• Coal and petroleum are sources of energy that
are non-renewable. They are made in
nature, a long time before and they will finish
a long time use.
• Coal is a combustible, sedimentary, organic
rock, formed from vegetation. In other words
coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of
plants that lived millions of years ago. It is
considered as non renewable source of energy
because it takes too much time to form.
• Peat is an organic fuel consisting of spongy material
formed by the partial decomposition of organic
matter, primarily plant material, in wetlands such
as swamps, muskegs, bogs, fens, and moors. The
development of peat is favoured by warm, moist
climatic conditions; however, peat can develop even in
cold regions such as Siberia, Canada, and Scandinavia.
Peat is only a minor contributor to the world
energy supply, but large deposits occur in
Canada, China, Indonesia, Russia, Scandinavia, and the
United States. Major users
include Finland, Ireland, Russia, and Sweden.
• Lignite is generally yellow to dark brown or
rarely black coal that formed from peat at
shallow depths and temperatures lower than
100 °C (212 °F). In many countries lignite is
considered to be a brown coal. Lignite
contains about 60 to 70 percent carbon (on a
dry, ash-free basis) and has a calorific
value near 17 megajoules per kilogram (7,000
British thermal units per pound).
• Sub-bituminous coal is also called black lignite it
is generally dark brown to black coal,
intermediate in rank
between lignite and bituminous coal according to
the coal classification used in the United States
and Canada. In many countries sub-bituminous
coal is considered to be a brown coal. Subbituminous coal contains 42 to 52% carbon and
has calorific values ranging from about 19 to 26
megajoules per kilogram (about 8,200 to 11,200
British thermal units per pound).
• Bituminous coal, also called soft coal , the most
abundant form of coal, intermediate in rank between
sub-bituminous coal and anthracite according to the
coal classification used in the United States and
Canada. In Britain bituminous coal is commonly called
“steam coal,” and in Germany the
term Steinkohle(“rock coal”) is used. In the United
States and Canada bituminous coal is divided into highvolatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile bituminous
groups. High-volatile bituminous coal is classified on
the basis of its calorific value on a moist, ash-free basis
(ranging from 24 to 33 megajoules per kilogram;
10,500 to 14,000 British thermal units per pound)
• Anthracite, also called hard coal , the most highly
metamorphosed form of coal. It contains more fixed
carbon (86% or greater on a dry, ash-free basis) than
any other form of coal and the least amount of volatile
matter (14% or less on a dry, ash-free basis), and it has
calorific values near 35 megajoules per kilogram, not
much different from the calorific values for
most bituminous coal. Anthracite is the least plentiful
form of coal. It is found mostly in the eastern part of
the United States and makes up less than 2 percent of
all coal reserves in the country. Smaller amounts of
anthracite occur in South
Africa, Australia, western Canada, China, and other
• it is used in pencils, where it is commonly called lead.
Unlike diamond (another carbon allotrope), graphite is
an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It
is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc
lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of
carbon under standard conditions. Therefore, it is used
in thermo chemistry as the standard state for defining
the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite
may be considered the highest grade of coal, just
above anthracite and alternatively called metaanthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel
because it is difficult to ignite.
• Coal mainly consist of carbon.
• It also consists of some metal compound and
some other impurities.
COKE: Produced by heating
coal (bituminous coal)
around 1573 Kelvin in the
absence of air.
Black porous substance:
contains 98% carbon.
Does not emit more while
• USES: used as a fuel.
• Preparation as a producer
gas and water gas.
• Manufacture of graphite
and calcium carbonate
• Coal tar:
• It is a thick black colored
• It is obtained from coal.
• It is a mixture of more
than 200 different carbon
Vicks, drugs, explosives
, plastics ,synthetic
• It is a mixture carbon monoxide, methane and
• It is obtained during the processing of coal to
• Used as a fuel in industries and lighting
There are two types to mine coal:
• Surface mining
• Underground mining
• Surface mining, including strip mining, openpit mining and mountain top removal
mining, is a broad category of mining in which
soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit
(the overburden) are removed. It is the
opposite of underground mining, in which the
overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral
removed through shafts or tunnels.
• Underground mining (soft rock) refers to a group
of underground mining techniques used to
extract coal, oil shale and other minerals or
geological materials from sedimentary ("soft")
rocks. Because the deposits in sedimentary rocks
are commonly layered and relatively less
hard, the mining methods used differ from those
used to mine deposits in igneous or metamorphic
rocks. Underground mining techniques also differ
greatly from those of surface mining.
• Petroleum is a naturally occurring, flammable
liquid, that are found in geologic formations
beneath the earth’s surface. It was produced
when sea creatures died and got covered with
sand and clay. Under high pressure, these
dead organisms changed into petroleum and
Products of Kerosene
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Uses of petroleum
• An oil well is a general
term for any boring
through the earth’s
surface that is designed
to find and acquire
hydrocarbons. It is used
to pump out petroleum
Environmental effects of coal mining
• Generation of hundreds of millions of tons of
waste products is pro.
• Acid rain from high sulfur coal.
• Contamination of land and water ways and
destruction of homes from fly ash spills.
• Coal-fired power plants emit
mercury, selenium, and arsenic which are
harmful to human health and environment.
• Coal-fired power plants shorten nearly 24,000
lives a year in United States, including 2,800
from lung cancer.
Environmental effects of petroleum
• Oil extraction is costly and some times
environmental damaging, although Dr. john
hunt of woods hole oceanographic institution
pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of
the reserves in the world are associated with
visible macro seepage, and many oil fields are
found due to natural seeps. Off shore
exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the
surrounding marine environment.
• Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker
ship accidents have damaged natural
ecosystem in Alaska, the Galapagos
Islands, France and many other places.