the everyday chit-chat• little flaneurs that observe the singularities of EDL• modest attempts to address the politisation of EDL
  23. 23. The banal, the banal, ...• “there was actually no single important question.These are all banal things. They are banal things.”(Yvette, F, 60, H, FG3)• “The main advantage of these films is that they areshort.” (Alain, M, 52, H, FG7)• “They are so amateurish. I even got the impressionthat they did that on purpose, it was so much beyond... That’s my impression” (Danielle, F, 50, H, FG7)
  24. 24. The banal, the banal, ... (continued) • the content: lack of relevance and usefulness ----/---- comparisons with holiday pictures • (perceived) motives attributed to the producers: being bored and having nothing else to do • formal quality of the film: perceived lack of aesthetic, narrative and technical quality is juxtaposed to the quality of professional media productions
  25. 25. Claim 3: The convergence oftop-down business with bottom-up consumption and production practices
  26. 26. Convergence―represents aparadigm shift – amove from medium-specific contenttoward content thatflows acrossmultiple mediachannels, towardthe increasedinterdependence ofcommunicationssystems, towardmultiple ways ofaccessing mediacontent, and towardever more complexrelations betweentop-down corporatemedia and bottom-up participatoryculture.‖
  27. 27. • investing strongly into a set ofcommercialised media worlds• risks of being incorporated aresubstantial• the importance of formalorganisational participatorystructures
  28. 28. Amarc labels a community radio station „a ―non- profit‖ station, currently broadcasting, which offers a service to the community inwhich it is located, or to which it broadcasts, while promoting theparticipation of this community in the radio‟ (Amarc, 1994: 4).
  29. 29. Civil society and community media as rhizome
  30. 30. ConclusionAudience theory & concept • quite helpful to facilitate the understanding of the present-day conjuncture • trans-audience? + shows emphasis on informally organised audience + shows the need to avoid the conflation of interaction and participationImportance of history: • produced number of radical examples • co-exist with the digital