Skillstreaming the Adolescent: New strategies and perspectives for teaching pro-social skills (Goldstein & McGinnis, 1997) is a research-validated approach to teaching pro-social skills.
REDESIGNING SOCIALSKILLS INSTRUCTIONBASED ON TWOINSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNTHEORIESV. Paige Hale, Ed.S.Morehead State Universityvphale@moreheadstate.edu
A Little Background on Myself…• Doctoral Student inEducational TechnologyLeadership at MoreheadState University• I have 6 years experience asa School Psychologist in theP-12 setting• I have both an M.S. andEd.S. in Educational
This topic: Why Now?Autism:According to a March 2012 report from theNational Institute of Mental Health (2012),autism now affects 1 in 88 children (1 in 54boys). These numbers are up 78% from 2002and 23% from 2006. Bullying & School Violence
What are social skills?Social Skills Training (SST):A form of behavior therapy used by teachers,therapists, and trainers to help persons whohave difficulties relating to other people.It is frequently conducted with students whohave emotional-behavioral disabilities orAutism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).Source: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Social-skills-training.html
The Skillstreaming CurriculumCreated by expertsin the field but notgrounded in solidinstructional designprinciples, or rootedin any particularISD theory or model
How is the content currentlytaught? Typically in a small group (3-5 students); In some cases, special education teachers and/orguidance counselors may deliver the instruction to anentire class (15-30 students); Role-playing and homework are essential componentsof the instruction; In addition to these general content features,skillstreaming sessions are taught using 9 specific,
Skillstreaming: The 9 Steps(Formulaic) Step 1: Define the Skill Step 2: Model the Skill Step 3: Establish Trainee (Student) Skill Need Step 4: Select Role-Player Step 5: Set Up the Role-Play Step 6: Conduct the Role-Play Step 7: Provide Performance Feedback Step 8: Assign Skill Homework Step 9: Select Next Role-Player
Theory #1: MultipleIntelligences Assumptions:The Criticality of “what to teach” and theconsiderable variability of “how to teachit”;Being able to deploy understanding(performance of understanding);Preparing students for valued adult roles.
Theory #1: MultipleIntelligences Assumptions, continued:Helping students to enhance their variousintelligences;Tailoring instruction to individualdifferences in students’ intelligences;An approach to instruction that is notformulaic.
Redesign Activities Instead of larger group role-playing,students may create computersimulations to act out the scenariosvisually (Spatial). Students could thengo through each others’ scenariosand provide feedback or brainstormalternative responses.
Redesign Activities For those who learn best throughartistic avenues (Aesthetic), studentsmay create and discuss social skillsscenarios by drawing comic strips or,when given a pre-drawn comic strip,fill in the appropriate dialogue.
Redesign Activities Students may also reflect on theirown personal as well as peers’ socialskills experiences by creatingcollages, poems, or songs (Musical).Additionally, students could createmnemonic devices or rhymes insteadof using the skills cards.
Redesign Activities Students could also watch clips frompopular television shows or musicvideos that demonstrate bothappropriate and undesirable socialskills and then discuss the pros/consand even possible create their ownresponse videos. This activity woulddraw on several learning stylesincluding: Spatial, Musical, and/or
Reflections on the redesign Each of these alternate instructionaldesigns allow the lessons to be tailoredto learning preferences of individualstudents. These redesigns implicitly acknowledgethat traditional role-playing, whenoverused, can become a cookie-cuttermethod that may not work equally well
Reflections on the redesign The alternate activities also serve thedual purpose of promoting greaterbuy-in, participation, and, ultimately,understanding by accessing multipleentry points.
Strengths/Weaknesses The redesigned curriculum may besomewhat less user friendly for thetrainer. The original, formulaicapproach allowed a practiced trainerto lead sessions efficiently andwithout extensive preparation.
Theory #2: Open LearningEnvironments AssumptionsPersonal Inquiry;Divergent thinking and multipleperspectives;Self-directed learning and learnerautonomy with metacognitive support.
Theory #2: Open LearningEnvironments Assumptions, continuedMediating learning through individualexperience and personal theories;Hands-on, concrete experiences involvingrealistic, relevant problems;Providing tools and resources (technologyscaffolding) to aide the learners’ effort atlearning.
Redesign Activities The trainer will assign small groups ofstudents to a computer program thatwould allow them to work together tocreate a mobile app. They could then putthe app on their phones and carry them asa prompt as they attempt to practice theirnew social skills in the real world. Thelearning would come from the discussionand subsequent problem-solving thestudents would participate in when
Redesign Activities The trainer could also assign students towork in small groups with the goal ofdrafting and ultimately creating a blogarticle or group wiki page. Student wouldbe free to engage in personal inquiry andgroup discussions related to the skill beingtaught. The trainer could work with othertrainers across the district and/or state toshare peers’ Web 2.0 creations and allowthe students to provide feedback for one
Reflections on the redesign The redesign would also introducevarious technology. The alternate activities serve the dualpurpose of promoting increased buy-in, personal ownership, participation,and greater understanding and use ofnewly-learned social skills.
Reflections on the redesign The redesign increases opportunities forself-direction, sharing of personalexperiences, engagement in personalinquiry, and formulating personal theories. These sample redesigns encouragedivergent thinking and the sharing ofmultiple perspectives.
OLEs: Strengths/Weaknesses Consider the student population and issuessuch as motivation. Are students required toreceive this instruction as part of aconsequence? If so, how might thatinfluence the goal of true, self-directedlearning? Students with social skills deficits related toASD or mild mental retardation may requireadditional metacognitive support.
Lessons Learned These sample redesigns are part of a largerseries of eight including several others prominenttheories from Reigeluth’s “Green Books”including: Collaborative Problem-Solving andAttitudinal Theory. This assignment allowed me to begin thinking likean instructional designer. I came to better understand that no theoreticalmodel has all of the answers or lends itself to alltypes of instruction.
Questions? Comments?? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ?Do not hesitate to contact me through Google+,Facebook, or by email: firstname.lastname@example.org
ReferencesGardner, H. (1997). Multiple approaches to understanding. In Instructional-designtheories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (pp. 69-89).Mahwah,NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Goldstein, A. P., & McGinnis, E. (1997). Skillstreaming the adolescent: Newstrategies andperspectives for teaching pro-social skills. Champlain, IL: Research Press.Hannafin, M., Land, S., & Oliver, K. (1999). Open learning environment:Foundations,methods, and models. In Instructional-design theories and models: A newparadigm ofinstructional theory (pp. 115-140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumAssociates, Inc.National Institute for Mental Health. (2012). Autism prevalence: More affectedor more