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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY UNIT 1 { PART-1}

Anatomy refers to the internal and external structures of the body and their physical relationships, whereas physiology refers to the study of the functions of those structures.

1 of 195
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
TO
ANATOMICALTERMS
AND ORGANIZATIONOFTHE
HUMANBODY
.
INDEX
S.No. Content
1. Introduction to anatomical terms
2. Subdivision of anatomy and physiology
3. Major surface and body landmarks
4. Cell structure and cell division, and functions
5. Tissues, Glands, organization of human body
6. Body cavities, fluids and electrolytes
7. Cell cycle, Bone marking
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY UNIT 1 { PART-1}
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY UNIT 1 { PART-1}
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY UNIT 1 { PART-1}

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY UNIT 1 { PART-1}

  • 3. INDEX S.No. Content 1. Introduction to anatomical terms 2. Subdivision of anatomy and physiology 3. Major surface and body landmarks 4. Cell structure and cell division, and functions 5. Tissues, Glands, organization of human body 6. Body cavities, fluids and electrolytes 7. Cell cycle, Bone marking
  • 8. INTRODUCTION ANATOMY Anatomy is the science which deals with the structure of human body. The term anatomy is derived from a Greek word “anatome” meaning cutting up. DIVISION OFANATOMY Gross/Cadaveric/MacroscopicAnatomy The study of the structure of the human body by cadaveric dissection (dead bodies) with the naked eye. It can be studied by region (regional) such as the upper and lower limbs, the thorax, abdomen, head and neck, and the brain, or by system (systemic) such as the skeletal system, muscular system, nervous, respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and endocrine systems.
  • 10. SURFACE ANATOMY : It is the study of Projection of internal body parts on the corresponding external surface area of the body. This helps in clinical correlation with normal and abnormal anatomy. REGIONAL ANATOMY: It is the study of structure and organization of a definitive part of the body. The various parts or regions of the body studied are as follows: •Head and neck •Thorax •Abdomen •Pelvis •Back •Extremities: upper and lower limbs
  • 11. SYSTEMIC ANATOMY : It is the study of the body systems, e.g. Digestive system, Cardiovascular system, nervous system, etc.
  • 12. EMBRYOLOGY/DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY: The study of growth and development of human body from fertilization through birth. Surface anatomy Radiologic anatomy Living anatomy Genetic anatomy Applied anatomy
  • 13. CLINICALANATOMY : It emphasizes the structure and function of a part of body or the entire body in relation to the practice of medicine and other health related professions. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY: It is the study of anatomy which provides correlation between structure and function of various organs. HISTOLOGY/MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY: The study of human bodily structures by using a microscope.
  • 35. INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMICALTERMS ANATOMICALPOSITION The position in which a person is standing straight with eyes looking forwards, upper limbs by the sides, face and palms of the hands directed forwards, both feet together.
  • 36. PALMER AND DORSAL SURFACE
  • 38. PALNTER AND DORSAL SURFACE PRONE POSITION SUPINE POSITION
  • 40. TERMS RELATED TO ANATOMICAL PLANES Median/Midsagittal Plane: Vertical plane passing through the center of the body, splitting it into equal right and left halves. Sagittal/Paramedian Plane: Plane parallel to median or mid sagittal plane situated to one or other side of the median plane. Coronal Plane: A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) halves at a right angle to the median or mid sagittal plane.
  • 41. Horizontal/Transverse plane Planes are at right angle to sagittal or median plane which divides the body into upper and lower parts. Oblique Plane Planes other than coronal, transverse, and midsagittal are referred to as oblique planes.
  • 43. TERMS RELATED TO BODY MOVEMENT JOINT A joint is a point or junction of the body where two or more than two bones meet and are able to bend. Some joints have no movement (sutures of the skull), some have only slight movement (superior tibiofibular joint), and some are freely movable (shoulder joint). FLEXION It is the movement that reduces the angle between two bones or body parts so that their ventral surface comes close to each other. For example, flexion at the elbow decreases the angle between the ulna and humerus.
  • 44. EXTENSION Straightening, It is the movement that increases the angle between two bones or body parts usually take place in posterior direction. For example, extension at the elbow increases the angle between the ulna and humerus. FLEXION AND EXTENSION
  • 45. ABDUCTION It is movement of a limb away from the midline of the body, for example spreading of fingers and toes is abduction. ADDUCTION It is the movement of the limb toward the midline of the body, for example drawing together of fingers and toes is adduction.
  • 46. ROTATION Any movement of a part of the body around its long axis. Medial rotation is the movement of the body part towards the midline where as lateral rotation is the movement of the body part away from the midline. CIRCUMDUCTION Combination in sequence of the movements of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
  • 47. PRONATION Medial rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces posteriorly (Opposite to anatomical position). SUPINATION Lateral rotation of the forearm so that palm of hand faces anteriorly (Anatomical position).
