Icthe policy01 cemca_kandy_palitha_edirisingha_6june2014


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This is one of the two sets of slides that i have used at my session at the Regional Workshop on ICT Leadership in Higher Education organised by Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia and The Open University of Sri Lanka, 6 - 7 June, 2014, at Hotel Tourmaline, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

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    Hand-crafting examples at Leicester.
  • Icthe policy01 cemca_kandy_palitha_edirisingha_6june2014

    1. 1. ICT in higher education: policy perspectives Dr Palitha Edirisingha [pe27@le.ac.uk] Institute of Learning Innovation University of Leicester, UK Jointly hosted by the Open University of Sri Lanka Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia Regional Workshop on ICT Leadership in Higher Education, June 6 – 7, 2014, Kandy, Sri Lanka Slide Set 1 of 2
    2. 2. 3 Key messages 1 Policy – role of the senior leadership 2 Examples 3 Tools [Contextualisation during discussion]
    3. 3. This presentation… • ICT for teaching, learning and assessment • Terminology: ICT, e-learning, technology- enhanced learning [note the changing terminology] • Policy initiatives in the UK since early 2000: HEFCE, HEA, JISC • Based on the involvement of the implementation of Leicester’s ICT strategy and e-learning projects since 2002 • Reference to Collis and Moonen (Netherlands), Salmon (UK), Laurillard (UK).
    4. 4. Relevance? Global trends National policy Local, institutional policy and strategy
    5. 5. Simple definitions of e-learning • “A student who is learning in a way that uses information and communication technologies (ICTs) is using e-learning” (Laurillard, 2006). • “the use of any of the new technologies or applications in the service of learning or learner support” (Laurillard, 2006).
    6. 6. An assessment of e-learning “While the ostensible aim is to use e-learning to improve the quality of the learning experience for students, the drivers of change are numerous, and learning quality ranks poorly in relation to most of them. Those of us working to improve student learning, and seeking to exploit e-learning to do so, have to ride each new wave of technological innovation in an attempt to divert it from its more natural course of techno- hype, and drive it towards the quality agenda. We have to build the means for e-learning to evolve and mature as part of the educational change process, so that it achieves its promise of an improved system of higher education” (Laurillard, 2006).
    7. 7. An assessment of e-learning “E-learning is in a rather extraordinary position. It was born as a ‘tool’ and now finds itself in the guise of a somewhat wobbly arrow of change. In practice, changing the way thousands of teachers teach, learners learn, innovation is promoted and sustainable change in traditional institutions is achieved across hundreds of different disciplines is a demanding [task] that will not be achieved by learning technologies alone. It involves art, craft and science as well as technology” (Salmon, 2005, p. 201).
    8. 8. The development of learning technologies – where are we? Date New technology Old technology equivalent Learning support function 1970’s Interactive computers Writing New medium for articulating and engaging with ideas Local hard drives and floppy discs Paper Local storage with the user 1980’s WIMP interfaces Contents, indexes, page numbers Devices for ease of access to content Internet Printing Mass production and distribution of content Multimedia Photography, sound, and film Elaborated forms of content presentation 1990’s Worldwide Web Libraries Wide access to extensive content Laptops Published books Personal portable access to the medium Email Postal services Mass delivery of communications messages Search engines Bibliographic services Easier access to extensive content Broadband Broadcasting, telephones Choice of elaborated content and immediacy of communication 2000’s 3G Mobiles Paperbacks Low-cost access to elaborate content Blogs Pamphlets Personal mass publishing (Laurillard, 2006)What about 2010s? What technologies are missing?
    9. 9. ICT / e-learning policy context in the UK since the early 2000 To give a flavour of the policy context, the focus of the policies, the key stake holders, the outcomes, and where we are at the moment … Key agency: Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) Key partner agencies / delivery, implementation partners: Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC); Higher Education Academy (HEA)
    10. 10. ICT / e-learning policy in the UK There have been flawed policy and initiatives as well. A key one is UK e-University (UKeU).
    11. 11. ICT / e-learning policy in the UK • 2005 policy document entitled Strategy for e- learning (HEFCE, 2005). • HEFCE’s plan for the ten-year period from 2005
    12. 12. What did the 2005 HEFCE strategy say? To support the HE sector as it moves towards embedding e-learning appropriately, using technology to transform higher education into a more student-focused and flexible system, as part of lifelong learning for all who can benefit. (Plenderleith and Adamson, 2009)
    13. 13. Key aspirations mentioned in HEFCE 2005 document A summary by Plenderleith and Adamson (2009) • To enable institutions to meet the needs of learners and their own aspirations for development • To support institutions in the strategic planning, change management and process development that are necessary to underpin their development and embedding e-learning • To promote learning research, innovation and development that begins with a focus on student learning rather than on developments in technology per se, enabling students to learn through and be supported by technology, and • To support lifelong learning by joining up our strategy with those of other sectors of education, enabling connections between academic learning and experiential learning in the workplace and other aspects of life.
