Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation

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Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation

  1. 1. An advertising campaign onthe Public Health impactsof Climate Change in Palau
  2. 2. Agency 1244 SpecialInstructorJerry Bush thanks to:Teacher’s Assistant Centers for DiseaseJack Piatt Control and Prevention Dr. Mark Keim, M.D.Agency President Mollie Mahany, M.P.H.Sarah Hubbs Palau MinistryAgency Creative of HealthDirector Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, M.D.Julia Fromme Pearl Marumoto, BPHAgency Dekei NgiramengiorSiania Allen Jane OlsudongShakari Burton Sharp SakumaNicholas Campise Gaafar J. UherbelauJeffrey Chandler Deidre YamanguchiLauren EdelLauryn FisherkellerJeremy GarrettKristina KaganerCassie KeysAndrea LikesAriel RunyonBrittany SchorfheideRichard SerritellaKendra TorresEric WallacePhotographersGenna OrdJulia RendlemanTV/Radio ProducerChu Batsaihan
  3. 3. Table of Contents2 Introduction3 Situation Analysis19 Climate Change Matrix20 Primary Research24 Key Idea25 Target Market Profile26 Objectives27 Strategy34 Budget36 Evaluation Section37 Conclusion38 References42 Appendix Table of Contents 1
  4. 4. Introduction This campaign is designed to raise the awareness show the correlation between these climatic events and level of select target audiences about the public health the increased health risks associated with each. risks associated with the impacts of global climate The main focus of the campaign is on the population change. The campaign is scheduled to take place that is already “healthy.” The “key idea” for the during a six-month period between April 1st, 2011 and campaign centers on an interview with Palau’s Minister October 1st, 2011. of Health, Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. He uses an analogy Primary research was conducted between based on flight instructions that airlines use during September 18th, 2010 and October 26th, 2010 measuring flight safety demonstrations. Passengers are instructed awareness levels of citizens of Palau. The first step of the to make sure their own oxygen masks are securely in primary research was to acquire awareness level data place before assisting other passengers or children. through a survey. A sample of one hundred and forty According to Dr. Kuartei, the most vulnerable population eight Palauan’s from a variety of ages and occupations is the one that is already “healthy.” Dr. Kuartei’s theory responded to a ten-question survey. Based on the total stems from the fact that this population must remainIntroduction population size of 20,000 and survey sample size of 148 healthy in order to provide assistance to those that are respondents, a confidence interval (margin of error) of “less healthy” or “less capable” of helping themselves. 8.03 can be expected. It is from this analogy that we derived our campaign The second step in obtaining primary research theme: data was through a series of interviews conducted with “PROTECT, PROVIDE, UNITE.” “Protect (yourself), Palauan public health officials, fishermen, farmers, etc, Provide (assistance to others), Unite (for a healthier as well as numerous photographs and videos pertaining Palau).” The advertising messages were creatively to climate change issues in Palau. designed to demonstrate both the health risks Secondary research was gathered through a variety associated with climate change as well as desired of resources (see “references” page) and has been preventative measures. Messages will be delivered at 2 categorized into three climatic events (extreme heat, seal-level rise, el Niño effects). A matrix was designed to a high rate of frequency through a variety of mediums and events, over the six-month campaign time frame.
  5. 5. Situation Analysis crops in Palau is critical to “socio-economic development Sea-‐level Rise and cultural as well as religious obligations” (Palau Global climate change has been a popular area of Project Proposal, 2008). A survey done in 2007, bystudy and the field of research has been growing in Dr. Mark Keim, reported on the damage in two Pacificrecent years. Scientific research has addressed many island countries, Lukonoch and Oneop. These islandsaspects of climate change, but very few studies have faced severe crop damage that resulted from salt-watercovered the health impacts related to the climate. The intrusion, an effect of sea level rise (Keim, 2010b). Thehealth impacts are becoming greater for Palau and other two countries from the study lost a significant amountsmall island developing states in the South Pacific due to of taro; the main dietary source of carbohydrate (Keim,their high vulnerability to climate change (Palau Project 2010b). Twelve of 40 homes on one island reportedProposal, 2008). Of the climate change impacts that Palau partial loss and damage, while another six of 40 homesis facing, sea level rise poses one of the greatest threats reported a complete loss of the crop (Keim, 2010b).to the country’s social, economic, and environmental Palau has also felt the effects of salt-water intrusion onsustainability (Republic of Palau, 2002). Based on taro crop. The taro that was destroyed during the Elfuture projections for the 21st century, the incidence of Niño event of 1998 resulted in a 0.7% loss of their GDPincreased sea level is 66-90% more likely to occur (Keim, (Republic of Palau, 2002). Saltwater intrusion, stemming2010a). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change from sea level rise and the El Niño event resulted in a(IPCC) also reported on this trend in 2001, stating “the loss of 75-100% of taro crops in the states of Angaur andsea level is estimated to rise 50-90 mm within the next Peleliu (Permanent Mission, 2009).50-100 years” (Republic of Palau, 2002). With continued Sugar cane and tapioca are other crops commonlysea level rise, increasing damage from coastal flooding cultivated on many islands in the South Pacific. Excessareas will occur in the Pacific region, resulting in crop water and salt-water intrusion caused by sea leveldamage and other health hazards creating threats for rise, deter the growth of the crops (Gawander, 2007).the public health of Palau. The roots of sugar cane extend one meter into the Crop Damage While the agricultural industry only makes up 6.2% ofthe islands Gross Domestic Product (GDP), cultivation of CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE Situation Analysis 3
  6. 6. Situation Analysis cont’d ground, making lower water tables desirable for growth Dr. Kuartei goes on to say, “When we begin to build a (Gawander, 2007). The water table where sugar cane narrow definition of health or medicine, we lose some is planted is typically three to 13 meters below ground of the flavor of what we traditionally think of as health level. With a rise in sea level, there is potential for the or healing” (Minister of Health, 2010b). Through this water tables to rise and hinder the quantity and quality interview, we are shown the importance of medicinal of the sugar produced (Gawander, 2007). plants to the health and culture of Palauans. Taro, tapioca, and sugar cane are main staple With climate change causing a decrease in foods in Palau, however they are not the only crops the availability of traditional crops available for being damaged by sea level rise and salt-water consumption, there has been a shift towards a diet intrusion. Most medicinal plants “grow relatively containing more processed foods. As a result, dietary fast, have high reproduction rates, and are typically education is gaining importance. Two of the health resistant to salt water, making them more resilient to areas for the most concern and education in Palau are some of the predicted effects of global climate change” diabetes and obesity. Due to sea level rise, the growing (Cavaliere, 2009). Although medicinal plants appear to conditions for crops are unfavorable and “penetration be resilient, their biggest threat from sea level rise is of local markets by cheap, poor quality imported the complete loss of the island they inhabit, which has foods with little nutritional value has brought health the potential to occur given the rate of the increasing problems with increased rates of non-communicable sea level (Cavaliere, 2009). diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease” For Palauans, the loss of medicinal plants impacts (Barnett, 2007). the public health and also cultural significance. In an The main non-communicable disease threatening interview with Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, Minister of Health Palau as a result of a shifting diet is obesity. Currently for Palau, the importance of traditional medicine “Palau ranks seventh in the world when it comes to in the Palauan culture was discussed. In regard to obesity, according to the World Health Organization” Western medicine, Dr. Kuartei said, “we as Palauans (Island Business International, 2010). A Palau need to think of our traditional healing as the healing for us and actually Western medicine coming in, is the alternative healing” (Minister of Health, 2010a). CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 4