  • 48. PROTRACTION It is the movement of the jaw in forward direction to stick out the chin. RETRACTION It is the movement of the jaw in the backward direction to pull the jaw. INVERSION It is the movement of the foot towards the median plane so that sole faces towards medial direction. EVERSION It is the movement of the foot away from the median plane so that sole faces towards lateral direction.
  • 49. DORSALFLEXION The flexion of the ankle joint in which the dorsum of foot bent towards anterior surface of the leg. PLANTER FLEXION The extension of the ankle joint in which the planter aspect of the foot faces backwards.
  • 60. Homeostasis definition in biology is the ability or tendency of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a condition of equilibrium – a stable internal environment — as it deals with external changes. It makes use of feedback controls and other regulatory mechanisms or dynamic processes in order to maintain a constant internal environment. It can be construed as a skill of a living organism in its effort to stay within the optimal range despite fluctuating environmental conditions. Thus, in the biological context, the word homeostasis entails multifarious physiological control mechanisms in order to sustain and stabilize the functional, normal status of an organism. Etymology: The term homeostasis comes from the Ancient Greek ὅμοιος (hómoios, meaning “similar”), from στημι (hístēmi, “standing still”) and stasis, from στάσις (stásis, meaning “standing”). The concept of homeostasis was first described in 1865 by Claude Bernard, a French physiologist. However, the term was coined later in 1962 by the American physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon
  • 74. CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL DIVISION A microscopic anatomy is a visual, colorful science. The light source for the early microscopes was sunlight. In modern microscopes, electric illumination is used as the main light source. During embryonic development, the cells divide and multiply to form new cells, tissues, and organs. In an adult organism, however, not all cells retain the ability to further divide and reproduce. As a result, different populations of cells are recognized based on their ability or inability to divide and reproduce.
  • 75. Nerve cells in the nervous system and muscle cells (skeletal and cardiac) continue to divide during embryonic development. Once these cells establish the organs in postnatal life, however, their ability to further divide ceases and they cannot be replaced if they are damaged or destroyed.
  • 76. INTRODUCTION Cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of the living matter and is capable of carrying on the processes of the life independently. The main function of these cells is to maintain a proper homeostasis in the organism. Cell can be divided as prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdom.
  • 77. CELL PROKARYOTIC EUKARYOTIC ANIMALS PLANTS The cell is the fundamental unit of life. It is estimated that the human body has 10 trillion (10,000,000,000,000,000,000) cells; each one is independently alive but combine to make a single person.
  • 79. STRUCTURE OF CELL Cell membrane Nucleus Cytoplasm CELLMEMBRANE Cell membrane is also known as plasma membrane is the outer covering of the cell. The membrane isolates the individual cell and takes part in the maintenance of the internal environment by active transport of ions and nutrients.
  • 82. NUCLEUS Nucleus is the most easily spotted, membrane bound organelle and a characteristic feature of a eukaryotic cell. It houses the cell’s genetic material – DNA condensed in the form of chromosomes SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATIONS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
  • 88. CYTOPLASM It is the gel like, clear colored solution made up of proteins, ions, enzymes and organelles all surrounded by plasma membrane. Each cell cytoplasm contains numerous organelles, each of which performs a specialized metabolic function that is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and cell life such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex, lysosomes, ribosomes, centrioles, centrosomes and peroxisomes.
  • 92. MITOCHONDRIA (LEFT) AND CELLULAR LOCATION (RIGHT)
  • 95. Mitochondria Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell and even carry their own genetic information. This energy is used to make new cell components or fuel processes like muscle contraction. Lysosomes Lysosomes are fluid filled bags that contain a variety of enzymes, which break down potentially harmful materials in the cell. They provide a safe place to store these enzymes without damaging the rest of the cell. Sometimes, when an organelle is worn out, it starts to malfunction and so the cell needs to remove it by digesting it in a lysosome; this is a process called autophagy (self-eating). Although lysosomes are often thought of as waste-bins they are more like recycling plants, that dispose of waste and reuse other components.
  • 96. Golgi complex Golgi complex or golgi apparatus is a membranous cytoplasmic organelle constituting of flattened stacks of various types of membranes. Some are called cisternae and others are in the form of tubules and vesicles. Perinuclear in location, these are located right next to endoplasmic reticulum. The vesicles leaving ER enter the golgi complex as cis-cisternae (cisternae nearest to ER) and leave at the trans-cisternae (cisternae farthest of ER)
  • 102. Centrosome Centrosome is an area in the cytoplasm which is near the nucleus. It houses a pair of centrioles which are important for cell division. The centrioles are barrel-shaped organelles made up of microtubules. During the mitosis, centrioles form the region from where the mitotic spindle arises.
