JDROME ROTH(State No. 15948
jONATHANll. BLnVIN (Srate No.230269)
Plainti1ll,inkedln Corporation("Linkedln" or "Plainti1l'), by and through its attorneys,


Docs I -10 (collcctivcly,...

piltbrirg data liom thc Linkedln sitc. the Doe l)efcrda[ts tlucatenlo degrade valueof

2 Linkcdln's ltccruitcr prod...


During all rclgvan!times, thc Doe Dclendants
havc repcatedly,
knowingly, and

2 intcDtionallyacc€ssed
Linkcdln's s...

producti!e and succcssful. Linkedln's broadcrvision is 10creatccconomicopportunilyfor cvery

2 member
ofthc globalworkf...


l,inkedln's lJserAgleemcnt cxplainsthat membcrsare grantcda limitcd and

with the teflns ofthe Uscr Agrecmcnl.


Corporaterecruitcrsand headhunters
Linkcdln Rccruitermembcrships

2 ordcr to searchlbr prospcctivecand...

words or text irrelegiblc to a rcal pcrson ancilamiliar to thosepurchasing

2 concertdckcls, lbr instan...


At the samctime, thc l)oc Del'cndallts
also circumvertedthe UCV systetn using

2 autornated

applications.AmazonEC2 providesresizable
computingcapacity. fhis fcatureallor'susersk)

2 quickly scalecapacity,both up...

goodwill and trust,
also will suffcr ongoingand irreparablc
hann to the valuc ofils consumer

2 *.hich Linkedln haswork...


On information belief,affcrgaining
acc€ss Linkcdln's

2 computers scruers, DoeDcfcndarls

including wrongfully
Code$ 502(cXl)
suchdata,in violationofCal. Pcnal

2 &(2).


lhc Doe D...

safcguards and gajncdunauthorized
access i,inkedln's copyrightcdrlaterials, including

2 wilhoutlimitation copyr...

crawl, or useother automated
tcchnologyor softuarc to gain access
amongothcr things, scrape,

2 the Linke...


'l he Doe Defcndanls'unauthorizgd
with and access l-inkcdln, its

2 wcbsite,computcrsystems, its s...