  7. 7. Situation Analysis cont’d. population who has been diagnosed with diabetes. According to the disease registry in Palau, in 2004, there were 776 people admitted into the diabetes registry (Republic of Palau, 2005). Diabetes was also listed in the ten leading causes of death for Palauans. The average age that people in this region are developing diabetes is becoming lower every year. Only 16% of the population in Fiji is above the age of 55, due to premature deaths that are related to diabetes. In this region, diabetes accounts for 75% of all deaths and 40-60% of healthcare costs (World Health Organization, 2010). The rise in diabetes is related to crop damage and the access to traditional food that provides proper nutrients. Dr. Temo K. Waqanivalu of the World Health Organization also notes that, “promotion of traditional foods has fallen by the wayside. They are unable to compete with the glamour and flashiness of imported foods” (World Health Organization, 2010). Again, dietary education is important to combat this. As suggested by Ateca Kama, a nutritionist at Fiji’s National Food and Nutrition Centre, a consistent program that translates the importance of knowledge into behavior would be beneficial in helping lower these risks (World Health Organization, 2010). Vector Borne Infections Destructive and invasive water borne and vector borne diseases, including dengue fever, malaria, andCommunity Health Assessment Survey indicated that encephalitis, are increasingly affecting those areas in58% of Palauan males and 62% of Palauan females the ecosystem that are most susceptible to flooding,are obese (Republic of Palau, 2010b). School children such as low-lying homes and regions in standing water.account for 18.5% of the obese population in Palau and For developing island nations such as Palau, a majorityan additional 15% of children are at risk for obesity of water-borne infectious diseases results in cluster(Island Business International, 2010). To lower these outbreaks. Vector-borne diseases, such as malaria andnumbers, the Ministry of Health is working alongside dengue fever, are projected to increase as warmerthe Ministry of Education to develop a Healthy Lifestyle temperatures facilitate vector range expansion andcurriculum for school age children (Island Business speed up virus replication. The potential increase in theInternational, 2010). Dr. Stevenson Kuartei proposed spread of such vector-borne diseases depends primarily Situation Analysismore balanced meals for schools, dietary education, on the climactic factors and the effectiveness of Palau’sand also suggested a reduction in the amount of rice public health system (World Health Organization, 2003).and flour that is consumed. He suggested the “need In 2008, low-latitude regions of Palau had reachedto go more local with fish and taro” (Island Business epidemic levels of Dengue fever, confirming 31 casesInternational, 2010). With crop damage to local food of people having been exposed. Palau’s Minister ofas a result of the sea level rise and the availability of Health Dr. Stevenson Kuartei said, “Palau is at risk of alocally grown foods decreasing, proper education on a major dengue fever epidemic that will have long lastingnew diet is needed. Without education, obesity will health and economic consequences” (Carreon, 2008).continue to increase. The dengue fever virus is transmitted from one person Obesity and being overweight increase the risk for to another by the Aedes mosquito. These mosquitoeschronic diseases, such as diabetes. Diabetes is on the are prone to bite during the dawn and dusk hours ofrise in the South Pacific with a staggering 40% of the the day, and are most susceptible to biting in areas9.7 million people in the region being diagnosed (WorldHealth Organization, 2010). This number is extremelyhigh compared with the 13% of the United States CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 5
  8. 8. Situation Analysis cont’d of standing or stagnant water. Those bit by the Aedes individuals and their families include: purchase of drugs mosquito start showing symptoms within five to 15 for treating malaria at home; expenses for travel and days of the initial bite. Symptoms of dengue fever can treatment at dispensaries and clinics; lost days of work; last up to two weeks and involve flu-like symptoms, absence from school expenses for preventive measures; such as headaches, rashes, cramps and back and expenses for burial in case of deaths (CDC, 2010a). muscle pain (Republic of Palau, 2010a). However, if Finally, with respect to infectious disease disasters compliant health measures and treatment is delayed or we can provide personal protective equipment and not met, this disease can be fatal to those susceptible. adequate sanitation and hygiene so as to prevent the Kuartei said that because of budget reductions, there exposure of healthy populations to biological hazards, remains sufficient difficulty in retrieving adequate like infectious disease. In the case of epidemics, we fight resources for community mobilization, vector control, human disease by reducing exposures to the cause, surveillance and critical management for those who which is a bacteria or virus (Keim, 2010b). have been and are susceptible to infection (Carreon, Dr. Keim reported that we reduce people’s 2008). In 2008, Kuartei also raised the concern that susceptibility to epidemics by “providing them with the Belau National Hospital is running at almost the adequate nutrition and preventive health care. We then full capacity because of the regular admissions and increase people’s resilience or ability to bounce back the dengue fever cases (Carreon, 2008). Though there after catching the disease, through access to curative has been no new information regarding the amount of health care and health promotion,” (Keim, 2010b). dengue fever cases seen by the hospital, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an Unpredictable Tides Low-lying coastal areas will be at increased risk Outbreak Notice in June 2010 regarding the infection. from coastal inundation due to sea level rise and The notice reported that individuals should continue to storm surge, with major implications for coastal take preventive measures because dengue fever is still communities, infrastructure, natural habitats, and circulating throughout the region (CDC, 2010b). resources (Ministerial, 2000). Flooding will become In areas with high transmission, the most vulnerable more frequent due to higher storm tides, and coastal groups are young children and pregnant women. land will be permanently lost as the sea inundates According to the CDC, malaria is the fifth leading cause low-lying areas and the shorelines erode (United of death for infectious diseases in low-income regions. States, 2009). Populations that remain isolated from Increased rainfall and standing water due to flooding allow the transmission of this vector borne disease to be highly transmissible all year round (CDC, 2010a). Costs to CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 6
  9. 9. Situation Analysis cont’d.the primary population are increasingly vulnerable to a magnet for other health entities. While this may beacquiring necessary health care and provisions in the positive for current access to health care, in the eventevent of climactic flooding as a result of unpredictable of extreme weather, health services are not spreadtides. Kayangel and Peleliu are states of Palau that out enough to serve the community and could all beremain highly susceptible for emergency medical aid damaged by their location to the ocean (Minister ofor access to health care in the event of flooding (World Health, 2010c).Health Organization, 2003). These isolated regions Loss of land will affect living things in coastalare at a disadvantage “specific to the quality and ecosystems. Storm surges have major impacts onaccessibility of healthcare, medical workforce training Pacific coastal island communities, including loss ofand availability” (PEHI, Executive Brief, 2010). life and damage to infrastructure and property (Joyce, Sea level rise is attributable to higher tides and 2007). Critical infrastructure, including homes andstorm surges, which will reduce or cut off health roads tend to be located along the coast. Flooding Situation Analysisaccess in all populations, not just isolated ones (Joyce, related to sea level rise negatively impacts port2007). Tides reaching surmounting heights increase the facilities and harbors, and causes closure of roadslikelihood of roads and main emergency evacuation and bridges. “Long-term infrastructure would affectroutes to flood, and medical services to be inaccessible. social services such as disaster risk management,Dr. Stevenson Kuartei was asked about the issue of the health care, education, management of resources,Belau National Hospital being so close to the ocean. He and economic activity in sectors such as tourismrecognized that the hospital is in a very vulnerable spot and agriculture” (United States, 2009). Sea level rise,due to it being connected to the general population by increased storm surges, flooding, beach erosion, andonly one causeway. If the causeway were to be washed increased invasion of vector-borne diseases are amongout by a tidal surge, healthcare would be inaccessible to the threats that endanger the ecosystems that providea main segment of the population (Minister of Health, safety, sustenance, economic viability, and cultural2010c). The hospital itself is very close to the water as and traditional values to these island communities.well and a tidal surge could also overtake the hospital,again making healthcare inaccessible and unavailable.Dr. Kuartei also noted that the hospital has served as CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 7
