Building Digital BridgesDavid HarrisonPresentation to the Auckland Revit User Group15th February 2012
What will I cover?•   Enabling more effective digital collaboration.•   Collaboration challenges & Building Stories.•   Di...
Who am I?•   BArch and PhD in Architecture from VUW.•   Started I.T. consulting and software development    business in 20...
How is this relevant to you? •   Revit is a means to an end. •   The digital model is an island in a sea     of relationsh...
Goal: Google Googles       for architects                                              www.google.comWhat is the state and...
Why? “Betterer” digital    collaborationTo make sense of the design information digitally storedwithin email, images, CAD,...
Thesis aim:To promote moreeffective collaborationby improving access totimely and relevantproject information
collaboration requires a more pragmatic approach, that appropriately applies cooperation,  coordination and collaboration ...
Architecture projects are unique  and complex environments                  www.onemansblog.com
Project teams exist within a    segmented industry
Participants do not understandthe justification behind decisions                www.graphicdesignblog.org
Time extremes restrict and                     erode knowledgeFigure 3.5: The e ort/time relationship between BIM and trad...
example, the students developed this understanding during the second half of the       semester in conjunction with member...
process. This circular pattern “means that there is no clear segregation between imaging,    presenting and testing, but a...
What changes did thedigital migration bring?•   Boundless information transfer•   The overcoming of geographic and organis...
Problem: Coping with the influxof information within a vacuum •   Information density     It is easier to send everything t...
Problem: Inconsistent industryadoption and digital fragmentation    Figure 3.9: The digital fragmentation caused by the te...
The trend towardsBuilding Information Modelling
Today what isn’t BIM?•   BIM can be product•   BIM can be a delivery process•   BIM can be an attitude to information    ....
BIM is a Revolution
BIM is an EvolutionFigure 3.6: The adoption of BIM within projects(As found in: Young, Jones & Bernstein, 2007, p. 11)A re...
BIM is just Marketing“After a bit of jawboning with Bentley’smarketing folks, I got their agreement to use BIMas the top-l...
BIM software archetypes •   BIM on the desktop     Revit, ArchiCAD, etc. •   BIM within the team     Revit Worksets, linke...
Problem: BIM complexity  reduces participation            www.funny-pictures-blog.com
Problem: Rigid centralisation     filters information
Problem: Virtual accuracyconfuses practical reality            www.amazingdata.com
within a project information cloud can be analysed using the concept of PageRank (Page,     Brin, Motwani & Winograd, 1998...
and hyperlinks to relevant digital messages and resources within the cloud. This process of    highlighting digital artefa...
Getting there from here?•   There is no simple or single answer.•   It is a multi-faceted problem, with information,    pr...
Use the principles of the Web      as a foundation                 www.telegraph.co.uk
Situational awarenessDigital collaboration tools should integrate into the surroundingenvironment, so that changes that ma...
UbiquityThe digital collaboration environment should be based oncommonly used processes and technologies, so that any team...
ComprehensionAll team members should be capable of understanding thepurpose, implementation and operation of the project’s...
Context sensitivityDigital collaboration tools should understand and reflect theorganisation and current state of the proj...
Emulative modularityThe recording and recalling of the design process should notdepend on a specific technology or party. ...
Emotive semanticsThe digital collaboration environment should not dictate thesemantic system used to record or reflect upo...
DecentralisationThe digital collaboration environment should respect the team’sdistributed nature and broad requirements, ...
Validating the principles•   Need to demonstrate that a digital collaboration tool    that embodies these principles promo...
Reasonate•   A software prototype that embodied the principles of    Hyperlinked Practice.•   Made predictions on collabor...
functionality struggled to gain traction. Students had little content to publish during thefirst week of testing, but by t...
dy_j_initi                                                                                                                ...
Thought experiments•   Applied and discussed the principles to two    emerging communication technologies:    Social netwo...
These tests demonstrated that the principles are useful for:•   Guiding the development of new and existing digital    col...
Where to next? A project aggregator                                                                 Timeline              ...
You can wake up now...•   Thesis download:    http://stress-free.co.nz/files/thesis.pdf•   Twitter:    @triptechnz or @dha...
