The textile industry is constantly searching for  environmentally friendly solutions. Over the years a lot of chemical com...
8.32 kms crust % by weight in crust O = 49.2 Si = 25.7 Al = 7.5 Fe = 4.7 Ca = 3.4 Na = 2.6 K = 2.4 Mg = 1.9 other= 2.6 125...
Residual  soil Transported soil ~ in situ weathering (by  physical & chemical  agents) of parent rock ~ weathered and  tra...
 
~ formed by one of these  three  different processes igneous sedimentary metamorphic formed by cooling of molten magma (la...
<ul><li>Mother earth supplies us with a large variety of minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 4000 different minerals are k...
Clay minerals are made of two distinct structural units. 0.26 nm Silicon tetrahedron Aluminium Octahedron All clay mineral...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Depending on the type and quantity of metal oxide, the ratio with SiO 2  and the specific crystalline structure, different...
Clay mainly consists of SiO 2  and Al 2 O 3 Other ions may be present Mg, Ca, Fe, Li, Mn,….. Some clays can stabilize H 2 ...
<ul><li>3-Layer Silicate </li></ul><ul><li>Small particle size </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Delamin...
<ul><li>substitution of Si 4+  and Al 3+  by other </li></ul><ul><li>lower valence  (e.g., Mg 2+ ) cations </li></ul><ul><...
Mineral Specific surface (m 2 /g) C.E.C (meq/100g) Kaolinite 10-20 3-10 Illite 80-100 20-30 Montmorillonite 800 80-120 Chl...
<ul><li>Amongst  the big number of minerals, clays have very useful characteristics for textile applications </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>In water the clay particles are anionic charged and show a large adsorption effect for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydr...
<ul><li>Nature –Bentonite </li></ul><ul><li>Cat litters </li></ul><ul><li>Agro industry </li></ul><ul><li>Civil industry <...
<ul><li>All these classes (and many sub-classes) have  different characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this differe...
<ul><ul><li>The most widely known mineral in the  textile  industry is sodium silicate as a mineral stabilizer for hydroge...
<ul><li>NaOH </li></ul><ul><li>Gives irreversible yellowing to cotton due to high alkaline </li></ul><ul><li>High COD amou...
<ul><li>Adsorption of strong metal contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Organic complex builder fully or partially </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>In hydrogen peroxide bleaching,  </li></ul><ul><li>both  continuously and </li></ul><ul><li>discontinuously </li><...
<ul><ul><li>One of the new applications for claysis as a one-shot product for the discontinuous bleaching applications </l...
Clearly to see is that the silicon oil is not well emulsified .   Altranol- GEO well disperse/emulsifies the silicon oil. ...
<ul><li>Excellent hydrogen peroxide stabilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Unique wash performance </li></ul><ul><li>Good wetting ou...
<ul><li>Altranol GEO allows almost 35% reduction in the BOD & COD levels in the wash effluent </li></ul><ul><li>Altranol G...
<ul><li>Altranol GEO, besides reducing pollution due to lower BOD & COD levels, also results in lower volatile organic che...
<ul><li>Excellent extracting effect to silicone or mineral oils from </li></ul><ul><li>elastane fibers when blended with c...
<ul><li>Bleach for dyeing indication recipe: </li></ul><ul><li>95-98ºC during 20-30 minutes: </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 ml/l Al...
<ul><li>Bleach for whites indication recipe: </li></ul><ul><li>1-3 ml/l Altranol-GEO </li></ul><ul><li>2-3, 5g/l Caustic f...
Some practical results: Cotton on winches 95ºC – 60 mins; Customer’s standard: LNCI Basic white  :  84 85 Total white  : 1...
Practical results continued: Knitted Cotton/EL on Thie   jet Customer’s standard: LNCI Basic white :  72 77 Total white  ...
<ul><li>Other experiences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jig bleaching applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleaching of Cotton...
Clay technology  for pretreatment of elastane fibres
<ul><li>elastane fibres (PolyUrethane filament fibres) are commonly used nowadays in all kind of knits and fabrics. </li><...