injury,andits remedy
Linkcdlnhassuffered will continue sufcr ineparablc

2 at la$'is not itselfadequate com...
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  1. 1. NJ J 2 3 4 5 Bar 3) C. JDROME ROTH(State No. 15948 jerome.roth@mto.com jONATHANll. BLnVIN (Srate No.230269) Brr ionathan.bLdvin@m1o.com Bar l,AIJRAK. Lin (Stotc No.2815,12) laura.lin(drlto.oom LLP TOt,T,ES OI.SON & MlJNCER. 560MissionStreet Floor Twcnty-Seventh California 94105-2907 SanFrancisco, ' l c l e p ho n c: (4 1 5 )5 l 2 -4 0 0 0 l a c s i mi l c: (4 1 5 )5 1 2 -4 0 7 7 ,{ !:, : : /. 4F Atbmcys for LinlicdlnCorporation 8 9 DISI'I{ICTCoTJ[tl' UNITEDS'I'A1'I'S t0 OF DIS'I]I.IC'I' CAI-IFOItNIN NORI'IIIJITN ll Corporirlion, 1 2 Linl(cdln l3 l'h intill'. t4 t5 l6 17 t8 Ilhrough incltrsivc, Dckncliurts. ITRT, gq/ fl4 CI$ ffis No. Case I,'ot': Cornpl:rint (l) vloLAl'roN olt 1'llEcoMPtll'ltl{ AC'l', l;-s.c. lli ANDAllIJSE I,-llAUD Qti1030li'f S[Q.i (2)VlOl,A't'toN ol' cALll'ol{NlA I'ENAL COr)ll S 502; (3'IVIOI,Al'ION 0F THN I)I(;I1'AI, MILLENNIUM coPYRIGHT Ac'r, l7 nT u.s.c. r20r strQ.; $$ (4) I}REACII 0I.' CONTILdCT; (5)TRIiSPASS; ANI) (6) MISAPPIIOPIiIATION l9 2A 21 22 23 24 25 26 21 28 COMPLAINT
  2. 2. Plainti1ll,inkedln Corporation("Linkedln" or "Plainti1l'), by and through its attorneys, I for Docs I -10 (collcctivcly,the "Doe Dcfendants") 2 bringsthis ComplainragainslDcfendants 3 injunctive rcliefand danragcs.Linkcdln allegcsas follows: 4 1. ith morcthan259 nillion proiessional net,olk Linkedlnis lhc world'slargest jn Is snd the 5 nremhcrs over200 corrntrics tcfiibfics ruound globc. Linkedlns li.sston to connect to 6 thc worlcl'sprofessionals rnakcthem more prodtlctiveand succcssful.l hroughits proprictary historicsand tnd 7 platlbrm. Litrkedlnallows ils nrcmbctsto ctcale,manage sh:trethcir professional fcoruitcrs allcl l,inkedlnprovides valuable scrviccs corporate lo 8 intcrcsts online. in addition. nrenrbcrs pfoducl, arrongLinkcclln's with 'hichallowsthcmto idcntil.v hcadhunters its Itecfuiler who crcate t 0 top candidatcs opcnposilions. thehcarlof Linkcdln'spliltlbnnarc ils nlcmbcrs, lbr At lt by prolilcstha(scrvcils thcir prollssionllonlirrcidentitics arcaoccssiblc any othcrtrrcnlbcr. and t2 2. various irlllomatod cnrployirlg SinccMay 2013.unknown pctsons aud/ofontitics of (ollcrrrolercclto as"bots")havorcgistcrcd thousands lirkcLinkcdln l 3 soliwarcprrrg|ams t 4 mcDrbor accounlsand havccxlrtctcd and copieddilt fronr nlany Incnrbcrprolilc pagcs. I his t 5 pr itcticc,knownnsdata'scrapin g . " is c x p lic it ly lx t rrc d b y l, in k c (lllr' s I J s c r, A ! , ,0 c n 1 e n l , w h i c h or ol prohilljts "lhroughscfapirrg, spiclcring. ofawling olhcr tcohnology acocss Linl(cdln to r.rsccl acccss wlittenconscnl Linkcdlnor its Mclnbcrc." ol t ' 7 sottwarc kr datawithouttheexprcss l13 l. Thc Doc l)clindrnts knowirgly and intclti(nally havcbrcachcdthis and othcr to ancl in tlscr AgrecmcDt !hichthcy agrced abidcby irr l 9 acccss usclcslrictions Lirrkedln's pfotcclion barriors crnploycd tcchl]ical 2 0 regislering theiraooounls andh[vc circunvcnted variorrs thc 2 1 by Linkccll[. lnsodoing,theyhavcviolatcd arrayoflldcral andskltclawi-.inclltding an Penal Code 22 Cornputer Fraud andAbuseAcl, l8 U.S.C.{ 1030, scq.(the"Cl;AA"), Calilbrnia et "DMCA"), 2 3 $ 502et scq., and the l)igitalMillenniunr Copyright Act, l7 U.S.C.! 1201ct seq.(1hc 24 and havc engaged unluwftrlactsof hreachof contract,fiisappropriation,arrdtrespass. in 25 4. The l)oe Dcfendants'unla$'ful conductthreatens t-inkcdlr platform in scveral the 26 ways. [t undcrmincs irtegrity and elfectivcness the ofLinkedln's protcssionalnelwork by 2 1 polluting it dth thousands iake mcinberprofiles- The world's prol'essionals of utilizc Linkedln 2u {'ilh the cxpectation that ils colltenlsarc accurate and its uscrprofiles lcgitimale. Morcover,by -t COMPI.AINT