Auckland RUG - Building Digital Bridges
Auckland RUG - Building Digital Bridges
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A presentation I gave to the Auckland Revit Users Group on my PhD research into improving digital architectural collaboration. The presentation summarises the key topics within my thesis Building Digital Bridges thesis.

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Auckland RUG - Building Digital Bridges

  1. 1. Building Digital BridgesDavid HarrisonPresentation to the Auckland Revit User Group15th February 2012
  2. 2. What will I cover?• Enabling more effective digital collaboration.• Collaboration challenges & Building Stories.• Digital impediments to effective collaboration.• BIM solves everything right?• Project Information Clouds - Learning from the Web.• The Principles of Hyperlinked Practice.• Testing the Principles.• Looking ahead.
  3. 3. Who am I?• BArch and PhD in Architecture from VUW.• Started I.T. consulting and software development business in 2003.• In 2011 Kerry, Alex and I founded Triptech.• Our goal is to provide great I.T. advice and services within the NZ building industry.
  4. 4. How is this relevant to you? • Revit is a means to an end. • The digital model is an island in a sea of relationships and design issues. • If bored ponder this: How are Revit’s subscription costs influencing your company’s overall digital collaboration strategy (if you have one)?
  5. 5. Goal: Google Googles for architects www.google.comWhat is the state and design history of this part of the building?
  6. 6. Why? “Betterer” digital collaborationTo make sense of the design information digitally storedwithin email, images, CAD, BIM, documents, etc.
  7. 7. Thesis aim:To promote moreeffective collaborationby improving access totimely and relevantproject information
  8. 8. collaboration requires a more pragmatic approach, that appropriately applies cooperation, coordination and collaboration to move the project forward and resolve design issues.Why is collaboration a problem? Figure 2.1: Diagram illustrating the hypothetical bene t of cooperation, coordination and collaboration to architectural decision making and the e ort required to achieve High Effort to achieve Collaboration Coordination Cooperation Low High Benefit to architectural decision making Figure 2.1 illustrates the theoretical effort required to achieve the three different forms of architectural collaboration, and the implied benefit to the decision making process. For the
  9. 9. Architecture projects are unique and complex environments www.onemansblog.com
  10. 10. Project teams exist within a segmented industry
  11. 11. Participants do not understandthe justification behind decisions www.graphicdesignblog.org
  12. 12. Time extremes restrict and erode knowledgeFigure 3.5: The e ort/time relationship between BIM and traditional digital modellingmethods, relative to the cost of design changes (As found in: MacLeamy, 2010) Cost of design changes Effort BIM Traditional Ability to control cost Prog Design Development Documentation Construction Time3.2.3. BIM in Practice
  13. 13. example, the students developed this understanding during the second half of the semester in conjunction with members of the project team. Idea: Building Stories can • Recalling - The overall Building Story, which includes its component events, activities and artefacts, is presented to relevant parties in a manner that can be easilyimprove access to timely and consumed. In the academic example, the students published their compiled Building Stories to a public website where anyone with an internet connection could access it. relevant informationFigure 4.1: The four phases of Building Story construction and utilisation Recording Reflecting Rendering Recalling Context Context Events Context Events Story Story Story Participants create and share Appreciate the overall process Identify significant events Expose to relevant parties in order the activities and artefacts and the context of the project to flesh out in more detail to improve collective understandingFor the purposes of simplicity and completeness Heylighen, Martin and Cavallin
  14. 14. process. This circular pattern “means that there is no clear segregation between imaging, presenting and testing, but a significant relationship in which each depends on the other” (Schneider & Petzold, 2009, p. 207). Communication patterns which break these Why? Building Stories relationships harm the design process. The Building Story’s use of artefacts (imaging), activities (presenting) and events (testing) reinforces this circular pattern (see Figure 2.5), which leads to a more consistent, and therefore effective, collaborative design process.reinforce the design process Figure 2.5: Design as a circular process and its relationship to the events, activities and artefacts within a Building Story (Based on diagram in: Schneider & Petzold, 2009, p. 206) Activities (Imaging) Design Task Experience Thoughts & Ideas Perception Events (Testing) Artifacts Design Tools Artifacts (Presenting) 33
  15. 15. What changes did thedigital migration bring?• Boundless information transfer• The overcoming of geographic and organisational boundaries• Virtually free communication• More frequent interactions within the team
  16. 16. Problem: Coping with the influxof information within a vacuum • Information density It is easier to send everything than what is needed • Digital overload An email has no perceived cost • Distance Trust and understanding is difficult to foster “virtually”
  17. 17. Problem: Inconsistent industryadoption and digital fragmentation Figure 3.9: The digital fragmentation caused by the technologies used within the project team (As found in: Björk, 1995, p. 11) Healing this digital fragmentation will require a new, more permeable layer of information,
  18. 18. The trend towardsBuilding Information Modelling
  19. 19. Today what isn’t BIM?• BIM can be product• BIM can be a delivery process• BIM can be an attitude to information ...so is a neat stack of pencil drawings BIM?