<ul><li>Articles can contain between 2 – 20% elastane fibres. </li></ul><ul><li>Articles can contain between 2 – 6% silico...
<ul><li>Insufficient elimination of silicon oils will cause problems during subsequent processes and/or dyeings: </li></ul...
<ul><li>Altranol-ELB is a specially formulated clay in combination with special non – ionic surfactants. </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Very good wetting and scouring effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Level dyeings as Altranol-ELB levels out all irregular oi...
Soda ash pH 9-10  (1 g/l) Altranol- ELB 2 ml/l +  1 ml/l water 2-3 l/kg overflow 30°C Grey   water 6-8 l/kg °C 30  30  80 ...
15 min @ 50°C Dyeing Refill and add  Altranol-ELB 0.5 ml/l other dyeing auxiliaries dyestuffs  Fill the machine and add  A...
OFFICE ADDRESS :- 403, “Antariksh”, Makwana Road, Marol Naka, Andheri (E), Mumbai – 400 059 Tel.- 91- 22- 4221 6789 (30 Li...
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Altranol geo

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Lowering of BOD and COD during pretreatment of cotton.using clay based scouring agent.

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Altranol geo

  1. 2. The textile industry is constantly searching for environmentally friendly solutions. Over the years a lot of chemical components have been replaced (Phosphates, Nonyl phenols etc) in the textile industry. The demand for low COD and BOD values, reduced levels of MBAS and BiAS and easily biodegradable products was the reason to search for alternative sources.
  2. 3. 8.32 kms crust % by weight in crust O = 49.2 Si = 25.7 Al = 7.5 Fe = 4.7 Ca = 3.4 Na = 2.6 K = 2.4 Mg = 1.9 other= 2.6 12500 km dia Geotechnical engineers are interested mainly in the top 100 metres of the earth crust. As you can see from the table, 82% of the elements are oxygen, silicon and aluminium.
  3. 4. Residual soil Transported soil ~ in situ weathering (by physical & chemical agents) of parent rock ~ weathered and transported far away by wind, water and ice. Parent Rock
  4. 6. ~ formed by one of these three different processes igneous sedimentary metamorphic formed by cooling of molten magma (lava) e.g., granite formed by gradual deposition, and in layers e.g., limestone, shale formed by alteration of igneous & sedimentary rocks by pressure/temperature e.g., marble
  5. 7. <ul><li>Mother earth supplies us with a large variety of minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 4000 different minerals are known worldwide, most of them are very nice but not all of them can be used for technical purposes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Quartz Roselite Biotite Kaolinite Rosasite Topaz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>99% of the earth is composed out of only 8 minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>The mineral group of silicates is the most important and well known for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Clays (Aluminium/Metal oxides + Silicium dioxide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Zeolites (Aluminium/Metal oxides + Silicium dioxide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Silicate (Metal oxides + Silicium dioxide) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Clay minerals are made of two distinct structural units. 0.26 nm Silicon tetrahedron Aluminium Octahedron All clay minerals are made of two distinct building blocks: tetrahedrons and octahedrons. The tetrahedron on the left has oxygen atoms at the corners, and there is a silicon in the centre. Octahedron has six oxygen or hydroxyl atoms in the corners, and an aluminium or magnesium ion at the centre. oxygen 0.29 nm aluminium or magnesium hydroxyl or oxygen silicon 0.26 nm
  7. 16. Depending on the type and quantity of metal oxide, the ratio with SiO 2 and the specific crystalline structure, different types of CLAY are known such as: - Kaolin : Aluminium oxide - Smectite : Aluminium- and Magnesium oxide - Vermiculite : Aluminium- and Magnesium oxide - Illite : Aluminium-, Magnesium- and Potassium oxide - Hectorite : Magnesium- and Lithium oxide
  8. 17. Clay mainly consists of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 Other ions may be present Mg, Ca, Fe, Li, Mn,….. Some clays can stabilize H 2 O 2 bleaches
  9. 18. <ul><li>3-Layer Silicate </li></ul><ul><li>Small particle size </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Delaminating of layers by simple dispersing </li></ul><ul><li>High specific surface area(upto 750m 2 /g </li></ul><ul><li>after dispersed </li></ul><ul><li>Negative charge on the surface, cationic </li></ul><ul><li>charge at border </li></ul><ul><li>Inner crystalline capability of swelling </li></ul>