  3. 3. I piltbrirg data liom thc Linkedln sitc. the Doe l)efcrda[ts tlucatenlo degrade valueof the 2 Linkcdln's ltccruitcr product,in which I-inkcdln hasinveslcdsubstantially over the ]cars. 3 l,inke<ilnalso hassullbred additionalharrnsas a resuitofthc Doc Dcfendants'aclivitics, 4 inchlding,bul not limitcd to, incrcased strair on and disruplion of ils network servcrs and lhc 5 expcnditufeof limc and resourccs invcstigate respond1()this misconduclto and 6 5. LiDkcdln's colc guiding |irst. Becausc Linkedln's nrcrnbcrs valueis Mcmbcrs 1 cnlfust Linkedlnwith lhcir prolcssional on sitc. histoicsand intcrcsts l,intricdltl's Linkedlr is 8 con1millcd carning kecping mcmbefs' to dnd its tr.trst evcf)'thing in Linkcdhrdocs. including its 9 prolcctirrg mcnbcrsiiom attcrnpts thirdpartics scmpclhejrdata. b by li) ll 6. l,inkcdlnrcsponded promptly su'ililyto thc l)oe l)eiirldants' actjvilies, including disabling llkc nrcnrbcr thc prolilcsand inrplcnlcnling pn)lcclion additioual technical barticrs.ln l2 additionlo thcsenreasules, lo cnsurcthal li(urc incidcnlsdo not occur-l-inkcdln bringsthis nnd t3 itction idcntifythc Doc I)cl'cndants to obl:rinpcrnranon( 10 injunctivc irnd rclicl'halting thcir t4 unlawlll condtict.'l-hcl)oc l)clindarrt"il thrcalcn ongoing ard activitics. not cnioincd. I5 irrcparablc harmto Linkcclln. good+ill. including ils rcputalion sub)_tanlial lo and oonsumcf l,iniicdlnlirlher is entitled its aotual 10 statLrlory danrngcs. lnd/or cxcnrplary clanngcs as danrtrges, t7 a rosult thc I)oo I)cl-endaDls' ol miscondLlcl. t8 19 .IUI{ISDIC'I'IONAND VIINUII 7. This CourtIraslcdclalqucstionjurisdiotion tlrislction Lrudcr ti.S.U. ovcr 2B 20 $$ l 33 land ll3llbecauscthisact io Da llc g e s v io la lio nlb o lc r|ls t a t u t c s , c lu d irg t h e C I . A A . sd in 2l l8 tl .S.C.S 1030,ctseq.,andthe DMCA , U. S . C. g d 1 2 0 1 , c t s c q .T h c Clo u rt a s u pp l c m c n t a l l7 l1 22 j urisdictionover lire stateiaw causcsof uctionpleadedhercin pursuantto 28 U.S.C. . l3 67. 23 11. Vcnue is propcr in this District urdcr 28 U.S.C. g l39l, bccalNca substantiai parl 24 ofthe evcntsor omissionsgiving rise to the claintsoccuncd in this l)istricl25 9. In addition,Linkedln's tjscr Agreementgoverningall users'access and useof lo 26 the l-inkcdln wcbsiteand Linlicdln's serviccsprovidcsthat courtslocatcdwilhin thc coo4tyof 2 7 SaulaCluua,Califbmia, sball h.rvejurisdiciion ovcr any disputcbetrveenLinkcdln and thc Doe 28 Dettndants. -2, COMP],AIN1'
  4. 4. I 10. During all rclgvan!times, thc Doe Dclendants havc repcatedly, knowingly, and 2 intcDtionallyacc€ssed Linkcdln's serverslooatcdin this.judicioldist ct witlrout Linkedln's l dnd havc qontracted suchaocess, authorization, lbr bcconing lcgistcredLinkedln mcmbers 4 subiectto Lid(cdln's ljscr Agrecment. Whilc acccssing Linkedln's scrvers,the l)oe J)cfendants 5 madc systcmaticnnd continuous their $rongt'ul oontacts with this iudicial dislrict, and targeted 6 act:^ Linkcdln. which is hcadquartered this iudicial disllicl. al in 'l I l. -l'hisis an irrtcllectual prope y action to bc assigned a districFlvidc basisunder on 8 Civil LocalI{ulc3-2(c). 9 t0 TIII' PAII'I'IES 12. place busincss Mounlain Linkedluis a Dclawirccorporation wjth its princlpal ol in View. Calilbrnia. 