  10. 10. Situation Analysis cont’d the terms of the contract were reviewed and the two governments made necessary modifications. According to the U.S Government Accountability Office, the United States aid to Palau exceeded $852 million from 1995- 2009. “Compact direct assistance will account for 48 percent of U.S. assistance; this assistance provides general budgetary support for Palau’s government operations, including initial investment in a trust fund intended to provide annual distributions of $5 million in 1999-2009 and $15 million in 2010-2044” (Government Accountability Office, 2008). Although Palau is a small island, its land provides the country with a vast amount of plausible opportunities for growth. Tourism continues to be Palau’s leading source of income accounting for the majority of the nation’s income. Tourism is one of the few resources that allow Resiliencies Palau to consistently bring in large profit independently, Although Palau and many islands in the South Pacific without the help of other nations. The nation’s unique are susceptible to the health risks of climate change, and scenic marine life makes it one of the more popular the opportunities for education and the robustness of destinations in the world. Hotel resort investments as their economy make them resilient. well as cruise line partnerships continue to keep Palau’s The most significant piece of reducing vulnerability economy aloft (Republic of Palau, 2007). however, is overall human resilience. Dr. Keim’s “Six R’s” of resilience all incorporate some form of human Extreme Heat behavior. The “Six R’s” include readiness, robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, rapid response, and Crop Damage For the small island states of the Pacific, one of recovery, all risk reducers that are affected by human the concerns is drought. The extreme heat can lead to behavior (Keim, 2010a). These resiliencies are excessive dry land. Drought can then lead to thirst due comprised of adaptive capability, response capacity, to little water supply, wildfires due to the low moisture and recovery capacity. Educating the community on and little rainfall, and also crop damage or not being ways to be resilient can ultimately reduce individuals’ able to grow crops at all due to the land being too dry susceptibility to the health impacts of climate change. (West, 2010). Along with drought, there are also seasonal Dietary education can also increase resilience and changes that come in to play because of global climate improve the health of Palauans (Palau Community change. Since climate change has become an issue, College, 2010). Opportunities for dietary education exist the seasons for harvesting crops have changed and the with children between the age of eight and sixteen. numbers of crops harvested each season have declinedSituation Analysis Dietary education can stress the importance of good tremendously (Minister Stevenson J. Kuartei, personal dietary practices. According to Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, communication, September 14, 2010). The heat damage $10,000 has recently been obtained for use in the to the crops has been an issue also. The taro has not development of programs to combat childhood obesity been as healthy as it has been in the past. Because of (Island Business International, 2010). the low rates of crops being harvested, it has affected The economic situation that Palau is in is partly the attitudes of the people since they have no control in result of the Compact of Free Association between over how much of the crops survive and this problem the United States and Palau. The Compact of Free can also effect the safety of the food (Minister Stevenson Association was established in 1995 and the United J. Kuartei, personal communication, September 24, 2010). States continues to assist Palau through direct Since there is crop damage and not as much assistance to their national government, investment harvested, Palauans depend on imported goods in trust funds, federal postal, weather, and aviation (Minister Stevenson J. Kuartei, personal communication, services as well as construction of a major road September 14, 2010). Although the Palauans have been (Government Accountability Office, 2008). The compact provides up to 15 years of economic assistance to Palau 8 from the United States. In the recent 2009 fiscal year, CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
  11. 11. Situation Analysis cont’d.getting accustomed to imported canned foods, they do pollen season leading to more allergies and respiratorynot realize the health concerns that go along with that problems amongst people (Rasmussen, 2002).diet. As mentioned before, obesity is a major concern The elderly population has the highest rate ofin Palau. Extreme heat also affects the medicinal plants mortality from respiratory diseases, largely becausethat are very important to the culture of Palau. Many of pre-existing conditions that tend to be presentmedicinal plants cannot hold up in certain environments. (“Elderly Have Higher”, 2006). Chronic ObstructiveTemperatures can affect chemical compounds in these Pulmonary Disease, also called COPD, is an illnessplants that are the source of the medicinal activity that affects many people who live in extremely hot(Cavaliere, 2009). environments (Leader 2009). When it is hot outside, the body uses more energy to maintain a normal body Respiratory Diseases temperature. Because of the excess energy that is Risks of respiratory diseases such as chronic used to try to keep the body cool, the body demandsobstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchitis more oxygen (Leader 2009). People with COPD sufferare on the rise due to extreme heat in Palau. shortness of breath while being in hot temperatures According to Deschenes & Moretti (2007), the because the body is using extra energy to try to keepmain mechanism underlying the increased mortality in it cool, instead of using all of the energy to maintainperiods of excessive temperature is the additional stress steady breathing. Since people with COPD haveimposed on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems trouble breathing in hot environments, this can leadby the demands of body temperature regulation. (p.7) to a Bronchospasm; a breathing problem where the The additional stress on the body causes an internal airways reduce in size making it difficult to get air intovulnerability for other diseases. and out of the lungs. To avoid this problem, the people There are many different causes for respiratory of Palau need to pay attention to the weather reports,diseases that have to do directly with extreme heat. take medications as the doctor prescribes them, andIncreased temperatures may trigger forest fires, which keep cool by staying indoors (Leader 2009).lead to a higher amount of soot in the air and thenconsequently higher levels of respiratory disease(Haines & Patz, 2004). The temperature increase in theSouth Pacific is also causing an earlier start to birch CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE Situation Analysis 9
