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Paige Wise


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Paige Wise

  2. 2. BIPEDAL MOVEMENT walk on 2, instead of 4 upright bipedal walking is a habitual and obligatory form of transportation Ardipithecus and Australopithecus
  3. 3. PARTS OF THE BODY Neck, Skull, Rib Cage, Pelvis, and Limbs Rib Cage - cone-like shape Pelvis - basin-like shape Lower Limbs - lengthen and angle inward Major structures are all stack on top of each other, supporting the next feature up
  4. 4. HOW DOES IT WORK? Each step shifts body wait from one foot to the other Both feet are on the ground only 25% of the time Knees bend to keep balance Upper body weight must remain stable over pelvis
  5. 5. FORAMEN MAGNUM Apes - angled backward Humans - located beneath the skull to balance head and hold upright
  6. 6. SPINE Apes - have no lumbar curve to pull upper body back over pelvis Humans - Additional lumbar curve that positions body inward, over pelvis
  7. 7. FEMUR Apes - straight, rotate pelvis to side with every step Humans - angles inward so that weight is supported at the midline long, increasing stride length for efficient walking
  8. 8. KNEE Apes - more mobile knee (climbing) more rotation Humans - stable during walking, reduction of rotation
  9. 9. FOOT Ape - big toe is divergent (grasp branches) transverse arch Humans - big toe is enlarged, lined up with other toes, giving balance two arches
  10. 10. HOMINIDS
  11. 11. ARDIPITHECUS RAMIDUS 4.4 million years East Africa, Woodland forest Foramen magnum positioned forward under skull Arms - ape features Long, curved finger bones
  12. 12. AUSTRALOPITECUS BOISEI 2.3 - 1.2 million years East Africa, Savanna Woodland Brain Size (410 - 530 cm sq.) Robust chewing forces, including teeth and jaw Femur angles in placing knee over foot
  13. 13. HOMO SAPIENS 100,000 years - present Large brain size (1000-1700 cm 3) Small, generalized teeth Modern body proportions Fully bipedal anatomy