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# Lecture 2d queues

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### Lecture 2d queues

1. 1. Data Structures & Algorithms Lecture 2d: Queue Data StructuresLecture 2d: Queue Data Structures Joan Wakasa MurumbaJoan Wakasa Murumba
2. 2. Queue ADT Like a stack, aLike a stack, a queuequeue is also a list.is also a list. However, with a queue, insertion is done atHowever, with a queue, insertion is done at one end, while deletion is performed at theone end, while deletion is performed at the other end.other end. Accessing the elements of queues follows aAccessing the elements of queues follows a First In, First Out (FIFO) order.First In, First Out (FIFO) order. Like customers standing in a check-outLike customers standing in a check-out line in a store, the first customer in is theline in a store, the first customer in is the first customer served.first customer served.
3. 3. The Queue ADT Another form of restricted listAnother form of restricted list Insertion is done at one end, whereasInsertion is done at one end, whereas deletion is performed at the other enddeletion is performed at the other end Basic operations:Basic operations: EnqueueEnqueue DequeueDequeue First-in First-out (FIFO) listFirst-in First-out (FIFO) list
4. 4. Queue
5. 5. Enqueue and Dequeue Primary queue operations: Enqueue andPrimary queue operations: Enqueue and DequeueDequeue Like check-out lines in a store, a queue has aLike check-out lines in a store, a queue has a front and a rear.front and a rear. EnqueueEnqueue Insert an element at the rear of the queueInsert an element at the rear of the queue DequeueDequeue Remove/delete an element from the front ofRemove/delete an element from the front of the queuethe queue
6. 6. Enqueue and Dequeue Insert (Enqueue) Remove (Dequeue) rearfront
7. 7. The Queue Operations A queue is like a line of peopleA queue is like a line of people waiting for a bank teller. The queuewaiting for a bank teller. The queue has ahas a frontfront and aand a rearrear.. \$ \$ Front Rear
8. 8. The Queue Operations New people must enter the queue at theNew people must enter the queue at the rear.rear. The C++ queue class calls this aThe C++ queue class calls this a pushpush,, although it is usually called analthough it is usually called an enqueueenqueue operation.operation. \$ \$ Front Rear
9. 9. The Queue Operations When an item is taken from the queue, itWhen an item is taken from the queue, it always comes from the front. The C++always comes from the front. The C++ queue calls this aqueue calls this a poppop, although it is usually, although it is usually called acalled a dequeuedequeue operation.operation. \$ \$ Front Rear
10. 10. Array Implementation of Queue When enqueuing, theWhen enqueuing, the front indexfront index is always fixedis always fixed and theand the rear indexrear index moves forward in the array.moves forward in the array. There are several different algorithms toThere are several different algorithms to implement Enqueue and Dequeueimplement Enqueue and Dequeue front rear Enqueue(3) 3 front rear Enqueue(6) 3 6 front rear Enqueue(9) 3 6 9
11. 11. Queue Implementation of Array When enqueuing, theWhen enqueuing, the front indexfront index is always fixedis always fixed and theand the rear indexrear index moves forward in the array.moves forward in the array. When dequeuing, the element at the front of theWhen dequeuing, the element at the front of the queue is removed. Move all the elements after itqueue is removed. Move all the elements after it by one position. (Inefficient!!!)by one position. (Inefficient!!!) Dequeue() front rear 6 9 Dequeue() Dequeue() front rear 9 rear = -1 front
12. 12. Queue Implementation of Array Better wayBetter way When an item is enqueued, make theWhen an item is enqueued, make the rearrear indexindex move forward.move forward. When an item is dequeued, theWhen an item is dequeued, the front indexfront index moves by one element towards the back ofmoves by one element towards the back of the queue (thus removing the front item, sothe queue (thus removing the front item, so no copying to neighboring elements isno copying to neighboring elements is needed).needed).