  12. 12. Situation Analysis cont’d The government is also taking measures to limit weakened, the heart is beating at a rapid pace, but the repercussions of extreme heat by making sure body temperature is normal (“Syncope”, n.d.). Some all government sector housing is set up with energy of the symptoms of Syncope include blurred vision, efficient matters that will make the needs for air sweating, nausea, lightheadedness, and yawning conditioning obsolete. As earlier mentioned, a large excessively (University of Maryland Medical Center amount of the Palauan population has a relatively 2010). People who are most at risk are older adults low-income, the government has taken the initiative over the age of 65, as well as people who already have to make air conditioning units a thing of the past in a history of heart disease, diabetes, or high blood order to reduce cost and improve quality of life (“Draft pressure. Pregnant women are also at higher risk. National Energy Policy”, 2009, p.9). According to the To avoid Syncope, drink plenty of fluids, eat meals Draft National Policy (2009), “all new and refurbished regularly, avoid standing for long periods of time, government buildings will incorporate energy-efficient stay away from caffeinated drinks and alcohol, and designs such as shading and orientation of buildings sleep with the head of the bed raised (University of to reduce heating of buildings and reflective roof paint Maryland Medical Center 2010). and attic heat radiation barriers to reduce the need for Dehydration is also an issue related to the extreme air conditioning” (p.9). The government is doing all they heat. This occurs when the amount of water exiting can to reduce the amount of these respiratory illnesses the body is greater than the amount of water being by taking these certain precautions and making it easier taken in. Several things can cause dehydration. These for people to breath in the extreme heat. include diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, diabetes, burns, and the inability to drink fluids or the lack of fluids. Heat-‐Related Illnesses Diarrhea is the most common way a person becomes Syncope occurs when a person loses consciousness dehydrated because a considerable amount of water temporarily and faints. It is usually due to lack of blood is lost with each bowel movement. Sweating is also a flow to the brain (“Syncope”, n.d.). Being exposed to extremely high temperatures and overheating is one of the main causes to syncope. The pulse is usually CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 10
  13. 13. Situation Analysis cont’d.major cause of dehydration, especially in the case of cool environments (“MD- Travel Health”, 2010).the Palauans; the environment is extremely hot and it The South Pacific region is one of the mostis very difficult for them to retain water when they are vulnerable and prone to disaster in the world.constantly exposed to the heat (“MD- Travel”, 2010). Although the risks are incredibly high for heat Heat Strokes are a more severe case of heat related illnesses to occur, the medical sectors arecramps and heat exhaustion that can be caused by not prepared well enough to respond to these typesdehydration in some cases. A heat stroke is a form of of emergencies (Keim, 2002). Differing from thehyperthermia. The body temperature keeps rising to other concerns of global climate change is the factsdangerous levels and the victim loses consciousness. that heat related illnesses affect all populations. TheA heat stroke is considered a medical emergency and other vulnerability previously mentioned with thecan take the life of someone if it is severe enough. other extreme heat issues is the health care accessThe individuals who are most vulnerable to having problem. It is hard to get treatment in Palau due Situation Analysisheat strokes are infants, elderly, athletes, and people to the limited access that the people have to thewho work outside in hot environments (“MD- Travel hospitals as well as the little access the medicalHealth”, 2010). To prevent heat strokes, like many providers have to the people (Keim, 2002).of the other preventative measures, the Palauans Dr. Mark Keim outlined recommendations forneed to drink ample amounts of fluids, wear cool emergency health management in the Pacific islands.clothing, plan out the day so the work is done in The ones that relate to heat related illnesses include:the cooler parts of the day, keep indoor areas cool, Promoting education and training for any type ofavoid physical activity on extremely hot days, and disaster. It is important to prevent these specific illnessesstay tuned to the weather reports (Leader 2010). by developing prevention strategies, and improving Heat cramps are basically contractions in the emergency operations plans among the public health ofmuscles that are very painful. These mainly take Palau and the medical sectors (Keim, 2002).place in the calf muscles. They tend to be causedby dehydration, exposure to excessive amountsof heat, and poor physical conditioning, and areprevented by drinking a lot of water and staying in CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 11
  14. 14. Situation Analysis cont’d Micronesia and the highest density of tropical marine El Niño Effects habitats of comparable geographic areas around the El Niño is a weather event that begins in the Pacific world. In addition to coral reefs, mangroves, and and occurs when trade winds are weakened (Joyce, seagrass beds, Palau has deep algal beds, mud basins, 2010). It has worldwide effects despite its humble current swept lagoon bottoms, rich tidal channels, and origin. When this happens, weather conditions in the anoxic basins within the rock islands. Many of these Pacific region are altered. In a strong El Niño, ocean environments contain corals. (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3) temperatures in the Pacific can increase as much as Palau boasts an impressive coral diversity, with two degrees above normal (Joyce, 2010), which can findings of at least 385 coral specimens, in 66 genera contribute unpredictable extreme weather (Joyce, (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3). Fish and other invertebrate 2010) and lead to coral damage (Freeman, 2003). In are also extremely diverse, as there are 1,278 known the eastern region near South America, warm water species of reef fish in Palau. This is the highest diversity accumulates and causes an unusually high amount within Micronesia (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3). of rainfall that can cause flooding. On the western side of the Pacific, the opposite effect is experienced. Coral Bleaching Since the trade winds are not carrying moisture west Coral reef bleaching is “the whitening of from South America, areas near Indonesia experience diverse invertebrate taxa, (that) results from the drought that sometimes results in wild fires (Joyce, loss of symbiotic zooxantheallae and/or a reduction 2010). in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within scleractinian corals” Coral Damage (Buchheim, 1998, p. 1). Coral bleaching outbreaks in A barrier reef encompasses the majority of the Palau are considered to be one of the greatest threats main cluster of islands that stretches from the northern to Palau’s coral reef ecosystems (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. tip of Babeldaob to the southern lagoon, and merges 3). Sea temperature, solar irradiance, sedimentation, with Pelelui in the south (Golbuu, Bauman, Kuartei, and Victor, 2005, p. 3). Palau has the most diverse coral fauna of CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 12
  15. 15. Situation Analysis cont’d.xenobiotics, subaerial exposure, inorganic nutrients, Ecotourismfreshwater dilution, and epizootics are all natural and Coral reefs are useful to people and theiranthropogenic causes of coral bleaching (Buchheim, environment in numerous ways. They protect shores1998, p. 1). Coral reef ecosystems are especially from the impact of waves and storms, supply foodsusceptible to the effects of climate change. “Exposure and medicine, and are economically beneficial toto maximum ocean temperatures just a few degrees local communities as their beauty attracts thousandsabove the long-term average at any location, can cause of tourists each year.corals to become stressed, bleach, and die” (Munday, Increasingly frequent El Niño occurrences haveJones, Pratchett, and Williams, 2008, p. 2). Scientific lead to more cases of coral bleaching, which canevidence shows that an increase in water temperatures ultimately lead to decreases in tourism. Betweenwhen El Niño occurs is the primary stressor that causes the years of 1992 to 1997, tourist arrivals nearlycoral bleaching. Even the slightest increase in water doubled from 30,000 to 60,000 in Palau. However, Situation Analysistemperatures has the potential to bleach and kill many Palau experienced a 3.3% decrease in their GDP inspecies of coral. While a temperature rise in itself can 1998. This significant decline may be attributed tobe enough to cause corals significant damage, “the the 1997-1998 coral bleaching event, as Palau’s coralstress is compounded by the presence of any other reefs were severely damaged from this occurrencestress factors, such as windless days allowing more (Golbuu, 2005). According to the U.S. Global ChangeUV-light to reach corals, or low tides causing increased Research Program (2009) “the loss of income by 2015saltiness in lagoons” (McCormack, 2000, p. 1). from degraded reefs is conservatively estimated at Palau’s reefs were significantly harmed by coral several hundred million dollars annually.” Revenuebleaching during the 1997-1998 occurrence of El Niño, lost through tourism causes many of Palau’s citizensand the reefs have not fully recovered from the damage to be affected financially. According to the Republiccaused. It is estimated that approximately one-third of Palau (2007), 54.4% of households have an incomeof Palau’s corals died during this event (Golbuu et al., below $15,000, and loss in family income can lead to2005, p. 3). It is possible that global climate change poor spending on food.may play a role in the increase of coral bleachingevents, which could lead to destruction and extinctionof numerous coral species (Buchheim, 1998, p. 1). CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 13