  20. 20. BIM is a Revolution
  21. 21. BIM is an EvolutionFigure 3.6: The adoption of BIM within projects(As found in: Young, Jones & Bernstein, 2007, p. 11)A recent Erabuild survey found that “BIM is used in around 20% of projects for architects
  22. 22. BIM is just Marketing“After a bit of jawboning with Bentley’smarketing folks, I got their agreement to use BIMas the top-level descriptive term for their latestdesign software. With Bentley and Autodesk bothhumming the BIM tune, we’ve covered well over80% of the USA market At an 80% tipping point,the dominos should fall into place for the rest ofthe market.” Jerry Laiserin, 2002
  23. 23. BIM software archetypes • BIM on the desktop Revit, ArchiCAD, etc. • BIM within the team Revit Worksets, linked drawings • BIM on the server BIMServer, Graphisoft BIM Server • ...BIM in the “Cloud”? Do two buzzwords make a right?
  24. 24. Problem: BIM complexity reduces participation www.funny-pictures-blog.com
  25. 25. Problem: Rigid centralisation filters information
  26. 26. Problem: Virtual accuracyconfuses practical reality www.amazingdata.com
  27. 27. within a project information cloud can be analysed using the concept of PageRank (Page, Brin, Motwani & Winograd, 1998) to identify significant digital messages and resources. This significance is based on how many hyperlinks within the project information cloudIdea: Evolve our important role during the designof project perception process. link to a digital message or resource. Thus, if a large number of hyperlinks point to an artefact, it is likely to have played aninformation to be more like the Web... Figure 4.2: The distributed nature of a project’s information cloud Organisation Organisation Organisation 75
  28. 28. and hyperlinks to relevant digital messages and resources within the cloud. This process of highlighting digital artefacts within the project’s information cloud is illustrated in Figure 4.3. Wikis have been shown to be ideally suited to this task, because they allow the..then wetocan constructoverview of a design-related event interested parties collectively craft a comprehensive Building Stories within Project Information Clouds (Burry, Burrow, Amor & Burry, 2005). Figure 4.3: Constructing a Building Story event within a project’s information cloud Event Building Story Design information Images and documents Digital messages Email and other messaging Services Digital models BIM and CAD Architectural Documentation PDF and DWF Project timeline 4.2.3. The need for fundamental principles of Hyperlinked Practice
  29. 29. Getting there from here?• There is no simple or single answer.• It is a multi-faceted problem, with information, process, legal and industry barriers to overcome.• For my thesis I identified and tested a set of principles that could guide technology decisions towards this goal.
  30. 30. Use the principles of the Web as a foundation www.telegraph.co.uk
  31. 31. Situational awarenessDigital collaboration tools should integrate into the surroundingenvironment, so that changes that may affect the project areautomatically recorded and presented to the team.
  32. 32. UbiquityThe digital collaboration environment should be based oncommonly used processes and technologies, so that any teammember may access or contribute to the project’s digital record.
  33. 33. ComprehensionAll team members should be capable of understanding thepurpose, implementation and operation of the project’s digitalcollaboration tools, so that they can appropriately use them inthe recording of the design process.
  34. 34. Context sensitivityDigital collaboration tools should understand and reflect theorganisation and current state of the project, so that teammembers are presented with information that is relevant to thedesign process and their role within it.