    14. 14. Translating policy into ‘visionary’ statements ICT is commonly accepted into all aspects of the student experience of higher education, with innovation for enhancement and flexible learning, connecting areas of HE with other aspects of life and work.
    15. 15. Review in 2008 • Updating language and the tone of the strategy • More outward looking approach, not embedding but appreciating the potential of technology
    16. 16. HEFCE revised policy document - March 2009 • technology … to become a normal part of students’ and teachers’ activities. • From ‘embedding’ to ‘enhancing learning and teaching through technology’. • Institutions to take responsibility to develop their own strategic plans (HEFCE, 2009)
    17. 17. Differences between 2005 and revised policy in 2009 • ‘embedding’ Vs ‘enhancing learning and teaching through technology’. • Shift of the responsibility towards institutions
    18. 18. Latest HEFCE policy statements on e- learning • http://www.hefce.ac.uk/whatwedo/lt/enh/techlearnin g/] • Technology-enhanced learning • “Technology-enhanced learning is a key part of learning and teaching in higher education (HE). We believe institutions need to consider how they can enhance learning, teaching and assessment using appropriate technology in a way that is suited to the underlying infrastructure and practice of the institution.” • Note: terminology has been, from e-learning to technology-enhanced learning.
    19. 19. Latest from the HEA website [http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/funding] “The Higher Education Academy’s core funding for 2014-15 and beyond has been reduced in line with many parts of the sector and, regrettably, as a result the HEA is no longer in a position to commit funds for grants and awards from the next academic year, including … . Grants already underway remain funded.”
    20. 20. The note left by Liam Byrne, the former Chief Secretary to the Treasury, to David Laws, the Chief Secretary appointed in 2010): “Dear Chief Secretary, I'm afraid there is no money. Kind regards - and good luck! Liam”. No more money!
    21. 21. A useful document to follow up: 2008 Survey of Technology Enhanced Learning for higher education in the UK [http://www.ucisa.ac.uk/publications/~/media/2 90DD5217DA5422C8775F246791F5523.ashx]
    22. 22. Useful approaches to follow: The introduction and embedding of e-learning at the University of Twente, the Netherland over 10-years (Collis and Moonen, 2001). A strategic framework for integrating e-learning at Leicester University (Salmon, 2005).
    23. 23. Towards developing an institutional policy and strategic framework
    24. 24. An assessment of how ICT is being used in HE “I am amused by human’s early attempts to fly and especially at the focus on frantically flapping feathered wings, inspired by the observation of birds. The breakthrough to powered flight and subsequently flying for all came when the inventors rethought the conceptual approach and developed aircraft based upon fixed wings in a steady airflow” (Salmon, 2005, p. 201).
    25. 25. Learning technologies: What is new? What are the challenges: New technology to do what we have been doing so far New technology for innovative teaching and learning OR VLE use for simple content delivery might be mistaken as an educational innovation (Westera, 2004) How might we reach this stage? ‘Jug and mug’ system of teaching / learning (to borrow a phrase from Vice Chairman, UGC, Sri Lanka)
    26. 26. Innovations • Diverse component technologies should come together. • The DC-3 brought together 5 critical components: variable pitch propeller, retractable landing gear, lightweight molded body, a radial air-cooled engine, and wing flaps. • All 5 were needed. 4 were not enough. (Senge, 1990)
    27. 27. In ICT / E-learning • What are the critical components that should come together to form ‘an ensemble of technologies that are critical to one another’s success? • How might policy framework(s) contribute? • Are Vice Chancellors a vital component?
    28. 28. Policy considerations – pedagogy “No VLE will ever be enough in itself to create great e- learning. … . It just cannot be successful without appropriate, well-supported and focused human intervention, good learning design of pedagogical input and the sensitive handling of the processes over time by trained online tutor” (Salmon, 2005, p. 203). ‘Acquisition-oriented activities’, ‘participation-oriented activities’ (Sfard, 1998) ‘Contribution-oriented activities’ (Collis and Moonen, 2001) Less of ‘jug and mug’ system of learning!