  16. 16. Situation Analysis cont’d Although tourism plays a critical role in Palau’s fisheries indicated that 87% of households have economy, tourists are also partially responsible for someone that fishes either for subsistence or damage incurred to the reefs. Tourists who are commercial purposes, and often both. Only 13% of uneducated about reefs can damage the coral Palauan households were not involved in any type significantly. “Snorkelers and divers who are not of fishing. (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 7) trained in proper behavior around reefs can trample Palau’s marine resources have a long-standing delicate soft corals, damage reef structures and history of being rich and diverse, and Palau is injure fish by attempting to feed them” (Freeman, known for having some of the best sport fishing 2003). areas in the world. However, coral reef damage can be prevented Subsistence fishing within the reef is a major in many ways. One way that Palau is monitoring its activity and dominates market production. Deep-sea coral reefs is through the Palau International Coral fishing for pelagic species resulted in a tuna catch Reef Center (PICRC). In 2001, the PICRC launched a of 51 tons in 2000. Seasonal trochus harvesting forSituation Analysis nationwide coral reef monitoring program. shell button manufacture is an important source The objectives of the program are to: establish of income for most fishermen. Other marine permanent monitoring sites, determine status resources include pearls, shrimp, ornamental fish, of Palau’s reefs, assess changes to the benthic seaweed (agar agar), and mollusks. (Encyclopedia and fish communities at each site over time and of the Nations, 2010, p. 1) examine the recovery process from the 1997-1998 bleaching event at each site (Golbuu et. al., 2005). Fish Distribution Physical and biological changes that occur in our Fishing in Palau oceans during El Niño events can vastly affect fish Fishing is more than a popular sport in Palau. distribution. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Rather, fishing is just as relevant to Palau’s culture Administration (NOAA) states: as it is to their diet, and it is an integral component Among the variations in oceanographic features of how Palauans live their daily lives. that are observed following an El Niño event are: In 2001, 835 people (16% of Palau’s population) 14 sold their catch to local fish markets at least once during the year. A 2003 survey of subsistence CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
  17. 17. Situation Analysis cont’d.changes in sea-surface temperatures, changes in the Weakened Trade Windsvertical, thermal structure of the ocean (particularly Trade winds were originally seen as a tool forin coastal regions), and altered coastal and upwelling commerce, but scientists later discovered that they arecurrents. These changes can directly affect the species vital to the climate and biological balance of the Pacificcomposition and abundance of fish. (National Oceanic as they provide much of the rainfall. As the air movesand Atmospheric Administration, 2010) west, it picks up moisture and rises. By the time the During the years that El Niño is not occurring, air reaches the end of the cycle, it is saturated anddeep, cold ocean water rises, and with it comes releases the moisture in the form of rain. After this,nutrients that reside near the bottom of the ocean the air travels back toward South America and the cyclefloor. Fish in the upper waters feed on plankton starts again (Than, 2006). In addition to providing rainfallthat depend on the nutrients transported in with in the Western Pacific, trade winds act as a driving forcethe cooler water temperatures. In addition, kelp in ocean currents. These currents are key to the survivalforests also rely on these cooler, nutrient-rich water of ecosystems that exist in the shallow waters. As thesupplies to survive and grow. El Niño reduces the currents drive west, they bring colder, nutrient-rich waterupwelling of cooler water that supply the nutrients toward the surface and provide nourishment for marineso crucial to life in more shallow waters. Because life in the shallow areas of the Pacific (Sample, 2006).of this, fish either die or attempt to migrate to Research has shown that the trade winds haveareas with more food available (Department of Fish been slowing down since the industrial revolution.and Game, 2010). The decrease in number of fish Since the mid 1800s, the strength of the trade windspopulations has not gone unnoticed by Palauans. have weakened by 3.5%. In addition, the oceanChanges in fish distribution directly affect those currents they propel have weakened by 7.5% (Sample,who depend upon fish as a primary food source, 2006). Scientists predict that the winds will weaken byas well as those that rely on fish as a source of another ten percent by the year 2100 (Hopkin, 2006).income. Field surveys and fish aggregation studiesshow a decline in fish populations in Palau over thelast decade (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 7). CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE Situation Analysis 15
  18. 18. Situation Analysis cont’d Scientists theorize that the slowing of trade winds Extreme Weather Events has a direct connection to global climate change. Due According to Dr. Mark Keim, Center for Disease to rising temperatures, more water is evaporating Control and Prevention, there will be an increase in and being absorbed by the atmosphere. However, the probability of extreme weather events due to more the rate of rainfall is not increasing. In order for the frequent El Niño oscillation caused by global climate cycle to sustain itself, the winds have to slow down change. The likelihood of future trends of heat waves to give the increase in moisture enough time to be and heavy precipitation events is said to be 90% - 99%; released by the atmosphere (Than, 2006). widespread drought, the incidence and severity of This vital cycle is being damaged by El Niño and cyclones, as well as increased incidence of extremely threatens to change the marine ecosystems in the high sea level is said to range from 66% - 99% (Keim, Pacific. If the currents are weakened, less nutrient rich 2008, p. 508). These extreme weather events can cold water will be able to rise to the surface (Than, 2006). cause a multitude of natural disasters and “ninety-five Microscopic organisms such as plankton and kelp rely percent of natural disaster deaths occur among sixty- on these nutrients to live. If the plankton population six percent of the poorest countries” (Anderson, 1991). suffers, larger populations of marine life will also suffer. There are many impacts on public health, from Fish rely on these smaller organisms for food. If the fish both high and low precipitation events caused by the cannot find enough food, they will either die or be forced recurrence of El Niño. Loss of clean water, shelter, to migrate to different areas. Regardless of whether the personal and household goods, sanitation, routine fish die or migrate, the number of fish in areas that are hygiene, disruption of solid waste management, public warmed by El Niño will decrease (Department of Fish risk perception, increased pests and vectors, loss or and Game, p. 1). The decrease of the food supplies for damage to health care system, worsening of existing fish combined with the increase in water temperature chronic illnesses, and toxic exposures are all effects are causing a great change in the ecosystem in which of increased number of storms, floods, drought, and fish reside. This decrease in fish population threatens wildfire (Keim, 2008, p. 510). to damage the fishing industry in areas that are being affected by El Niño conditions, weakening trade winds, and currents (Than, 2006). CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 16
