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  1. 1. Contact:MR. FAROOQ KHAN,Address: Board of Intermediate & SecondaryEducation Market, Shop # 2, UmairComposing Center, University Road,Peshawar, PakistanCell#: +923219029706
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: An abortion is the process of ending apregnancy so that it does not result inthe birth of a baby. It can bespontaneous or by induction before the24thweeks of pregnancy.No. 1
  3. 3. Conti… Between 10 and 15% of all pregnanciesterminates as spontaneous abortion,and further 10 to 60% are terminated byan induced (either legal or criminalabortion).No. 2
  4. 4. Conti… Around 13% of material deaths are dueto abortion 95% of these occur indeveloping countries, nearly ½ of thesein Asia (WHO) 11.12% of maternal deathin Pakistan. These includesspontaneous and induced abortion.No. 3(Chohan, 2005)
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES:At the end of this presentation the learnerwill be able to: Define abortion Explain the causes of abreaction Discuss the Sign & symptoms of abortion Explain the Treatment and role ofmidwife.No. 4
  6. 6. DEFINITION:Expulsion of the fetus from the uterusbefore 20-22 weeks of pregnancy.Medical dictionary, 2004)No. 5
  7. 7. There are two main types ofabortion.♣ Spontaneous abortion♣ Induced abortionTYPES:(Bennett, 2003)No. 6
  8. 8.  Further types of spontaneous & inducedabortionABORTIONSpontaneous InducedThreatenedMissedBlood moleInevitableIncomplete CompleteCriminalSepticNo. 7
  9. 9. ♣ Drugs♣ Smoking♣ Nutrition deficiency♣ Chromosomal abnormality♣ Maternal age below 18 years above upto 40 years.CAUSES(Bennett, 2003)No. 8
  10. 10. SIGN & SYMPTOMSNo. 9Inevitableabortion Dilated cervixUteruscorresponds todateTender uterus Lower Abdominal painNo expulsion ofproducts of conceptionSepticabortionAbdominaltendersTender, softuterus. Foul smellingvaginal dischargebleedingMay or may not givehistory of passingproducts of conceptionLower abdominal pain
  11. 11. Conti…No. 10Threatened abortionUterus softer thennormal Closed cervixLower abdominalpainIncomplete abortion Dilated cervixUterus smaller thendate cramping/lowerabdominal pain partial expulsionof products ofconception
  12. 12. Conti…No. 11CompleteabortionClosed cervixUterus softer thennormal uterus smaller thendatesLight lowerabdominal painExpulsion ofproducts ofconceptionMissedabortionUterus smaller thendates Uterus softer thennormalClosed cervixLittler or nocramping no expulsion ofproducts ofconceptionShah, 2007
  13. 13. INVESTIGATIONNo. 12Complete abortion  HB% blood group R/h factor pelvic abdominalultrasound Taxo brucelaIn completeabortion Hb% blood group R/h factor Abdominal ultrasoundThreatenedabortion Hb% blood group R/h factor Ultrasound
  14. 14. Conti…(Chohan, 2005)No. 13Septic abortion Hb% blood group ultrasoundVaginal swab (H VS)Blood cultureMissed abortion R/h factor Hb% blood groupHabitual u/s Rlh factorHb%
  15. 15. Missed Abortion: If the uterine size is less then 12 weeksits contents should be evaluated byusing the vacuum sucker apparatus. If the uterine is larger then 12 weeksinduction with the power full medicationTREATMENT AND NURSINGCARENo. 14
  16. 16. Threatened Abortion: If a women have bleeding, be it bright ofdark blood. After five to seven days inbed. She should be carefully assessed, ifthe cervix is closed and pregnancy test ifpost return to a quite sedentary life.Hormone treatment is use allConti…No. 15
  17. 17. Incomplete Abortion: Blood Arrangement Prepare for drugs Piece of placenta tissue stuck in thecervix is caused of shock. This should beremoved carefully.Conti…No. 16
  18. 18. Habitual Abortion: The shirodkar stich Suturing the cervix from 38 weeksSeptic Abortion: Take a vaginal swab fro blood culturesent after examination.Conti…No. 17(Chohan, 2005)
  19. 19. An abortion is the process ofending a pregnancy so it does not resultin the birth of a baby. It can bespontaneous or by induction before the24th weeks of pregnancy. Between 10and 15% of all pregnancies terminates asNo. 18
  20. 20. spontaneous abortion, and a further 10-60% are terminated by an induced (eitherlegal or criminal) abortion. Abortion,occure due to maternal causes and fetalcauses.No. 19
  21. 21. REFERENCES R.Ruth Bennett (2003) “MylesTextbook for Midwives” 3rdedition,London. Dr. Muhammad Arshad Chohan(2005) “Fundamentals of Obstetrics” 2ndedition UK. Shah. Y (2007), Abortion and essential,New born care” http://www.medicationdictionary,2004 http://www.Ebook.com http://www.google.com No. 20