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Energy-efficient operation of GSM-connected infrared rodent sensors

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This is the presentation of our SENSORNETS 2016 paper, presented in 2016 February, Rome.

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Energy-efficient operation of GSM-connected infrared rodent sensors

  1. 1. Energy-efficient operation of GSM- connected infrared rodent sensor Gábor Paller, paller.gabor@sze.hu Gábor Élő, elo@sze.hu Széchenyi University, Győr 2016 February 19
  2. 2. Precision agriculture and the agrodat.hu project
  3. 3. • Precision agricultural management • Better control of production risks and costs • Information systems supporting decisions 3 Crop production
  4. 4. AgroDat.hu project Main objective: Establish an agricultural knowledge centre and decision support system • based on data gathered by an innovative, complex sensor system and from international open repositories • relying on big data, cloud, and HPC technologies to support precision agriculture. Duration: 2014-2017 Budget: 2.4 Mrd HUF (appr. 8 MEUR) URL: www.agrodat.hu Consortium: Local Senso r Globa l
  5. 5. • Information about environmental and vegetation processes (supplied off-line) • Sensors and data capture tools • Data processing system • Visualization • Decision support 5 Elements of the agricultural decision support system
  6. 6. Sensor lineup l 2014 – soil and environmental sensors with simple scalar output – done l 2015 – camera sensors in multiple wavelengths with simple and intelligent triggers – research phase completed, field-ready implementation in progress l 2016 – making the camera sensor mobile
  7. 7. Soil sensor
  8. 8. 8 Proposed system architecture Sensor unit Sensor control Network Communication + App. logic (Telit GL865) Data server GPRS/HTTP POST requests WSGI HTTP server Database adapter Data visualization SMSC End user Mobile network SMS HP DSM (Dynamic SIM Management) SMPP 4.3+ Sensor management server Management user
  9. 9. Server farm
  10. 10. Camera sensor development
  11. 11. Camera sensors l Mission: observe plants and pests in wide frequency spectrum (visible and invisible) l Simple case: take a series of pictures and videos at given time spots and upload them to the server l More complicated: detect an event of interest and upload only if something interesting is happening
  12. 12. Camera sensor development l Use case: common vole detection l Overpopulation due to mild winters l 2014 damage estimation: 500000 tons only in winter wheat
  13. 13. l Night animal: cameras in different wavelength are needed (short- wavelength infrared and long- wavelength infrared are being tried) l Energy consumption: send images only if there's high chance of having animals in the picture → image processing on the sensor Advantages of the use case
  14. 14. Common vole in short- wavelenght infrared Animal
  15. 15. Common vole in long-wavelenght infrared Dynamic mapping to 256-level greyscale image
  16. 16. Image processing in the sensor l Image thresholding – 80% static threshold l Get rid of spurious patches – contour tracing+convex hull filling l Close gaps - dilating by a kernel of 6x6 l Calculate circles of interesting objects – contour tracing+enclosing circles l Find out if the circles move – match the circles with the circles on the previous image and flag the circles that don't match
  17. 17. Image processing in the sensor Eq – input image after greyscaling Th – after thresholding C1 – after contour tracing + filling convex hull C2 – after dilating Circle – enclosing circle
  18. 18. Cost of sending an image BeagleBone Black (TI Sitara AM335x)+Telit GL865 modem, image size: 4Kbytes Architectures: - GL865 as a modem, all the logic (image processing+communication) is on the Sitara CPU – 10.755 mAh - Image processing on the Sitara CPU, communication logic on the GL865 – 3 mAh
  19. 19. Power consumption of communication state machines l Idle consumption of the Sitara CPU is a problem in case of action-and-wait type algorithms (typically communication state machines) l If the “wait” phase is long then the processor could be put into a low-power mode. l A separate low-power CPU is justified just for communication tasks.
  20. 20. Sensor control Network Communication + App. logic (Telit GL865) Generic model Same architecture for scalar and image sensors Soil sensor Data acquisition: ATxmega128u4 Network Communication + App. logic (Telit GL865) App. Protocol #1 Camera sensor Acquisition and processing: TI Sitara AM335x Network Communication + App. logic (Telit GL865) App. Protocol #2
  21. 21. Use case categorization Use case Power consumption balance between the processing and the communication activities Images taken at predetermined moments of time and sent No image processing, no balance Images are taken continuously, sent if relevant feature is found Continuous image processing, no balance* Images taken at predetermined moments and sent only if relevant feature is found Justified if the image processing cycle consumes less than sending the image * Balance would mean that we compare with continuous image streaming which is not possible over GPRS due to its low bandwidth.
  22. 22. Cost of image processing vs. sending Image processing (acquiring and processing 5 images) Sending the image 0.62 mAh 3 mAh However: l Sitara consumes 156 mA in S3 state (69 secs to reach 3 mAh) l It takes 4.78 mAh to perform a shutdown-reboot cycle l No power saving possible in use case #3 due to high idle consumption!
  23. 23. Takeaways l Low-power, low-consumption devices (e.g. microcontrollers) are justified even if there's a full-featured CPU in the system. Typical use cases: sensor control, communication. l No magic bullet: high software engineering productivity on embedded Linux but high power consumption too. l Look for idle consumption! l Linux system optimized for extra-fast shutdown-bootup cycle may work (but you need a low-power sensor controller)
  24. 24. Questions? paller.gabor@sze.hu elo@sze.hu 24

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