  10. 19. <ul><li>substitution of Si 4+ and Al 3+ by other </li></ul><ul><li>lower valence (e.g., Mg 2+ ) cations </li></ul><ul><li>results in charge imbalance (net negative) </li></ul>positively charged edges negatively charged faces Clay Particle with Net negative Charge The clay particle derives its net negative charge from the isomorphous substitution and broken bonds at the boundaries. + + + + + + + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  11. 20. Mineral Specific surface (m 2 /g) C.E.C (meq/100g) Kaolinite 10-20 3-10 Illite 80-100 20-30 Montmorillonite 800 80-120 Chlorite 80 20-30
  12. 21. <ul><li>Amongst the big number of minerals, clays have very useful characteristics for textile applications </li></ul><ul><li>Some clay-classifications: </li></ul><ul><li>Kaolin (Aluminium: “China clay”) </li></ul><ul><li>Semectite (Aluminium + Magnesium) </li></ul><ul><li>Hormite (more Iron) </li></ul><ul><li>Some exceptional properties of clay: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thickening agents in paints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and dirt absorber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorber of inks in e.g. paper industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide bleaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Softening agents in household products </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 22. <ul><li>In water the clay particles are anionic charged and show a large adsorption effect for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic waxes and oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal ions (cation exchange capacity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic materials and polymers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 23. <ul><li>Nature –Bentonite </li></ul><ul><li>Cat litters </li></ul><ul><li>Agro industry </li></ul><ul><li>Civil industry </li></ul><ul><li>Beverage refinery industry </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline activation </li></ul><ul><li>(With soda ash) </li></ul><ul><li>Foundry industry </li></ul><ul><li>Civil & drilling industry </li></ul><ul><li>Detergent, paper, textile industry </li></ul><ul><li>Beverage refinery industry </li></ul><ul><li>Rheological additive industry </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic activation </li></ul><ul><li>(with HCl / H 2 SO 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Food industry </li></ul><ul><li>Paper industry </li></ul><ul><li>Beverage refinery industry </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Organic activation </li></ul><ul><li>(With organic cation subst) </li></ul><ul><li>Pigment & paint industry </li></ul><ul><li>Sealing industry </li></ul><ul><li>Fat lubricant industry </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetic industry </li></ul>
  15. 24. <ul><li>All these classes (and many sub-classes) have different characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this different special industrial applications e.g. paper coating </li></ul><ul><li>In the past clays were used by Indian and Egyptian women to clean and smoothen their faces and to shampoo their hair. Clay masks and still popular! </li></ul><ul><li>The clay structure is based on sheets </li></ul><ul><li>By separating these sheets e.g. by stirring, a very big surface is created </li></ul><ul><li>This surface (till 800 M 2 per gram) makes it possible to absorb all kind of components like dirt, oil, greases etc. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives an unique detergency effect </li></ul>
  16. 25. <ul><ul><li>The most widely known mineral in the textile industry is sodium silicate as a mineral stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide bleaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L.N.’s challenge: look for other minerals with the good properties of sodium silicate and with success!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay minerals have been selected on the specific characteristics and formulated in new auxiliaries for the textile industry </li></ul></ul>