  19. 19. Situation Analysis cont’d. The trend of more areas affected by drought is living are known to lessen the health impacts ofsaid to be 66% - 90% more likely to happen within flood disasters” (Keim, 2008, p. 513).the twenty-first century. Agricultural, economic, Tropical cyclones, like drought, are also predictedand health problems are most often associated with to be more likely to strike within the twenty-firstdrought-related deaths (Keim, 2008, p. 511). To cope century. “In the past two centuries, tropical cycloneswith public health emergencies caused by drought, have caused an estimated 1.9 million deathsthere needs to be both preparation before and action worldwide.” (Keim, 2008, p. 513). In order to prepareafter such an event. The principal interventions need for tropical cyclones, weather monitoring andto focus on: food security, safe water and adequate forecasting is essential. This can allow for timelysanitation, hygiene, infection in healthcare settings, implementation of safe evacuations to preventsurveillance, and temporary shelter for displaced drowning (the leading cause of cyclone death). Situation Analysispopulations (Keim, 2008, p. 512). Public education in schools, home, and at the work “Meteorological forecasting and early warnings place can raise awareness of evacuation routes andhave decreased morality of flash floods by greater plans (Keim, 2008, p. 514).than fifty percent” (Keim, 2008, 513). However, there Many populations of Palau have vulnerabilitiesare still many public health impacts of flooding caused by cases of extreme weather. Dr. Kuartei,which include: damage to homes and displacement Palauan Minister of Health, explains that the vulnerableof occupants, compromised personal hygiene, populations do not have the mechanisms to rise abovecontamination of water sources, disruption of their vulnerabilities. However, he believes the women,sewage service and solid-waste collection, injuries children and elderly only become highly susceptible tosustained during cleanup, stress-related mental the dangers of extreme weather when the healthy arehealth and substance abuse problems, as well as not looking after them. This is why he believes thosedeaths caused by drowning. Drills and exercises who are healthy are the most vulnerable. Unless Palaushould include population protection as well as analert and notification system for such an event. “Anearly return of victims to routine activities of daily CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 17
  20. 20. Situation Analysis cont’d adopts a model that educates and protects those that of the secondary health facilities would be taken out. are healthy and reside in the main cluster of islands, Palau has taken many steps to tackle this issue. Dr. then the vulnerable will also suffer. (Kuartei, J, personal Kuartei states how they have initiated “project uphill,” communication, September 24, 2010). an effort to build new structures uphill to higher, safer A portion of Palau’s population lives on islands grounds. He states that people are now very careful not that are outer lying, posing yet another risk as there to build houses near the sea, because people have seen is a rise in the occurrence of extreme weather events. the level rise throughout the years (Kuartei, J, personal Dr. Kuartei, explains how the people of Palau have communication, September 24, 2010). always believed they have the power to turn the tide Dr. Mark Keim explains that vulnerability to natural away if it ever becomes a problem. He discusses how disaster has two sides: susceptibility and the exposure Palauans believe time is not linear, but circular and if to dangerous hazards as well as resilience and theSituation Analysis some of the outer lying islands were to be lost, then capacity to cope with or recover from such events. something new would one day come along to replace He also explains that “resilience has two components, them. Palauans take life in stride. The challenge is to those provided by nature, and those provided through convince them to plan ahead in order to adequately human action” (2008, p. 509). He believes that prepare for potential extreme weather events (Kuartei, “community based risk-reduction activities lessen J, personal communication, September 24, 2010). human vulnerability to the vagaries of natural disasters The location of the main hospital in Palau poses that threaten public health” (2008, p. 515). Palau may yet another threat as it is located very close to the not be protected by its surroundings, but benefits ocean shoreline. Dr. Kuartei explains that the hospital is through human action. Dr. Kuartei states how the located where it is because it is “aesthetically pleasing.” ability of Palauans to respond as a community is their However, one earthquake or a tidal wave could easily greatest strength, not necessarily the government’s over-take the ward. He also explains that it is not just response to such disaster. The people of Palau are the hospital that is located close to the sea. Once the willing and able to be resilient to the effects of global hospital was built, it became a magnet to other health climate change. However, he states that its biggest 18 entities, such as private clinics. In turn, if an extreme weather event were to occur, the hospital and many threat to health is lack of coordination. (Kuartei, J, personal communication, September 24, 2010).
  21. 21. Climate Change MatrixClimatic Results Vulnerabilities/ Resilienciesevent Increased Risks Crop damage: heat damage, Taro, Tapioca, Sugar cane, Adaptive capabilities: drought, seasonal changes medicinal plants, dietary dietary education,Extreme concerns, wildfires, safe drinking water preparedness, cultural bondingheat Vector borne infections: Developing country, Readiness: Health education, Dengue fever, Malaria, resource poor, low-income alliance with more Encephalitis populations developed nations Respiratory diseases: Chronic Elderly, isolated populations, Readiness: Health education, obstructive pulmonary health access, low-income higher awareness level disease, asthma, bronchitis populations Heat-related illnesses: All populations: health access Readiness: Health education, Syncope, cramps, exhaustion, higher awareness level dehydration, stroke Crop damage: Salt water Taro, Tapioca, Sugar cane, Adaptive capabilities: dietary intrusion, flooding medicinal plants, dietary education, cultural bondingSea level concernsrise Flooding, Vector borne Populations close to the Readiness: Health education, infections: Dengue, Malaria, ocean, Koror hospital, Vector higher awareness level Encephalitis borne diseases Climate Change Matrix Unpredictable tides: Health Populations close to the ocean, Readiness: Health education access, flooding mental health, health access Coral damage Tourism (economy), Fishing Eco-friendly tourism: environmental educationEl Niño Weakened Trade winds: Fish distribution warmer water Extreme weather: Droughts, Vulnerable populations Preparedness: education, floods, extended and (location), farming, beach readiness, redundancy shortened seasons, erosion, health access, cyclones, typhoons emergency evacuations, cultural and historical sites (mental health) 19
  22. 22. Primary Research Part 1: Survey Method: A ten-question survey designed to measure current awareness levels of climate change issues was distributed among a sample size of 148 citizens of Palau between September 18th, 2010 and October 26th, 2010. Based on a population size of 20,000 citizens, the expected margin of error would be around 8%* with a confidence level around 95%**. *The margin of error is the amount of error that you can tolerate. If 90% of respondents answer yes, while 10% answer no, you may be able to tolerate a larger amount of error than if the respondents are split 50-50 or 45-55. Lower margin of error requires a larger sample size. **The confidence level is the amount of uncertainty you can tolerate. Suppose that you have 20 yes-no questions in your survey. With a confidence level of 95%, you would expect that for one of the questions (1 in 20), the percentage of people who answer yes would be more than the margin of error away from the true answer. The true answer is the percentage you would get if you exhaustively interviewed everyone. A higher confidence level requires a larger sample size. Palau Climate Change Survey with Results 1. How aware are you of global climate change in Palau? a. Very aware Male: 27 Female: 39 Total: 66 45% b. Somewhat aware Male: 21 Female: 37 Total: 58 39% c. Slightly aware Male: 10 Female: 12 Total: 22 15% d. Not aware at all Male: 2 Female: 0 Total: 2 1% Question 1 Conclusion and Recommendations: Approximately 84% of the population surveyed range between somewhat aware to very aware of climate change in Palau. 16% of the population was only slightly aware or not aware at all. Objectives should be set to increase the number of citizens at the “Very Aware” level. 2. How aware are you of the possible effects of global climate change on your health and wellbeing? a. Very aware Male: 24 Female: 39 Total: 63 43% b. Somewhat aware Male: 18 Female: 38 Total: 56 38% c. Slightly aware Male: 13 Female: 8 Total: 21 14% d. Not aware at all Male: 5 Female: 3 Total: 8 5% Question 2: Conclusion and Recommendations: Approximately 80% of the population surveyed range between somewhat aware to very aware of climate change in Palau. 20% of the population was only slightly aware or not aware at all. Objectives should be set to increase the number of citizens at the “Very Aware” level.Primary Research 3. How concerned are you about the possible effects caused by climate change on the health of Palauan citizens? a. Very concerned Male: 34 Female: 57 Total: 91 61% b. Somewhat concerned Male: 18 Female: 24 Total: 42 28% c. Slightly concerned Male: 6 Female: 6 Total: 42 8% d. Not concerned at all Male: 2 Female: 1 Total: 3 2% Question 3: Conclusion and Recommendations: Approximately 90% of the population surveyed range between somewhat concerned to very concerned about possible health impacts caused by climate change. Only 10% of the population was only slightly concerned or not concerned at all. These results show the need to address the high level of concern among Palauan citizens about their health issues.20
