Basalt & Granite
Igneous rocks
BASALT
o Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic)
rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic
lava exposed at or...
 Color:
 Basalt is usually grey to black in color, but rapidly weathers to brown or
rust-red due to oxidation of its maf...
Types of basalt rock
 Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and
poor in sodium.
 Alkali basalt is relatively po...
Metamorphism
Basalts are important rocks
within metamorphic belts, as they
can provide vital information on the
conditions...
Granite
Granite is a common type
of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock which is
granular and phaneritic in texture. This
rock...
GraniteGranite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures),
hard and tough, and therefore it has gained widespr...
Mineralogy of granite
 True granite according to modern petrologic convention contains
both plagioclase and alkali feldsp...
Weathering
 When granite and other
similar rocks weather, two
primary effects are seen.
On a large
scale, exfoliation
joi...
Sculpture and memorials
 In some areas granite is
used for gravestones
and memorials.
 Granite is a hard stone
and requi...
 Granite has been extensively used as a dimension
stone and as flooring tiles in public and
commercial buildings and monu...
Presentation prepared by
MUHAMMAD ADIL
MINING ENGINEERING ,
UET PESHAWAR.
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Igneous rocks.pptx adil

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presentation of igneous rocks prepared by MUHAMMAD ADIL MINING ENGINEER, UET PESHAWAR

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Igneous rocks.pptx adil

  1. 1. Basalt & Granite
  2. 2. Igneous rocks
  3. 3. BASALT o Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. o By definition, basalt is an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20% quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume, and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase.
  4. 4.  Color:  Basalt is usually grey to black in color, but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic (iron-rich) minerals into rust. Although usually characterized as "dark", basaltic rocks exhibit a wide range of shading due to regional geochemical processes; indeed some basalts are quite light colored.  Texture:  Basalt almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow, although it can sometimes be porphyritic, containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface, embedded in a finer-grained matrix.
  5. 5. Types of basalt rock  Tholeiitic basalt is relatively rich in silica and poor in sodium.  Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. It is silica-under saturated and may contain feldspathoids, alkali feldspar and phlogo pite.  Boninite is a high-magnesium form of basalt that is erupted generally in back-arc basins, distinguished by its low titanium content and trace element composition.
  6. 6. Metamorphism Basalts are important rocks within metamorphic belts, as they can provide vital information on the conditions of metamorphism within the belt. Various metamorphic facies are named after the mineral assemblages and rock types formed by subjecting basalts to the temperatures and pressures of the metamorphic event. Metamorphosed basalts are important hosts for a variety of hydrothermal ore deposits, including gold deposits, copper dep osits, volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits and others.
  7. 7. Granite Granite is a common type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. This rock consists mainly of quartz, mica, and feldspar. By definition, granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz by volume. Granite differs from granodiorite in that at least 35% of the feldspar in granite is alkali feldspar as opposed to plagioclase. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite is usually found in the continental plates of the Earth's crust.
  8. 8. GraniteGranite is nearly always massive (lacking internal structures), hard and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use as a construction stone. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa, and its viscosity near STP is 1019 Pa. Melting temperature is 1215 - 1260 °C. The word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a crystalline rock.
  9. 9. Mineralogy of granite  True granite according to modern petrologic convention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars.  When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali granite.  When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite; pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite.  A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite.  Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites.  The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability.
  10. 10. Weathering  When granite and other similar rocks weather, two primary effects are seen. On a large scale, exfoliation joints are produced as the granite weathers.  On a small scale, grus is formed as the minerals within the granite break apart.
  11. 11. Sculpture and memorials  In some areas granite is used for gravestones and memorials.  Granite is a hard stone and requires skill to carve by hand.  Until the early 18th century, in the Western world, granite could only be carved by hand tools with generally poor results.
  12. 12.  Granite has been extensively used as a dimension stone and as flooring tiles in public and commercial buildings and monuments.  Engineers have traditionally used polished granite surface plates to establish a plane of reference, since they are relatively impervious and inflexible.
  13. 13. Presentation prepared by MUHAMMAD ADIL MINING ENGINEERING , UET PESHAWAR.

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