12 13. l hc Doc DcLcndants pcrsorls cntitics rcsponsiblc wholcof in pnl1flof in arc and/or thc I 3 the wrongcloinB AIIegccl hc|cin. At lca"-t somcol-thcunlawlil actsallcgcdhcrcin. l)oc I'or l 4 I)clcndanls rcSistcrcd u)cnrbcr accolints l,inkcdln, k) o|r subjcct lhc l-inkcdlnIJscrAgrccnrcnt. pu{icipalcd rdlilied, in, t 5 Linkcdlnis inlblnrccland bclicvcs thalcachol thc Doc I)clcnclants cndoBed, wls othcn!iscinvolvcdin llte actsconrplaincd irn(llhul thcy havcliabililylbf such or ol t 7 rcls. Lilrkcdlrr intcncls scel( to cxpcditcd to and clisoovefy lcarntho idcntityo11hcDoc DclcndaDts I t i will arrcndthis(lomplairti1'and or thc whcr thc idcntitics suchpcrsons cnliticsand/or scopc ol ol' 1 9 theifacti0ns becomcs known. 20 FACTS 2l Thc Liukcdln ProfcssionalNetrvot.k 22 14. prolcssional Linkcdlnis theworld'slargesl nctwork, with over259 million 2 3 mcrnbers woridwide and ovcr 84 rnillion mcmbcrsin the United Statcs. Linkedln's missionis to connectthe wotld's prolessionals nrakethem morc productivcand succcssful. to 25 15. Throughits proprielaryplatform, Linkedln membersare able to creaic.manage and 26 sharethcir protessiorlaL ideotity online, build aDdengaSe with thcir prolessionalneiwork, access 2'7 sharcdknowledgeand insights,and find business oppo unitics,enablingthem to be morc 28 -3CoMPLAlr.'T
  5. 5. i producti!e and succcssful. Linkedln's broadcrvision is 10creatccconomicopportunilyfor cvery 2 member ofthc globalworkforce. 3 I6. who crcaleindividual profilcs At the hcarl ol Linkedln's plotibrm are its rnenlbers, 4 that servea"^ lheir pfolcssionalprofiles and are acccssible any olhcr membcr.as well as (unless by 5 a ficnrber chooses otherwisc)anyonewith an Intcnletconncction. Linkedln couDts cxecutivcs 6 7 liom all 20ll lorlunc 500 compunics nrembers. as 17. l-inkedln's oorcguiding, Linl(cdlll's rnenrbers valucis Mcnbels l.irst. llecausc 8 c[lmst l-in](cdln u,ithlhcir prolossional on historics intcrests [,inkedln's and sitc.Linkcdlnis 9 conmitlcdto camingand kceping nrembcrs' its Linkcdlnclocs, incluriirrg trustin evcrything l 0 proteclingits lnenrbcfsfinll allcnrptsby lhird particsto scmpethcir dala. 1l 18. lhc Linkcdlnreb$itc isanoriginal copyrightcd work. .Anrcng significanl thc graphical t 2 ofiginalclenrsnls the l-inkcdlnwcbsilcar0thedistinctivc ol pagclayout, dcsign, t 3 clenronls, organizalion and ol'mcnlbor prolilcpagcs and andthc Linkcdlnltomcpagc nowsliccl. t 4 l,irrkccllrr's copyriSht IJ.S. rcgislratioDs thc l-inkcdlnwcbsitcincluclc Ibr llcg. Nos. l5 IX0007355749, fX0007010652. 1X000745529l. unLt l9 Linl(cdlnhasinvcstcd nd plans cdltirLrc10invcslsubstiutial tiorc.Iabor. lo skill, t 7 and linanciol fcsolrrccs tlre(lcvclopll]ent nraintcnnccol lhc l,inkcdlnsilc. iulo ilnd t8 t9 l,inl<cdln'sUscr Agrccmcnl 20. Linkcclln is lr,ailable al no cosl to anyonewho wtnts to_ioinond wlro agrccsto thc 2A tcflns o ,inkedli's User Agreentcntand l'ivacy Policy.r A p()spectivelncrllberfcgisteNlbf an 2 1 0ccoulrt providing a l'irsl name,last name,cmail addross, pirssword, agrccingk) by and altd 22 I-ir <cdhr's UscrAgrectnent Privacy and Policy. 23 21. As dcscribedilrtlrer below, the Doe Dcfeldanls rcgistercdthousands f'ake of 24 membcraccounts part ol thcir datascrapingactivitics. Iror cachof thoscaccounts, l)oe as the 25 Defendanis agreedto bc boundby Linkedln's Uscr AgrccmeDt. 26 27 I Ser http://wr.rrv.1ir'*edin.com/lcgal/user-agrecmenr. 28 COMPLAlNT