13. 13. Array Implementation.... A queue can be implemented with an array.A queue can be implemented with an array. For example, this queue contains the integersFor example, this queue contains the integers 4 (at the front), 8 and 6 (at the rear).4 (at the front), 8 and 6 (at the rear). [[ 0 ]0 ] [1][1] [ 2 ][ 2 ] [ 3 ][ 3 ] [ 4 ][ 4 ] [ 5 ][ 5 ] . .. ... An array of integers toAn array of integers to implement a queue ofimplement a queue of 4 8 6
14. 14. Array Implementation.... The easiest implementation alsoThe easiest implementation also keeps track of the number of itemskeeps track of the number of items in the queue and the index of thein the queue and the index of the first element (at the front of thefirst element (at the front of the queue), the last element (at thequeue), the last element (at the rear).rear). [ 0 ][ 0 ] [1][1] [ 2 ][ 2 ] [ 3 ][ 3 ] [ 4 ][ 4 ] [ 5 ][ 5 ] . . .. . . 4 8 6 sizesize3 firstfirst0 lastlast2
15. 15. A Dequeue Operation.... When an element leaves theWhen an element leaves the queue, size is decremented,queue, size is decremented, and first changes, too.and first changes, too. [ 0 ][ 0 ] [1][1] [ 2 ][ 2 ] [ 3 ][ 3 ] [ 4 ][ 4 ] [ 5 ][ 5 ] . . .. . . 4 8 6 sizesize2 firstfirst1 lastlast2
16. 16. An Enqueue Operation.... When an element enters theWhen an element enters the queue, size is incremented, andqueue, size is incremented, and last changes, too.last changes, too. [ 0 ][ 0 ] [1][1] [ 2 ][ 2 ] [ 3 ][ 3 ] [ 4 ][ 4 ] [ 5 ][ 5 ] . . .. . . 28 6 sizesize3 firstfirst1 lastlast3
17. 17. At the End of the Array... There is special behaviour at theThere is special behaviour at the end of the array.end of the array. For example, suppose we want toFor example, suppose we want to add a new element to this queue,add a new element to this queue, where the last index is [5]:where the last index is [5]: [ 0 ][ 0 ] [1][1] [ 2 ][ 2 ] [ 3 ][ 3 ] [ 4 ][ 4 ] [ 5 ][ 5 ] 2 16 sizesize3 firstfirst3 lastlast5
18. 18. At the End of the Array... The new element goes at theThe new element goes at the front of the array (if that spotfront of the array (if that spot isn’t already used):isn’t already used): [ 0 ][ 0 ] [1][1] [ 2 ][ 2 ] [ 3 ][ 3 ] [ 4 ][ 4 ] [ 5 ][ 5 ] 2 16 sizesize4 firstfirst3 lastlast0 4
19. 19. 19 ..Array implementation of queues A queue is a first in, first out (FIFO) data structureA queue is a first in, first out (FIFO) data structure This is accomplished by inserting at one end (theThis is accomplished by inserting at one end (the rear) and deleting from the other (the front)rear) and deleting from the other (the front) To insert:To insert: put new element in location 4, andput new element in location 4, and set rear to 4set rear to 4 To delete:To delete: take element from location 0, and settake element from location 0, and set front to 1front to 1 17 23 97 44 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 myQueue: rear = 3front = 0
20. 20. 20 …Array implementation of queues Notice how the array contents “crawl” to theNotice how the array contents “crawl” to the right as elements are inserted and deletedright as elements are inserted and deleted This will be a problem after a while!This will be a problem after a while! 17 23 97 44 333After insertion: 23 97 44 333After deletion: rear = 4front = 1 17 23 97 44Initial queue: rear = 3front = 0
21. 21. Circular Arrays We can treat the array holding the queueWe can treat the array holding the queue elements as circular (joined at the ends)elements as circular (joined at the ends) 44 55 11 22 33 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 myQueue: rear = 1 front = 5 Elements were added to this queue in the order 11,Elements were added to this queue in the order 11, 22, 33, 44, 55, and will be removed in the same order22, 33, 44, 55, and will be removed in the same order Use: front = (front + 1) % myQueue.length;Use: front = (front + 1) % myQueue.length; and: rear = (rear + 1) % myQueue.length;and: rear = (rear + 1) % myQueue.length;
22. 22. …Full and empty queues If the queue were to become completely full, itIf the queue were to become completely full, it would look like this:would look like this: If we were then to remove all eight elements,If we were then to remove all eight elements, making the queue completely empty, it would lookmaking the queue completely empty, it would look like this:like this: 44 55 66 77 88 11 22 33 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 myQueue: rear = 4 front = 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 myQueue: rear = 4 front = 5 This is a problem!