  17. 26. <ul><li>NaOH </li></ul><ul><li>Gives irreversible yellowing to cotton due to high alkaline </li></ul><ul><li>High COD amount in waste water </li></ul><ul><li>Water glass </li></ul><ul><li>Salt reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to look for effective conventional auxiliaries </li></ul><ul><li>Building deposits on the fabric and machineries </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Builder </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological problem </li></ul><ul><li>Effective depend on the degree of water hardness and heavy metal contamination on the raw materials </li></ul>
  18. 27. <ul><li>Adsorption of strong metal contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Organic complex builder fully or partially </li></ul><ul><li>to be substituted </li></ul><ul><li>Water glass fully or partially to be </li></ul><ul><li>substituted </li></ul>
  19. 28. <ul><li>In hydrogen peroxide bleaching, </li></ul><ul><li>both continuously and </li></ul><ul><li>discontinuously </li></ul><ul><li>In continuous desizing of </li></ul><ul><li>synthetics </li></ul><ul><li>In post scouring reactive dyed </li></ul><ul><li>and printed cellulosics </li></ul>
  20. 29. <ul><ul><li>One of the new applications for claysis as a one-shot product for the discontinuous bleaching applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is based on this mineral technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A clay based multifunctional auxiliary for the discontinuous bleaching of cotton with hydrogen peroxide on jets, winches and overflows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescouring of PES/EL and PA/EL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative for the ecologically unfriendly hypochlorite bleach </li></ul></ul>
  21. 30. Clearly to see is that the silicon oil is not well emulsified . Altranol- GEO well disperse/emulsifies the silicon oil. 2g/l Altranol-GEO
  22. 31. <ul><li>Excellent hydrogen peroxide stabilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Unique wash performance </li></ul><ul><li>Good wetting out of the fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent lubrification properties </li></ul><ul><li>Low foaming; no defoamer required </li></ul><ul><li>Ecologically very friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Gives fabric a smooth handle </li></ul>
  23. 32. <ul><li>Altranol GEO allows almost 35% reduction in the BOD & COD levels in the wash effluent </li></ul><ul><li>Altranol GEO further reduces the COD/BOD levels by eliminating/reducing the need for additional auxiliaries in treatment baths i.e. wetting agents, chelating agents, surfactants, lubricants & defoamers. </li></ul><ul><li>The effluent of treated textiles is easily & readily treated by flocculating, precipitating or filtering the natural clays & its adsorbed /precipitated contaminants, which are removed by any standard separation technique like filtering etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The resultant effluent is significantly more environmentally acceptable than current effluents containing organic components & inorganic contaminants. </li></ul>
  24. 33. <ul><li>Altranol GEO, besides reducing pollution due to lower BOD & COD levels, also results in lower volatile organic chemicals (VOC’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Is an outstanding lubricating agent providing a softer hand for treated textile goods </li></ul><ul><li>Is non-foaming & extremely effective in removing processing oils & excess auxiliaries & other impurities from the substrates. Treated substrates are cleaner which improves dyeability & dye penetration resulting in increased colour yields of 10~30% </li></ul><ul><li>Is suitable for processing all textile materials i.e. all fibres, filament, yarns, fabric & all products made from them. They include textured & non textured filaments & yarns, woven, knitted or non-woven fabrics. </li></ul>
  25. 34. <ul><li>Excellent extracting effect to silicone or mineral oils from </li></ul><ul><li>elastane fibers when blended with cotton / polyamide / </li></ul><ul><li>polyester </li></ul><ul><li>Stabil whiteness degree with possibility of increasing </li></ul><ul><li>whiteness degree after every bleaching process </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of COD value in waste water </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy metals adsorption reduction of potential pin holes </li></ul><ul><li>problem </li></ul><ul><li>Softness effect on cotton fiber anti crease mark effect </li></ul>
