Coal and petroleum


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this is about saving our coal and petroleum. we should save some for the future and it also tells us how it was formed.

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Coal and petroleum

  2. 2. • Coal and petroleum are sources of energy that are non-renewable. They are made in nature, a long time before and they will finish a long time use.
  3. 3. • Coal is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, formed from vegetation. In other words coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived millions of years ago. It is considered as non renewable source of energy because it takes too much time to form.
  4. 4. Types of coal • • • • • • Peat Lignite Sub-bituminous Bituminous coal Anthracite Graphite
  5. 5. Peat coal • Peat is an organic fuel consisting of spongy material formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter, primarily plant material, in wetlands such as swamps, muskegs, bogs, fens, and moors. The development of peat is favoured by warm, moist climatic conditions; however, peat can develop even in cold regions such as Siberia, Canada, and Scandinavia. Peat is only a minor contributor to the world energy supply, but large deposits occur in Canada, China, Indonesia, Russia, Scandinavia, and the United States. Major users include Finland, Ireland, Russia, and Sweden.
  6. 6. Lignite coal • Lignite is generally yellow to dark brown or rarely black coal that formed from peat at shallow depths and temperatures lower than 100 °C (212 °F). In many countries lignite is considered to be a brown coal. Lignite contains about 60 to 70 percent carbon (on a dry, ash-free basis) and has a calorific value near 17 megajoules per kilogram (7,000 British thermal units per pound).
  7. 7. Sub-bituminous coal • Sub-bituminous coal is also called black lignite it is generally dark brown to black coal, intermediate in rank between lignite and bituminous coal according to the coal classification used in the United States and Canada. In many countries sub-bituminous coal is considered to be a brown coal. Subbituminous coal contains 42 to 52% carbon and has calorific values ranging from about 19 to 26 megajoules per kilogram (about 8,200 to 11,200 British thermal units per pound).
  8. 8. Bituminous coal • Bituminous coal, also called soft coal , the most abundant form of coal, intermediate in rank between sub-bituminous coal and anthracite according to the coal classification used in the United States and Canada. In Britain bituminous coal is commonly called “steam coal,” and in Germany the term Steinkohle(“rock coal”) is used. In the United States and Canada bituminous coal is divided into highvolatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile bituminous groups. High-volatile bituminous coal is classified on the basis of its calorific value on a moist, ash-free basis (ranging from 24 to 33 megajoules per kilogram; 10,500 to 14,000 British thermal units per pound)
  9. 9. Anthracite coal • Anthracite, also called hard coal , the most highly metamorphosed form of coal. It contains more fixed carbon (86% or greater on a dry, ash-free basis) than any other form of coal and the least amount of volatile matter (14% or less on a dry, ash-free basis), and it has calorific values near 35 megajoules per kilogram, not much different from the calorific values for most bituminous coal. Anthracite is the least plentiful form of coal. It is found mostly in the eastern part of the United States and makes up less than 2 percent of all coal reserves in the country. Smaller amounts of anthracite occur in South Africa, Australia, western Canada, China, and other countries.
  10. 10. Graphite coal • it is used in pencils, where it is commonly called lead. Unlike diamond (another carbon allotrope), graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal. It is, consequently, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Therefore, it is used in thermo chemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Graphite may be considered the highest grade of coal, just above anthracite and alternatively called metaanthracite, although it is not normally used as fuel because it is difficult to ignite.
  11. 11. • Coal mainly consist of carbon. • It also consists of some metal compound and some other impurities.
  12. 12. Coke COKE: Produced by heating coal (bituminous coal) around 1573 Kelvin in the absence of air. Black porous substance: contains 98% carbon. Does not emit more while burning. • USES: used as a fuel. • Preparation as a producer gas and water gas. • Manufacture of graphite and calcium carbonate
  13. 13. COAL Tar • Coal tar: • It is a thick black colored viscous liquid. • It is obtained from coal. • It is a mixture of more than 200 different carbon compounds.  Uses: Vicks, drugs, explosives ,paints, varnishes , plastics ,synthetic fibers, et
  14. 14. Coal Gas • It is a mixture carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen. • It is obtained during the processing of coal to get coke. • Used as a fuel in industries and lighting purpose.
  15. 15. Mining Coal There are two types to mine coal: • Surface mining • Underground mining
  16. 16. Surface Mining • Surface mining, including strip mining, openpit mining and mountain top removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed. It is the opposite of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral removed through shafts or tunnels.
  17. 17. Underground Mining • Underground mining (soft rock) refers to a group of underground mining techniques used to extract coal, oil shale and other minerals or geological materials from sedimentary ("soft") rocks. Because the deposits in sedimentary rocks are commonly layered and relatively less hard, the mining methods used differ from those used to mine deposits in igneous or metamorphic rocks. Underground mining techniques also differ greatly from those of surface mining.
  18. 18. Petroleum • Petroleum is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid, that are found in geologic formations beneath the earth’s surface. It was produced when sea creatures died and got covered with sand and clay. Under high pressure, these dead organisms changed into petroleum and natural gases.
  19. 19. Products of Kerosene • • • • • • • • • Kerosene Petrol Diesel Jet fuel Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Lubricants Bulk tar Paraffin wax Plastics
  20. 20. Chemical composition of petroleum
  21. 21. Uses of petroleum Paraffin wax Jet fuel Lubricant oil
  22. 22. Oil Well • An oil well is a general term for any boring through the earth’s surface that is designed to find and acquire petroleum oil hydrocarbons. It is used to pump out petroleum
  23. 23. Environmental effects of coal mining • Generation of hundreds of millions of tons of waste products is pro. • Acid rain from high sulfur coal. • Contamination of land and water ways and destruction of homes from fly ash spills. • Coal-fired power plants emit mercury, selenium, and arsenic which are harmful to human health and environment. • Coal-fired power plants shorten nearly 24,000 lives a year in United States, including 2,800 from lung cancer.
  24. 24. Environmental effects of petroleum • Extraction: • Oil extraction is costly and some times environmental damaging, although Dr. john hunt of woods hole oceanographic institution pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macro seepage, and many oil fields are found due to natural seeps. Off shore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine environment.
  25. 25. Oil Spills • Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystem in Alaska, the Galapagos Islands, France and many other places.