  35. 35. Emulative modularityThe recording and recalling of the design process should notdepend on a specific technology or party. Therefore, the digitalcollaboration environment should be capable of beingreproduced or extended by a third-party.
  36. 36. Emotive semanticsThe digital collaboration environment should not dictate thesemantic system used to record or reflect upon the designprocess. Instead, the team should be able to define avocabulary that reflects the uniqueness of each project.
  37. 37. DecentralisationThe digital collaboration environment should respect the team’sdistributed nature and broad requirements, by not demandingthat the design process be recorded in a location that is difficultto access, or controlled by a single party.
  38. 38. Validating the principles• Need to demonstrate that a digital collaboration tool that embodies these principles promotes access to timely and relevant information.• Two testing streams: The Reasonate software prototype, and thought experiments applied to emerging communication tools.
  39. 39. Reasonate• A software prototype that embodied the principles of Hyperlinked Practice.• Made predictions on collaboration behavior and compared these to recorded actions.• Tested the prototype within a Victoria University architectural computing class.
  40. 40. functionality struggled to gain traction. Students had little content to publish during thefirst week of testing, but by the third week the daily number of published posts had reacheda strong and relatively consistent level of approximately 16 per day (see Figure 8.10). The Test results were extensivelytagging functionality was tested by students when it was introduced, but as illustrated in analysed for patternsFigure 8.11, it did not achieve the same level of consistent use.Figure 8.10: The daily growth and running total of posts published to Reasonate 2000 200 Tutorial hand-in (20/3) Assignment 2 hand-in (1/6) 1750 175 Assignment 1 final hand-in (8/6) 1500 150 Growth in posts per day Build-up to Assignment Total number of posts 1 interim hand-in (15/5) 1250 125 1000 100 750 75 500 50 250 25 0 0 1/3 9/3 17/3 25/3 2/4 10/4 18/4 26/4 4/5 12/5 20/5 28/5 5/6 13/6 Date Total number of posts Growth in posts per day Average overall growthFigure 8.11: The daily growth and running total of tags created within Reasonate
  41. 41. dy_j_initi dy_m_m alrenderdy_j_caddy_initialFigure 8.22: The overall semantic structure formed by Reasonate users dy_originodelproc s _rendersdy_imag es dy_h_viz great dy_pland plans ess al not bad dy_h_re start ivision dy_powe nders dy_proje rpoint dy_h_pp progress ct notice standard dy_h_ca not_a_pr nothing first oject yet dy_refer s d meeting dy_project nothing ences dy_handi original standards plan progress final cad yet dy_rend n plans model confirma dy_pland model dy_m_m tion review ers plan ivision modeling odelproc ess review un_secti dy_finalr enders confirma planning modellin dy_final progress on dy_viz tion g model renders dy_final un_floor project_ un_rend autodesk model plans backing dy_viz_r modellin approval ering dwf planning curves rendering up enders render g1 s engines thoughts viewer dy_drea ideas 3ds file mweaver plans j_archica modellin 3d cad files problem d dy_corre dy_corre g final curves s sponden sponden modelling file j_autoca ce ce docume un_file d modellin un_interi question g images or ramps nt set-up dy_cad scorrespon modellin dy_basef j_revit un_buildi dwg dy_basef dence g ile ng form ile project seeking_ program collabora question modellin un_autoca cad kunst email from tor g d review un_wind benson + standard modelling imperial un_3ds cad files ows forsyth models house in war m_archic model_p models pregass museum ad site? no stairs un_webs roblems dy_cad cad ona 5th floor gallery m_autoc ite ad main architecture un_viz finished dy_j_cad tut : 3d exrecise gallery renders dy_h_ca initial model s villa m_revit modelling d movie tutorials autocad savoye un_un standard languag _tut e studio revit notice mullions m_viz tutorial museum un_secti autocad backing on tutorialmovie up deep_ex project renders revit_tut tutorial progress documentation ploration autodesk nice un_rend ering viz_tut useful dwf thoughts project 1 quicktim rivet rendering info viewer un_rend project_ ering e movie tutorial engines importin data spelling approval tutorials