  26. 35. <ul><li>Bleach for dyeing indication recipe: </li></ul><ul><li>95-98ºC during 20-30 minutes: </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 ml/l Altranol-GEO </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 g/l Caustic flakes </li></ul><ul><li>2-5 ml/l Hydrogen peroxide 35% </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralize peroxide with Quench-PN </li></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>Bleach for whites indication recipe: </li></ul><ul><li>1-3 ml/l Altranol-GEO </li></ul><ul><li>2-3, 5g/l Caustic flakes </li></ul><ul><li>6-10 ml/l Hydrogen peroxide 35% </li></ul><ul><li>X % Optical brightening agent </li></ul><ul><li>95-110ºC during 90-30 minutes </li></ul>
  28. 37. Some practical results: Cotton on winches 95ºC – 60 mins; Customer’s standard: LNCI Basic white : 84 85 Total white : 155 158 S-factor : 0.36 0.32
  29. 38. Practical results continued: Knitted Cotton/EL on Thie  jet Customer’s standard: LNCI Basic white : 72 77 Total white : 144 156 S-factor : 0.2 0.1
  30. 39. <ul><li>Other experiences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jig bleaching applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleaching of Cotton on X-cones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discontinuous bleaching of Linen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescour PA/EL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescour PES/EL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc………….. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 40. Clay technology for pretreatment of elastane fibres
  32. 41. <ul><li>elastane fibres (PolyUrethane filament fibres) are commonly used nowadays in all kind of knits and fabrics. </li></ul><ul><li>elastane fibres provide knits and fabrics stretch and retention effects. </li></ul><ul><li>elastane fibres are blended with all kind of other fibres like PA, PES, Wo and Co. </li></ul>
  33. 42. <ul><li>Articles can contain between 2 – 20% elastane fibres. </li></ul><ul><li>Articles can contain between 2 – 6% silicone oils. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the fibre blend this silicone oil, in combination with other fibre preparations (mineral oils, waxes, lubricants etc) could cause problems during further processing. </li></ul>
  34. 43. <ul><li>Insufficient elimination of silicon oils will cause problems during subsequent processes and/or dyeings: </li></ul><ul><li>- silicon spots and/or stripes on the material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- silicon deposits in the machine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- fumes and yellowing during thermofixation </li></ul><ul><li>Silicone oil on the elastane fibres is absolutely necessary to provide sufficient elasticity and avoid aging. </li></ul><ul><li>What is a safe way of processing elastane fibres ? </li></ul>
  35. 44. <ul><li>Altranol-ELB is a specially formulated clay in combination with special non – ionic surfactants. </li></ul><ul><li>The clay in Altranol-ELB is from the same origin as in Altranol-GEO </li></ul><ul><li>Altranol-ELB removes all superficial silicone oil, providing level dyeings, without totally removing the silicone oil. </li></ul><ul><li>A certain amount of residual silicone oil is required to guarantee durable elasticity and to avoid ageing of the elastane-fibre. </li></ul>
  36. 45. <ul><li>Very good wetting and scouring effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Level dyeings as Altranol-ELB levels out all irregular oil contents. </li></ul><ul><li>Residual silicone oil to protect the Elastane fibre in order to maintain durable elasticity and avoid ageing. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple to dispense and easy to handle. </li></ul><ul><li>Lubrication action due to the presence of clay . </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable on all fibre blends with Elastane fibres. </li></ul><ul><li>Non foaming. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological product (COD 560 mg O/g, BiAS 210 mg/g) </li></ul><ul><li>APEO free. </li></ul>
  37. 46. Soda ash pH 9-10 (1 g/l) Altranol- ELB 2 ml/l + 1 ml/l water 2-3 l/kg overflow 30°C Grey water 6-8 l/kg °C 30 30 80 80 80 60 40
  38. 47. 15 min @ 50°C Dyeing Refill and add Altranol-ELB 0.5 ml/l other dyeing auxiliaries dyestuffs Fill the machine and add Altranol-ELB 1–2 ml/l Soda ash 0.5 – 1 g/l Ratio 10:1
  39. 48. OFFICE ADDRESS :- 403, “Antariksh”, Makwana Road, Marol Naka, Andheri (E), Mumbai – 400 059 Tel.- 91- 22- 4221 6789 (30 Lines) 91- 22- 6692 4112 Fax -91-22- 2836 6434 FACTORY ADDRESS :- D- 14 /10, T.T.C. M.I.D.C Industrial area, Turbhe , P.O.K.U.Bazar, Navi Mumbai – 400 705 Tel.-91- 22- 4141 9899 (30 Lines) Fax -91- 22- 4141 9888 Email ID – ketan@lnchem.in [email_address]

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