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Power point aba

  1. 1. Efficacy of Applied Behavior Analysis for Children with ASD.<br />
  2. 2. Autism<br />Autism is a psychological disorder also known as a pervasive developmental disorder that develops in early childhood and is unique to each child. According to the DSM- IV-TR, to receive a diagnosis, impairment in particular areas of development must be present. First a qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction, following impairment in communication, as well as restrictive repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest, activities, prior to the age of three(Dumas& Nilsen, 2003 ).<br />
  3. 3. ABA<br />Applied Behavioral Analysis can be defined as, “The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.”(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007,p.16). <br />
  4. 4. Early InterventionResearch<br />Lovaas (1987) hypothesized that providing an intensive and individual learning environment would allow a child with autism to catch up to their typically developing peers by the time they entered first grade. This hypothesis was developed on the basis that typically developing children learn from their natural environment.<br />Prior research indicates that behavioral treatment can make positive gains in building complex behaviors and language development while suppressing self stimulatory behaviors (Lovaas et al., 1973). <br />
  5. 5. Lovaas<br />Lovaas (1987) believed that early intervention would be necessary because younger children would be less likely to discriminate between environments, thus being able to generalize information across environments and people while maintaining that knowledge base. In turn he found intensive behavioral treatment to be statistically significant.<br />Lovaas (1987) research indicated that forty seven percent of those experimentally treated children achieved both normal intellectual and educational functioning by the end of this three year study!<br />
  6. 6. Lovass continued….<br />Kanner (1943) defined autism with an additional criterion, that being potential for normal intelligence(Lovaas, et.,al, 1987).<br />AUTISM SPEAKS<br />
  7. 7. ABA and EIS<br />Howard,. Et al, (2005) examined the efficacy of applied behavioral analysis versus an elective approach for early intervention.<br />Previous findings suggested that treatment that is provided directly to the child is both intensive and long in duration is most effective (Ramey& Ramey, 1998). <br />
  8. 8. ABA and EIS<br />Further research suggest behavioral analytic models are sound in regard to evidence based practice. Green (1996) and Smith (1999) found that; “standardized test data indicated that cognitive functioning language skills, and academic performance approached or exceeded normal levels for children who received at least two years of behavioral analytic treatment” (Howard., et. al, 2005,p.3).<br /> This study reported that children who received intensive behavioral treatment for just a period of fourteen months outperformed children who received elective treatment such as floor time or TEACH models. (Howard., et., al, 2005). <br />
  9. 9. ABA and Families<br />autism affects not only the child, but the entire family. Therefore it is important to examine ABA treatment as if affects a family on the whole. <br />Previous research indicated that parents whose children had received ABA therapy reported less stress than parents of children who did not. (Howard, et.al, 2005). Hastings (2003) study found, parents as well as siblings, indicated less stress on themselves when their family member was receiving intensive behavioral analytic treatment. <br />
  10. 10. SUMMARY <br />This slide show examined three separate research studies regarding the efficacy of Applied Behavioral Analysis as a means for early intervention for children with autism as well as their families. <br />These findings suggest that not only is applied behavioral analysis evidence based practice, but when paired with longer duration and intensity a child can thrive.<br />In addition, when examined with other models of treatment ABA appears most effective, for both children and families. <br /> <br />