  • 104. Membrane bound vesicles Lipid bilayer bound small sacs involved in various functions of storage and transportation within the cell is termed as membrane bound vesicle. These originate either from the plasma membrane or the ER/golgi complex. Mostly these contain enzymes, proteins, toxins, or other molecules.
  • 114. A cell division is a process in which the parent cell divides, eventually giving rise to new daughter cells. It is an essential biological process in many organisms. It is the means used by multicellular organisms to grow, replenish (repair), and reproduce. In unicellular organisms, cell division is equivalent to reproduction. There are two forms of cell division: (1) direct cell division and (2) indirect cell division. •Direct cell division is one in which the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell divide directly into two parts. This form of cell division is also referred to as amitosis. •In contrast, indirect cell division involves complicated changes within the cell, e.g. formation of chromosomes, before the parent cell divides and produces daughter cells. Mitosis is a cell division that involves an indirect method of producing daughter cells. Cell division is commonly used interchangeably with mitosis, a process comprised of karyokinesis and cytokinesis resulting in two genetically identical cells. Nevertheless, cell division is not exclusive to mitosis; it is also happening in meiosis, which, in comparison, is a process giving rise to cells with non- identical genetic material. Thus, cell division is a biological process involved in the growth and reproduction of various organisms. It is part of the organism’s cell cycle.
  • 115. The Fundamentals of Cell Division Cell division is a complex yet orchestrated series of events that culminates in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. These daughter cells possess identical genetic material, ensuring the accurate transmission of hereditary information. The primary types of cell division are mitosis and meiosis, which cater to different biological functions and organisms. Mitosis Mitosis is the process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is essential for growth, development, and repair in multicellular organisms, as well as reproduction in single-celled organisms. The Stages of Mitosis 1.Prophase 2.Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4.Telophase Meiosis Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division that produces gametes (sperm and egg cells) in sexually reproducing organisms. It consists of two consecutive cell divisions—meiosis I and meiosis II—resulting in four non-identical daughter cells, each containing half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. The Stages of Meiosis 1.Prophase I 2.Metaphase I 3.Anaphase I 4.Telophase I 5.Prophase II 6.Metaphase II 7.Anaphase II
  • 117. Characteristic Mitosis Meiosis Purpose Growth, repair, asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction Number of Divisions One Two Daughter Cells Two Four Chromosome Number Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) Genetic Composition Identical to parent Unique (non-identical to parent) Table 1: Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
  • 120. TISSUES EPITHELIAL TISSUE MINIMAL INTERCELLULAR MATERIAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE ABUNDANT EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX MUSCLE TISSUE CONTRACTILE PROPERTIES NERVOUS TISSUE CONDUCT ELECTRICAL IMPULSE
  • 122. EPITHELIAL TISSUE The epithelial tissue, also known as epithelium, is made up of sheets of cells that cover the external surfaces of the body and line the interior cavities of organs, glands, and ducts. The epithelium is made up of densely packed cells with little intercellular material. They are found on the thin basement membrane that divides the epithelium from the connective tissue beneath it.
  • 125. CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIUM Simple epithelium  Simple squamous epithelium.  Simple cuboidal epithelium  Simple columnar  Epithelium  Pseudostratified columnar  Epithelium Stratified epithelium  Stratified squamous epithelium  Keratinized  Non-keratinized  Stratified cuboidal epithelium  Stratified columnar Epithelium  Transitional epithelium
  • 131. STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM Stratified Squamous Epithelium Multiple cell layers are present. Basal cells range in shape from cuboidal to columnar, and they produce cells that migrate to the surface and become (flat) squamous. Squamous epithelium is divided into two types: nonkeratinized and keratinized Epithelium.
  • 133. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS NON KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM
  • 149. CARTILAGE Cartilage is a form of connective tissue in which the cells and fibres are embedded in a gel like matrix. It is a specialized connective tissue characterized by elasticity and flexibility. FEATURES OF CARTILAGE Lacks blood supply (avascular), lymphatic and nerves. The chondrocyte cells occur singly or in groups within spaces called lacunae.  Cartilage consists of ground substance, fibers and cells (chondrocytes).
  • 150. TYPEOFCARTILAGE It is the most abundant type of cartilage in human body. All long bones are performed this cartilage.
  • 151. ELASTIN CARTILAGE Chondrocytes single not in groups, large, numerous and closely packed in lacunae covered by perichondrium. The matrix consists of elastic fibers and ground substance. Elastic cartilage found in Auricle, pinna of ear, external auditory meatus, auditory tube, epiglottis, corniculate, cuneiform and apices of arytenoid cartilage.