  23. 23. Primary Research cont’d4. How often are you exposed to information about global climate change? a. 4 or more times per month Male: 15 Female: 19 Total: 34 23% b. 2 – 3 times per month Male: 22 Female: 24 Total: 56 38% c. 1 time per month Male: 17 Female: 23 Total: 40 27% d. 0 times per month Male: 6 Female: 12 Total: 18 12%Question 4: Conclusion and Recommendations: Approximately 39% of the population surveyed are exposed only0 to 1 time per month to climate change information. It is key to increase levels of frequency and repetition ofmessages and information in order to raise awareness levels among the audience.5. How much of a problem do you consider global climate change on the future of wellbeing of Palau? a. A major problem Male: 43 Female: 63 Total: 106 72% b. Somewhat of a problem Male: 14 Female: 19 Total: 33 22% c. A slight problem Male: 2 Female: 4 Total: 6 4% d. Not a problem at all Male: 1 Female: 2 Total: 3 2%Question 5: Conclusion and Recommendations: 72% of the population surveyed consider global climate changeto be a major problem on the future well being of Palau. Only 6% of the population considered it only a slightproblem or not a problem at all. These results show the need to address the high level of concern amongPalauan citizens about the future well being of Palau.6. What do you consider the biggest communication problem when addressing the health impacts of climatechange to your family, friends, and community? a. A lack of awareness on the issues Male: 14 Female: 33 Total: 47 32% b. A lack of education on the issues Male: 16 Female: 21 Total: 37 25% c. A lack of concern about the issues Male: 20 Female: 20 Total: 40 27% d. A lack of evidence about the issues Male: 4 Female: 3 Total: 7 5% e. Other (please specify) ____________ Male: 6 Female: 11 Total: 17 11%Question 6: Conclusion and Recommendations: Results were closely distributed when asked about the biggestcommunication problem when addressing health impacts of climate change. 32% of the population blamed alack of awareness; 25% believed that a lack of education on the subject was at fault; 27% believed that a lack ofconcern was the biggest problem. The campaign should address all of these shortcomings.7. Which public health aspect of climate change do you feel needs the most immediate attention? a. Security of drinking water Male: 14 Female: 23 Total: 37 25% b. Food security Male: 7 Female: 10 Total: 17 11% Primary Research c. Saltwater intrusion of farmland Male: 13 Female: 14 Total: 27 18% d. Immunization against disease Male: 10 Female: 15 Total: 25 17% e. Emergency medical response Male: 5 Female: 12 Total: 17 11% f. Economic impact (tourism, fishing, etc) Male: 11 Female: 14 Total: 25 17%Question 7: Conclusion and Recommendations: A wide range of beliefs about which public health aspectneeds most immediate attention was also measured. 25% believe that secure drinking water is the mostimmediate concern; 18% believe saltwater intrusion of farmland; 17% economic impact on tourism and fishing;17% immunization against disease, and 11% for both food security and emergency medical response. Thecampaign should address all of these health aspects. 21
  24. 24. Primary Research cont’d Part 2: Personal Interviews Method: During a weeklong data-gathering trip to Palau, numerous personal interviews were conducted with fishermen, farmers, tourism experts, public health officials, and media experts. A consistent set of questions was used in order to monitor similarities and differences among people in the various industries. All interviews were recorded via video and audio. Interview Questions for Palau Project Fishermen 1. How has climate change affected farming in Palau? 2. Has there been any loss of farmland due to flooding, erosion, or saltwater intrusion? 3. Are there any adjustments that Palauans have had to make in their farming methods due to climate change issues? 4. Has the negative agricultural effects of climate change caused any dietary concerns in the health of Palauans? 5. Have there been more cases of crop damage from flooding than in the past? 6. Have there been more cases of crop damage from draught than in the past? 7. Is there a fear that the farming industry might someday be ruined due to climate change? 8. Are there food security issues in Palau due to global climate change? Public Health Officials 1. What health risks associated with global climate change are immediate concerns? 2. What health risks in the future do you foresee stemming from global climate change? 3. How well prepared is the health system of Palau to address the health issues caused by climate change? 4. Have you made any changes to your health system in response to increased risks resulting from climate change, and if so, what are those changes?Primary Research22
  25. 25. Primary Research cont’d 5. What are the main constraints and obstacles in addressing the health issues related to climate change in Palau? 6. What types of warning and evacuation plans are in place in Palau in case of extreme weather events? 7. What are the threats to Palau’s water supplies due to saline intrusion or any other climate related event? 8. How informed do you consider the general public of Palau on issues of global climate change in Palau? 9. What climate change issue poses the greatest threat to Palauans? 10. Are some Palauans more susceptible than others to health issues due to economic class, location, education, etc? 11. Are there any waste management concerns related to global climate change? 12. What are your thoughts on how Palau will develop in the next 100 years if global climate change keeps affecting the world? 13. In the event of an extreme weather disaster, what type of programs does Palau have in place to ensure medical assistance (physical and mental) for citizens, speedy recovery, resilience of community, etc? 14. Do you feel Palauan media addresses public health issues and information adequately?Tourism 1. With tourism rates on the rise in Palau, are there any concerns that climate change issues might impact Primary Research tourism in the future?Media 1. How many households have television in Palau? 2. How many households have radio in Palau? 3. How many households have Internet in Palau? 4. What is the most read magazine in Palau? 5. What is the most read newspaper in Palau? 6. Has there been previous ad campaigns related to global climate change in Palau? 7. Are there billboards on the roads on Palau? 8. Are there any non-traditional or alternative ways that Palauans get their information?Conclusions and Recommendations: From the numerous interviews conducted we were able to find common responses and concerns froma variety of people in similar professions. Information gathered from these interviews served as additionalevidence in our decision making process. 23
  26. 26. Key Idea The key idea for the campaign was developed diet and removing themselves from exposure to air after conducting an interview with Palau’s Minister pollutants. Limiting the amount of time spent in of Health, Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. According to Dr. extreme heat, drinking water regularly to prevent Kuartei, the most vulnerable population in Palau is dehydration, and wearing protective clothing can aide comprised of the healthy citizens. He explains that in lowering the risk of heat-related illnesses. Regular the healthy population must remain healthy in order visits to the doctor for check-ups will also help lower to assist citizens who are less healthy or less capable the risk for many of these diseases. In the event of a of helping themselves. It is from this interview that person being affected by any of the diseases, regular we developed our key idea, “Protect, Provide, Unite.” check-ups with a doctor could help catch and treat a Each word serves a purpose in raising the awareness disease early. Doctor’s also can encourage positive of increased health risks due to climate change and and healthy behaviors among individuals. also creates a memorable tagline for the campaign. Through education on protective measures, we will be teaching individuals in the primary Protect audience that protecting their own health is making Through primary and