23. 23. Full and empty queues: solutions Solution #1:Solution #1: Keep an additional variableKeep an additional variable Solution #2:Solution #2: (Slightly more efficient) Keep a gap(Slightly more efficient) Keep a gap betweenbetween elements: consider the queue full when itelements: consider the queue full when it has n-1 elementshas n-1 elements 44 55 66 77 88 11 22 33 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 myQueue: rear = 4 front = 5count = 8 44 55 66 77 11 22 33 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 myQueue: rear = 3 front = 5
24. 24. Advantages of Array Implementation of a Queue Easy to implementEasy to implement But it has a limited capacity with a fixed arrayBut it has a limited capacity with a fixed array Or you must use a dynamic array for anOr you must use a dynamic array for an unbounded capacityunbounded capacity
25. 25. Queue Class IsFull: return true if queue is full, returnIsFull: return true if queue is full, return false otherwisefalse otherwise Enqueue: add an element to the rear ofEnqueue: add an element to the rear of queuequeue Dequeue: delete the element at the frontDequeue: delete the element at the front of queueof queue DisplayQueue: print all the dataDisplayQueue: print all the data
26. 26. Linked List Implementation 10 15 7 null 13 A queue can also beA queue can also be implemented with a linked listimplemented with a linked list with both a head and a tailwith both a head and a tail pointer.pointer. head_ptr
27. 27. Linked List Implementation 10 15 7 null 13 Which end do you think is theWhich end do you think is the front of the queue? Why?front of the queue? Why? head_ptr
28. 28. Linked List Implementation 10 15 7 null head_ptr 13 The head_ptr points to the frontThe head_ptr points to the front of the list.of the list. Because it is harder to removeBecause it is harder to remove items from the tail of the list.items from the tail of the list. tail_ptr Front Rear
29. 29. 29 Enqueueing a node 17 Node to be enqueued To Enqueue (add) a node:  Find the current last node  Change it to point to the new last node  Change the last pointer in the list header 2344 last first 97
30. 30. 30 Enqueueing a node 17 Node to be enqueued To enqueue (add) a node: Find the current last node Change it to point to the new last node Change the last pointer in the list header 2344 last first 97
31. 31. 31 Dequeueing a node To dequeue (remove) a node:To dequeue (remove) a node: Copy the pointer from the first node intoCopy the pointer from the first node into the headerthe header 44 97 23 17 last first
32. 32. Queue Class Attributes of QueueAttributes of Queue front/rear: front/rear indexfront/rear: front/rear index counter: number of elements in the queuecounter: number of elements in the queue maxSize: capacity of the queuemaxSize: capacity of the queue values: point to an array which storesvalues: point to an array which stores elements of the queueelements of the queue Operations of QueueOperations of Queue IsEmpty: return true if queue is empty,IsEmpty: return true if queue is empty, return false otherwisereturn false otherwise
33. 33. Queue operations add(Object item)add(Object item) a.k.a. enqueue(Object item)a.k.a. enqueue(Object item) Object get()Object get() a.k.a. Object front()a.k.a. Object front() Object remove()Object remove() a.k.a. Object dequeue()a.k.a. Object dequeue() boolean isEmpty()boolean isEmpty() Specify in an interface, allow variedSpecify in an interface, allow varied implementationsimplementations
34. 34. 34 Queue implementation details With an array implementation:With an array implementation: You can have both overflow and underflowYou can have both overflow and underflow You should set deleted elements to nullYou should set deleted elements to null With a linked-list implementation:With a linked-list implementation: You can have underflowYou can have underflow Overflow is a global out-of-memory conditionOverflow is a global out-of-memory condition There is no reason to set deleted elements to nullThere is no reason to set deleted elements to null
35. 35. 35 Applications of Queues Direct applicationsDirect applications Waiting lists, bureaucracyWaiting lists, bureaucracy Access to shared resources (e.g.,Access to shared resources (e.g., printer)printer) MultiprogrammingMultiprogramming Indirect applicationsIndirect applications Auxiliary data structure for algorithmsAuxiliary data structure for algorithms Component of other data structuresComponent of other data structures
36. 36. 36 Application: Round Robin Schedulers We can implement a round robin scheduler using aWe can implement a round robin scheduler using a queue,queue, QQ, by repeatedly performing the following, by repeatedly performing the following steps:steps: 1.1. e = Q.e = Q.dequeue()dequeue() 2.2. Service elementService element ee 3.3. Q.Q.enqueue(enqueue(ee)) The Queue Shared Service 1 .Dequeue the next element 3. Enqueue the serviced element 2. Service the next element
37. 37. 37 Priority Queue Implementation Sequence-based Priority Queue Implementation with anImplementation with an unsorted listunsorted list Performance:Performance: insert takesinsert takes OO(1) time(1) time since we can insert thesince we can insert the item at the beginning oritem at the beginning or end of the sequenceend of the sequence removeMin and min takeremoveMin and min take OO((nn) time since we have) time since we have to traverse the entireto traverse the entire sequence to find thesequence to find the smallestsmallest keykey Implementation with aImplementation with a sorted listsorted list Performance:Performance: insert takesinsert takes OO((nn) time) time since we have to find thesince we have to find the place where to insert theplace where to insert the itemitem removeMin and min takeremoveMin and min take OO(1) time, since the(1) time, since the smallest key is at thesmallest key is at the beginningbeginning 4 5 2 3 1 1 2 3 4 5
38. 38. 38 Priority Queue Applications Priority-based OS process schedulerPriority-based OS process scheduler