  • 152. FIBROCARTILAGE Chondrocytes are fewer and in row between the layers of collagen with in lacunae. Fibro cartilage has many collagen fibers embedded in a small amount of matrix. Fibrocartilage found in Articular discs pubic symphysis, inter vertebral discs (annulus fibrosus), temporomandibular joint and knee. Collagen fibers oriented in the direction of stress.
  • 153. DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT TYPE OF CARTILAGE IN BODY
  • 168. GLANDS Body contains variety of glands. These glands develop from epithelial cells that extend from the surface into underlying connective tissue. The material secreted by the gland is usually a liquid (enzyme, hormone, mucus or fat). They are classified as 1. Exocrine glands 2. Endocrine glands
  • 169. EXOCRINE GLANDS: Exocrine glands are connected to the surface epithelium by excretory ducts, into which their secretory products pass to the external surface. Exocrine glands are either unicellular or multicellular.
  • 170. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF EXOCRINE GLANDS According to the Branching of the Duct Simple glands Compound glands 2. ACCORDING TO NATURE OF THEIR SECRETIONS Merocine Apocrine Holocrine
  • 171. COMPOUND ACINAR AND TUBULOACINAR EXOCRINE GLAND COILEDTUBULAR EXOCRINE GLAND
  • 172. ENDOCRINE GLANDS Endocrine glands do not have excretory ducts. The endocrine glands have lost their connection to the surface epithelium and their secretory products are delivered directly in to the blood.
  • 173. MAJOR SURFACEAND BONY LANDMARKS IN EACHBODY REGION, ORGANIZATION OF HUMAN BODY The study of the external characteristics of the body is known as surface anatomy (also known as superficial anatomy or visible anatomy). It is concerned with anatomical aspects that can be observed without dissection. Along with endoscopic and radiological anatomy, it is a branch of gross anatomy. The science of surface anatomy is a descriptive one.
  • 174. TECHNIQUES TO EXAMINE SURFACE ANATOMY
  • 175. SURFACE LANDMARKS Anterior Axillary Fold Posterior Axillary Fold Coracoid Process Deltoid Sternal Angle (Angle of Louis) Breast Nipple Apex Beat of Heart Axillary Artery Brachial Artery Brachial Vein Cephalic Vein
  • 178. SURFACEMARKING OF MALE PECTORAL REGION
  • 180. SURFACELAND MARK THORAX HEARTSTERNOCOSTAL SURFACE
  • 183. BASILIC VEIN AND CEPHALIC VEIN
  • 184. INJECTION SITES Deltoid (commonly used for adult vaccinations) Dorsogluteal Ventrogluteal Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis
  • 186. INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN GLUTEAL REGION
  • 187. Intramuscular Injections in Gluteus Medius and Gluteus Maximus
  • 188. INJECTION SITESOF IM INJECTION
  • 189. COMMON BONE MARKINGS ANGLES Sharp bony angulations that may serve as bony or soft tissue attachments but often are used for precise anatomical description. Examples include the superior, inferior, and acromial angles of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angles of the occiput. BODY This usually refers to the largest, most prominent segment of bone. Examples include the diaphysis or shaft of long bones like the femur and humerus.
  • 191. CONDYLE Refers to a large prominence, which often provides structural support to the overlying hyaline cartilage. Examples include the knee joint (hinge joint), formed by the femoral lateral and medial condyles, and the tibial lateral and medial condyles. CREST A raised or prominent part of the edge of a bone. Crests are often the sites where connective tissue attaches muscle to bone. The iliac crest is found on the ilium.
  • 192. DIAPHYSIS Refers to the main part of the shaft of a long bone. Long bones, including the femur, humerus, and tibia, all have a shaft. FACET A smooth, flat surface that forms a joint with another flat bone or another facet, together creating a gliding joint. Examples can be seen in the facet joints of the vertebrae, which allow for flexion and extension of the spine.
  • 193. TROCHANTER A large prominence on the side of the bone. Some of the largest muscle groups and most dense connective tissues attach to the trochanter. The most notable examples are the greater and lesser trochanters of the femur. TUBEROSITY A moderate prominence where muscles and connective tissues attach. Its function is similar to that of a trochanter. Examples include the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and ischial tuberosity. TUBERCLE A small, rounded prominence where connective tissues attach. Examples include the greater and lesser tubercle of the humerus.
  • 194. APPLICATION AND IMPLICATION IN NURSING Wounds of the skin heel quickly Cartilages do not break whereas bones do Deltoid is a preferred site for intramuscular injection in the upper limb Mark of pregnancy Healthy females feel less cold compared to healthy males Mark of pregnancy