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BEER- TYPES, PRODUCTION
      & SPOILAGE
                      PALLAVI DHOTRA
                           ROLL NO. 06
           FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
Beer is the world’s oldest & most widely
consumed alcoholic beverage.
It is 3rd most popular drink after water &
tea.
The process of making beer is known as
brewing.
Beer is produced by fermentation of
starches derived from cereal grains.
The alcoholic strength of beer is usually
around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV).
TYPES OF BEER


                BEER



       ALES                LAGER



PALE   MILD            LIGHT   DARK
              STOUT
ALE    ALE             LAGER   LAGER
INGREDIENTS FOR
            BEER PRODUCTION

Malt

Hops

Brewer’s Yeast

Brewing Water

Adjuncts
BREWING PROCESS
           Malting

          Mashing

          Filtration

        Kettle boiling

        Hops addition

           Cooling

        Fermentation

           Cooling

    Ageing & Clarification

   Secondary fermentation

         Carbonation

  Packaging & pasteurization
     (at 60°C for 30 mins)
MALTING
          Barley

        Cleaning

         Sorting

  Large Medium Small          Animal feed

    Steeping in water
 (at 12-15°C for 2-3 days)

      Germination

Drying of malt (at 71-92°C)

      Curing of malt
   (at 80°C for 5 hours)

  Grind to coarse flour
MASHING
   Mashing is the process where cereal grist is
   mixed with hot water to extract sugar for
   fermentation.
   The product of mashing is termed as sweet wort.
   The process of mashing involves:-
i. Dissolving the substances in the malt that
     are soluble in warm water.
ii. Rendering the substances which are
     insoluble in their natural state or soluble
     through enzymatic action.
WORT FILTRATION
   The process of separating the liquid part of
   mash (wort) from the undissolved part (the
   spent grain) is called lautering.
   Two types of equipments are used to separate
   wort from mash solids, these are:-
i. Lauter Tun:- It is a vertical cylinder with a large
    diameter to depth ratio and fitted into the tun
    is a wort collecting system.
ii. Mash Filters:- The mash filters consists of a
    series of alternating plates and roller frames in
    which a filter of polyethylene or polypropylene
    is suspended.
WORT BOILING & HOP
                 ADDITION
    Wort boiling involves open top vessels, operating at
    atmospheric pressure, which exploits thermosyphon
    circulation to keep the wort well agitated.
    During boiling hops are added which impart flavor,
    aroma and bitterness to the beer.
    The objectives of wort boiling are:-
i. Enzyme inactivation
ii. Wort sterilization
iii. Protein coagulation (hot break formation)
iv. Hop extraction
v. Water evaporation
vi. Flavor compound formation
vii. Undesired volatile evaporation
HOP SEPERATION &
               COOLING
After boiling, wort is passed through hop
separator to remove both hops and
precipitated proteins (trub).
The wort is cooled to 10-15°C, in a plate heat
exchanger.
During cooling process, proteins and tannins
are precipitated as fine coagulum referred to
as the ‘cold break’.
During cooling the oxygenation of the wort is
carried out to permit the yeast to ferment
efficiently.
FERMENTATION
After cooling the wort is ready for fermentation & is
moved to fermenter.
Brewer’s Yeast is inoculated into the cooled wort.
For ale production Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inoculated &
for lager production Saccharomyces uvarum is inoculated.
As fermentation proceeds specific gravity is decreased
due to the utilization of carbohydrates by the yeast
There is production of ethanol and other compounds
with density less than water.
Carbon dioxide is also evolved during fermentation
which is utilized for carbonation.
When yeast settles down, the beer obtained is called
Green Beer which is subjected to another storage tank
having temperature 0-2°C. This stage is called fassing.
AGEING & FINISHING

Ageing involves the storage of beer in vats having
temperature 0°C, during which beer is mellowed
or matured.
Finishing involves the clarification of beer to
remove residual yeast & residual protein-tannin
complex.
Hops are also added to retain the flavor
Secondary fermentation is done if required as a
part of ageing to make beer fully carbonated.
After final fermentation beer is packed in cans &
bottles and is pasteurized at 60°C for 30 minutes.
SPOILAGE OF BEER

   Beer spoilage is caused due to following reasons:-
i. Spoilage caused by bacteria:- lactic acid bacteria,
    acetic acid bacteria, Zymomonas anaerobia,
    Pediococcus cerevisiae causes beer spoilage.
ii. Spoilage caused by wild yeast:- wild yeast causes
    spoilage at any level of beer production, such
    yeasts are- Saccharomyces diastaticus, Candida lambica,
    Dekkera intermedia. In production of ales,
    Saccharomyces uvarum acts as a wild yeast where as
    in production of lagers Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts
    wild yeast.
REFERENCES

Pandey V.K, Pandey A, Biotechnology :Food Fermentation,
Volume II, Educational Publishers & Distributors.
Marwaha S.S, Arora J.K, Food Processing : Biotechnological
Applications, Asiatech Publishers Inc.
Bagchi S.N, Sharma A, Food & Beverage Service, Aman
Publications.
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/beer&eizdEfs
http://www.studentsguide.in/microbiology/industrialmicro
biology/steps-in-beerproductiom.htm
http://www.ifrn.bbsrc.ac.uk/saftey/comicro/beer.25pdf
THANK YOU