    29. 29. Policy considerations - Influence from the university management “if universities are to re- think their methods of teaching, they need a management structure that is capable of supporting innovation” (Laurillard, 2006) Top- down Bottom- up The power The knowledge (Elton, 1999)
    30. 30. Influence from the university management Top- down Bottom- up The power The knowledge ‘transformational leadership’ (Elton, 1999)
    31. 31. Policy considerations – cost More attention on costs involved in investing in e-learning / learning technologies (also distance learning). e-learning can be scalable. Costs can be lower in the long-run. But hand-crafting won’t make this possible (Salmon, 2005).
    32. 32. Challenges for policy implementation Resistance from university teachers (academic staff of various categories) to change the way teaching and learner support is done. Lack of understanding of outcomes Responsibility for doing research Research may be more rewarding (promotions) Improving pedagogy is time consuming
    33. 33. Research into e-learning / scholarship in ICT as a policy initiative? • Examples? • Examples from Leicester …
    34. 34. The story of Leicester’s e-learning policy / strategy (2005 - • The background: various national policies before 2000. A key policy document was Dearing (1997) report. • Despite direction from policy, most HEIs were struggling to engage a significant percentage of students and staff in e-learning”. Many small scale projects but scaling up was limited (Salmon, 2005). • Two approaches: centralised, top-down, directed; and bottom-up, incremental,
    35. 35. Leicester - background • Conventional / traditional university • Distance learning • E-learning • Programmes and courses • IT system • Staff Development Service • Library • VLE – Drawing on from all of the above and pioneers
    36. 36. The story • A Professor of E-Learning was appointed (late 2004) • New Director of Distance Learning Administration appointed (2004) • The development of the e-learning policies and strategy started • Beyond Distance Research Alliance initiated (2005) with 3 appointments • [most importantly? ….. 2 more key components]
    37. 37. Considerations in developing the policies and the strategy • Research - innovative pedagogy and technologies • Core and peripheral learning technologies. • Realistic approaches to engaging students both for distance and blended learning • Embed in the university’s overall aspirations (articulated in formal plans and strategies interpreted through formal and informal discussions. • Being explicit about the purpose of pedagogical innovation and the objectives of the scaling-up of e-learning. • Strategy to sit within wider national policy frameworks (Salmon, 2005)
    38. 38. A 4-quadrent approach • Based on the product-market scope developed by Ansoff (1965) • Diagram from BJET article, p. 212.
    39. 39. Strategy – thinking like a commercial company • A firm needs: – direction and focus in its search for and creation of new opportunities.’ – ‘a well-defined scope and growth direction … objectives alone do not meet this need, … additional decision rules are required if the firm is to have orderly and profitable growth’ (Ansoff, 1965, p. 94).
    40. 40. • through means of the growth vector, indicating the direction in which the firm is moving with respect to its current product-market posture. • First three have a strong, clear common thread. The 4th – less apparent and weaker. (Ansoff, 1965). Product  Mission Present New Present Market penetration [current technology] Product development [new products/technology] New Market development [new markets] Diversification [new products, new markets]
    41. 41. The 4-quadrent and Media Zoo approach • Please refer to Slides Set 2
    42. 42. References Ansoff, H. I. (1965) Corporate strategy, New York: McGraw-Hill. Collis and Moonen (2001) Flexible Learning in a Digital World: Experiences and Expectations, London: Routledge. Elton, L. (1999). New ways of learning in higher education: Managing the Change, Tertiary Education and Management, Vol. 5, pp. 207 – 225. HEFCE (2005) HEFCE strategy for e-learning, http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100202100434/http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/hefce/2005/0 5_12/ [accessed 15 May 2014] HEFCE (2009) Enhancing learning and teaching through the use of technology: A revised approach to HEFCE’s strategy for e-learning: A revised approach to HEFCE’s strategy for e-learning, http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/year/2009/200912/name,63806,en.html, (accessed 15 May 2014). Laurillard, D. (2006) E-Learning in Higher Education, in P. Ashwin (Editor) (2006) Changing Higher Education: The Development of Learning and Teaching (SEDA Series). Chapter 6. pp. 71 – 84. Plenderleith, J., and Adamson, V. (2009) The policy landscape of transformation, in Transforming higher education through technology-enhanced learning, T. Mayes, D. Morrison, H. Mellar, P. Bullen, and M. Oliver (eds) Transforming higher education through technology-enhanced learning, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/learningandtech/transforming_he_through_technology_e nhanced_learning, (accessed 15 May 2014). Salmon, G. (2005) Flying not flapping: a strategic framework for e-learning and pedagogical innovation in higher education institutions, ALT-J, Research in Learning Technology, Vol. 13, No. 3,, pp. 201–218. Senge, P. M. (1990) The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization, London: Random House. Sfard (1998) On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one, Educational Researcher, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 4 – 13.