stupid topograp g exchange mistake feedback s un_rayfr tutorial duplicate hy un_3ds ont tutorial tutorial right_he ppt max un_lands mike error mispher e un_3ds cape donn import_p un_auto un_interi david sweet models roblem cad un_interi ramps or harrison dy_viz_r email from modellin light dy_refer un_buildiun_exter un_hdri m hand- enders dy_h_viz benson + how to bringing you mike g ng form ences un_file un_floor un_goog image in library with ior studio forsyth final build you in remove supervisor 3ds file finished renders set-up plans le earth lightstudi renders final things archicad problem original dy_origin autocad exterior o model s dy_powe plans al plans finished glazing tutorials dy_h_pp rpoint research revit dy_initial tip project_ m_viz 3ds finished _renders approval 3d un_floor tut : 3d speeding up dy_viz_r dy_rend dy_j_initi s powerpoint plans plans model savings in useful final enders ers glass glazing un_3ds studio viz_tut dy_handi n archicad info first renders alrender s max real dy_initial research render un_3ds viz powerpoi nt tutorial ppt picture hand in hand-in un_interi tests _renders dy_h_re un_wind personal problem m hand- hdri ows models nders website dy_drea s in link mweaver un_un hand-in un_viz viz site? studio autocad provision light dy_finalr renders acad reasonat blog al studio enders autocad renders e update interim edits tutorial modellin technora google acad interim_s g final lighting_ assignm ti website earth l interm mental ent website autocad system ray renders issues software _tut autocad update un_webs un_autocagoogle d lightstudi acad ite website modelling library import_p o renders webpage earth finished problem roblem helpun_goog autocad j_autoca d m_autoc ad server upgrade missing s parts archicad needed frustratio n mental ray rendering un_viz renders le earth model_p errors dy_imag roblems galleries un_secti es archicad assignm 3ds file radiosity on m_revit j_revit archicad_t tutorial archicad assignm ent 1a no stairs problem renders awsome ut library ent 2 images s image revit finished revit bringing you library with archicad assignm ent no problem website reflector un_rend ering image you in archicad assignm uploads issues thoughts revit archicad speeding up ent renders assignment viz render un_rend modellin g images un_hdri image revit j_archica out of rivet savings in problem ideas ering printscre d archicad phase1a scale tutorial s real screensh en renderin un_rayfr j_autoca m_archic assignm tutorial picture ot revit missing problem g renderin ont revit_tut d ad ent2 phase error un_hdri tutorial parts archicad 1a problem s question stupid duplicate g un_exter image 169 s engines renders ior renders
  42. 42. Thought experiments• Applied and discussed the principles to two emerging communication technologies: Social networking (Project Bluestreak) and micro-blogging (Twitter).• This led to discussions with Autodesk and a very good post (if I may say so myself): “Autodesk Beyond Desktop CAD & BIM” http://stress-free.co.nz/autodesk_beyond_desktop_cad_and_bim
  43. 43. These tests demonstrated that the principles are useful for:• Guiding the development of new and existing digital collaboration tools.• Improving decision making around digital collaboration strategy.
  44. 44. Where to next? A project aggregator Timeline ProjectArchitects Description Location, type MSG MSG MSG MSG MSG Client client@email.com Architects employee1@architect.com RPY RPY Connector employee2@architect.com Engineer employee@engineer.com MSG Consultant employee@consultant.com RPY RPY FWD MSG Contractor manager@contractor.com RPY RPY foreman@contractor.com Messages glazier@subcontractor.comContractors Connector People DWG DWG DWG DOC XLS Engineers JPG JPG JPG JPG DOC JPG JPG JPG JPG DOC JPG JPG Files Connector Project Concept Development Consent Construction Aggregator Brief Evaluation Tags Contracts Documentation Problem Client Wiki summary Comment Constraint: Messages between A+B Constraint: People C, D, E Comment Connector Constraint: Tagged F, G, H, I Comment Constraint: Files of type X Comment Comment Comment Building Stories
  45. 45. You can wake up now...• Thesis download: http://stress-free.co.nz/files/thesis.pdf• Twitter: @triptechnz or @dharrisonnz• If you would like to talk more contact us: http://triptech.net

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