secondary research, it was an investment into the health and well-being of found that climate change has contributed to a rise all Palauan citizens. This initiative leads us to the in the number of vector-borne infections, respiratory second part of the key idea, “Provide.” diseases, heat-related illnesses, and dietary problems. The target audience is at a higher risk of exposure to Provide vector-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, When individuals have protected themselves, and encephalitis. Respiratory diseases are also on they can then provide help and assistance to family, the rise among our target audience and include friends, and the community. By providing assistance chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and to others, the primary audience will aide in lowering bronchitis. Heat-related illnesses include syncope, the risk and susceptibility of other individuals to cramps, exhaustion, dehydration, and stroke. certain health issues. The education that the primary Individuals also face a greater risk of having dietary audience gains on health risks related to climate problems including diabetes and obesity. change and the ways to lower the risks will be passed While individuals are at a greater risk of exposure on to future generations of Palau, providing a safer to certain health issues, protective measures can be and healthier environment to live in. taken to lower the risk of susceptibility and infection. The second part of the key idea seeks to provide Individuals should wear protective clothing, apply assistance to others while bringing the primary and insect repellent frequently, and also use window secondary audience together. The act of coming screens to defend against many vector-borne together symbolizes the already strong sense of infections. Protective measures can also be taken community that exists in Palau. Ultimately, this lead against respiratory diseases by developing a healthy to the final piece of our key idea, “Unite.” Unite Through the process of protecting and providing education and assistance to others, we are uniting all citizens for a healthier Palau. Again, the idea that individuals must protect themselves first empowers them with the ability and knowledge to provide assistance to the less fortunate and to unite the community. Increasing unity among individualsKey Idea should raise awareness about the health risks associated with climate change among all audiences. All three words serve a separate purpose, but all three words need to exist together to be effective. The three words behind our key idea will be incorporated into all of our creative.24
  27. 27. Target Market Profile Based on the analogy that was provided by frequently, most listen to Diaz Broadcasting, 89.5 FM.Dr. Kuartei, we chose two target audiences for the Our primary audience also obtains their informationcampaign. The primary audience we are targeting with from the three local newspapers; Island Times, Palauour campaign is healthy Palauan citizens both male and Horizon, and Tia Belau. Of the 11,000 televisions infemale between the ages of sixteen to sixty-five years Palau, 5,000 households subscribe to the digital cableold. According to Palau census data, 13,270 individuals network, Palau National Communication Corporationof the population account for this age range. The data (PNCC). Our primary audience mostly accessesalso showed us that 68% of this audience resides in the four local channels broadcasted through PNCC,Koror, with the average household size being four specifically Channel 23, Oceania Television Network,persons. The primary audiences average household and Channel 26, Diaz Broadcasting.income is $11,117.68 with the majority of this income The secondary audience we chose for the campaigncoming from public sector work. These individuals is children and adolescents ages eight to fifteen yearsspend the largest portion of their income, roughly old. This audience accounts for 4,888 individuals of20%, on miscellaneous expenses, which are expenses the total population. We have selected this audiencethat do not fall under the general categories of rent, because we recognize them as the future of Palau.household expenses, food, leisure, or transportation. Starting education about the health risks associated Our primary target audience also engages with climate change with a young audience will allowin many informal activities. The most common the campaign to have an even greater impact andactivities include farming, food preparation, fishing, extend past its six-month parameters.and woodcarving. While farming contributes to Our secondary audience uses most traditionala significant amount of the food supply for this media and has been joining social media sites suchaudience, many continue to shop at local stores. For as Facebook in recent years. Our secondary audienceregular grocery needs, many in this audience visit uses radio to receive information and listens to 88.9WCTC Shopping Center and Surangels, both located KRFM most often. This radio station is among thein Koror. Individuals also shop at Yano, a market most popular based on its broadcast of current music,that supplies locally grown foods. The primary playing both American and Palauan songs. The localaudience utilizes radio, newspapers, and television television stations are among the most watchedto receive their information. Although very few radio in Palau with Oceania Television Network and Diazstations exist in Palau, this audience uses radio Broadcasting being the most popular. Target Market Profile 25
  28. 28. Communication Objectves (What the campaign should accomplish) 1. 2. Increase awareness level to 75% of the primary Increase awareness level to 80% of the target audience (healthy citizens of Palau) about the secondary target audience about the need for them need to protect themselves against the increased to be the “future healthy generation” of Palau. health risks associated with climate change. This Increase awareness that there is a need to protect will be accomplished within the first half of the six- themselves, their families, friends, and community month campaign. against increased health risks associated with Rationale: Dr. Kuartei’s statement that healthy Palau climate change. This will be accomplished within the citizens are the most vulnerable creates a need to six-month campaign. raise awareness levels among this audience. Rationale: Teaching future generations to protect His analogy of the airline procedure with oxygen themselves first, so that they are then able to provide masks (you must first make sure your own mask is assistance to others and education about the increased in place and working properly; then you can assist health risks associated with climate change. This is others) helps solidify this objective and rationale. important in ensuring a healthy future for citizens of Palau. Advertising Objectves (What the message should accomplish) 1. 2. 3. Establish in the minds of 75% Establish top-of-mind awareness Reinforce in the minds of 75% of the two target audiences that in 80% of the two target audiences of the two target audiences that protecting their own health in order that there are increased levels of climate change is related to certain to provide assistance and education health risks that are associated with health issues in Palau. This will be to others is an investment into the certain aspects of climate change. accomplished during the second half health and well being of all Palauan This will be accomplished during the of the six-month campaign. citizens. This will be accomplished first half of the campaign. Rationale: Our primary research during the first half of the six-month shows that 57% of Palauan citizens campaign. Rationale: Our primary research surveyed consider a lack of Rationale: Dr. Kuartei’s analogy of shows that 61% of Palauan citizens awareness and education about airline procedure with oxygen masks surveyed are very concerned about climate change the biggest problem (You must first make sure your the possible health effects caused when addressing health impact own mask is in place and working by climate change events. (Survey issues with family, friends, and properly; then you can assist others). question 6) community. (Survey question 9) Media Objectives (What the selected media should accomplish) 1. 2.Objectives Reach 75% of the primary target audience five times Reach 85% of the secondary target audience three per month during the six-month campaign. times per month during the six-month campaign. Rationale: The key to raising awareness levels lies in Rationale: Raising the awareness level among a younger frequency of exposure. Our primary audience needs to audience helps insure a healthier future for Palau and be exposed to our message often in order to motivate helps raise awareness among the children’s family them to action. members, friends, and community.26

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