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Beer types, production &spoilage

  • 1. BEER- TYPES, PRODUCTION & SPOILAGE PALLAVI DHOTRA ROLL NO. 06 FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Beer is the world’s oldest & most widely consumed alcoholic beverage. It is 3rd most popular drink after water & tea. The process of making beer is known as brewing. Beer is produced by fermentation of starches derived from cereal grains. The alcoholic strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV).
  • 3. TYPES OF BEER BEER ALES LAGER PALE MILD LIGHT DARK STOUT ALE ALE LAGER LAGER
  • 4. INGREDIENTS FOR BEER PRODUCTION Malt Hops Brewer’s Yeast Brewing Water Adjuncts
  • 5. BREWING PROCESS Malting Mashing Filtration Kettle boiling Hops addition Cooling Fermentation Cooling Ageing & Clarification Secondary fermentation Carbonation Packaging & pasteurization (at 60°C for 30 mins)
  • 6. MALTING Barley Cleaning Sorting Large Medium Small Animal feed Steeping in water (at 12-15°C for 2-3 days) Germination Drying of malt (at 71-92°C) Curing of malt (at 80°C for 5 hours) Grind to coarse flour
  • 7.
  • 8. MASHING Mashing is the process where cereal grist is mixed with hot water to extract sugar for fermentation. The product of mashing is termed as sweet wort. The process of mashing involves:- i. Dissolving the substances in the malt that are soluble in warm water. ii. Rendering the substances which are insoluble in their natural state or soluble through enzymatic action.
  • 9. WORT FILTRATION The process of separating the liquid part of mash (wort) from the undissolved part (the spent grain) is called lautering. Two types of equipments are used to separate wort from mash solids, these are:- i. Lauter Tun:- It is a vertical cylinder with a large diameter to depth ratio and fitted into the tun is a wort collecting system. ii. Mash Filters:- The mash filters consists of a series of alternating plates and roller frames in which a filter of polyethylene or polypropylene is suspended.
  • 10. WORT BOILING & HOP ADDITION Wort boiling involves open top vessels, operating at atmospheric pressure, which exploits thermosyphon circulation to keep the wort well agitated. During boiling hops are added which impart flavor, aroma and bitterness to the beer. The objectives of wort boiling are:- i. Enzyme inactivation ii. Wort sterilization iii. Protein coagulation (hot break formation) iv. Hop extraction v. Water evaporation vi. Flavor compound formation vii. Undesired volatile evaporation
  • 11.
  • 12. HOP SEPERATION & COOLING After boiling, wort is passed through hop separator to remove both hops and precipitated proteins (trub). The wort is cooled to 10-15°C, in a plate heat exchanger. During cooling process, proteins and tannins are precipitated as fine coagulum referred to as the ‘cold break’. During cooling the oxygenation of the wort is carried out to permit the yeast to ferment efficiently.
  • 13. FERMENTATION After cooling the wort is ready for fermentation & is moved to fermenter. Brewer’s Yeast is inoculated into the cooled wort. For ale production Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inoculated & for lager production Saccharomyces uvarum is inoculated. As fermentation proceeds specific gravity is decreased due to the utilization of carbohydrates by the yeast There is production of ethanol and other compounds with density less than water. Carbon dioxide is also evolved during fermentation which is utilized for carbonation. When yeast settles down, the beer obtained is called Green Beer which is subjected to another storage tank having temperature 0-2°C. This stage is called fassing.
  • 14. AGEING & FINISHING Ageing involves the storage of beer in vats having temperature 0°C, during which beer is mellowed or matured. Finishing involves the clarification of beer to remove residual yeast & residual protein-tannin complex. Hops are also added to retain the flavor Secondary fermentation is done if required as a part of ageing to make beer fully carbonated. After final fermentation beer is packed in cans & bottles and is pasteurized at 60°C for 30 minutes.
  • 15. SPOILAGE OF BEER Beer spoilage is caused due to following reasons:- i. Spoilage caused by bacteria:- lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, Zymomonas anaerobia, Pediococcus cerevisiae causes beer spoilage. ii. Spoilage caused by wild yeast:- wild yeast causes spoilage at any level of beer production, such yeasts are- Saccharomyces diastaticus, Candida lambica, Dekkera intermedia. In production of ales, Saccharomyces uvarum acts as a wild yeast where as in production of lagers Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts wild yeast.
  • 16. REFERENCES Pandey V.K, Pandey A, Biotechnology :Food Fermentation, Volume II, Educational Publishers & Distributors. Marwaha S.S, Arora J.K, Food Processing : Biotechnological Applications, Asiatech Publishers Inc. Bagchi S.N, Sharma A, Food & Beverage Service, Aman Publications. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/beer&eizdEfs http://www.studentsguide.in/microbiology/industrialmicro biology/steps-in-beerproductiom.htm http://www.ifrn.bbsrc.ac.uk/saftey/comicro/beer.25pdf