  6. 6. 1 22.. l,inkedln's lJserAgleemcnt cxplainsthat membcrsare grantcda limitcd and with the teflns ofthe Uscr Agrecmcnl. and 2 rcvocableliccnscto acccss usc Linkcdlrr in accordance 3 23. Linkedln's User Agrccmentspccilically conditionsmcmbers'right to acccss and ofdalascraping tcolDologies rclatcd not the 4 LinkcdlnoDthciragreeing to do so through LNc nonexciusive, nonassignablc. stalcs,"wc granl you a limitcd. rcvocable5 conduct. Ihc agreemcnl wcb a available through gcncrillly licensc thc 6 n<.rnsublicenseablc andrightto acccss Scrviccs, (rrl nrobile or application rol lhroughstrdPin!:spideting 7 browser. dcvice Linkcdlnauthorizcd v'rilletl cot1sclll tlLtl.twithoul lh! e.pr?ss cn!rling or othcr technt ogt or sofiru'e usr.l lo accc:ts 9 ol Linkedln or it lvlcmbcbr.k) view itllbmrrtion and usc thc ScNicesthat wc provide on (l-nlphasis addcd.) $ebpagcs in aocotdancc this Agrccn1cnt." with t { ) I-inkcclln irrrd ll 24. "Do's and Don'ts'scction rcitcratcs l lh ofils ljscr Agrccmcnl I-irrkcdln's scripts robots. dericcs. softwarc, ... or may not "Lrndcrtrlkc lto I lu]sonlitlluitl aulonlillcd t 2 mcnrbcrs or 'scrapc,' 'crarvl'ot'spidcr''any wcb pagcs olhelscrviccs to t 3 olhcr Illcans proocsscs llcccss, or "will only nraint{in onc lhalnrcnrbcrs Il|.lhcrstalcs in l 4 containcd thc sitc." l'hc [JscrAgrccnrcnl l 5 I-inlicdlnaooount any gi!on tinrc.""lvill usclthcirl rcll nrmc andorlly prcvidcdcoufatc at lirrthcr "will not !iolrtc any riBhlsol l,inkedln."As dcscribod to t 6 inlirrmation Linkcdln.",rnd ol is l 7 bclow.thc Doc I)clcndants'conduct in Ilagtanlviolalion eachol lhcscprovisi()rls Linkcdln's liccrui(cr Sorvice l8 l9 25. rc!ruitcls thatallowscorpurilLu Linkedlnptoduct is LinkcdlnRccruitcr a prcnriLrnr to 20 and hcadhunlcrs locatcrnd fccruit top can(lidates.U[likc I-i icdln's Iicc. basicaccounlsfbr its 1br acccss. Linkedlnliccruiler rcquires users paya nlonthlyl'ec thcir premium ft) 2T nrcmbers. 22 26. growingscrvices More than Recruitcr oneofl.inkedln'sf'astcst is Lirtkcdln pay 2 1 I 6,000 clicnts and companics to use Linkcdln Recruiter. Linkedln Rccrtlitcrusersiuclude ilr resourccs departrnonts soDleofthc most succcsslitlcompanics lhc counlry anlong al 24 hLLnan and recruitingfinns Ninety of$e Fortune 25 thousands ofodrcr large,rncdiumand small busincss use 26 100 companics Linkedln ll.ecruiteror anothcrofLintedln's premium talent solutions 2 7 ploducls. 28 5C:OMPLAINT
  7. 7. i 21. Corporaterecruitcrsand headhunters purchase Linkcdln Rccruitermembcrships in 2 ordcr to searchlbr prospcctivecandidates amongLinkedln's hundrcdsof millions or nrcrroer 3 profiles. By using Linkedln Recruitcr'srobustandexclusivescarchtools, recruircrs searcn can 4 thc cnlire Linkcdln netwolk for top candidatcs' namcsand ptoiiles. Recruitcrsmay locatcand 5 contactmcmbcrs,including passivecandidatcs may not be looking tbr ajob, by aocqssing who 6 Linkcdln's plolcssionalnctwofk tluoLlghLirkcciln Rccruitcr. 7 l,inkcdln's'l echnol,gical Safcguards:rnd Sccurirv-Mc:Nurcs T0 I'rotectLiukodln Ag:ri st UnauthorizcdAcccss 8 9 28. LiukedlnI'astidiously worksto protect intcgrity the and sccurity ofits networklnd (hiDgs,i1employsan trmy ol lcchnologicalsaLguardsand barricN l0 systcms. Among olher tl dcsigned prcvonl 10 dalascrapcrs oihcrwrongdocrs and liorrrgainiDg unauthodzcd aoocss to sitc. t2 Linkoclln's l3 29. Onc suchsalcguard Linkedln's is progranr. I:US|-) lr[JSI-j inrposcs limit on thc a an to t4 activilyLhill individunll,inkcdlnuscrnrry initialcon thc sitc. lhis limil is intcndcd prcvctll data utilizingautonMtcd quic[1yaoccssingsubslantidl tcchnologics l'ront n t5 woulcl-bo sorilpcrs volunlcol rnclrlbcr prolilcs-. t7 30. Similarly, Linkcdln'sScntinel progr nr n)onitors blockssuspicious and activily with ("IP") addrcsscs.2 InlcrnclProtocol t8 associaled parlicLrlal l9 20 3l . LinkedlnaLso ilnticipatcd datasorapcrs that mighl dttenlpt creatc multitudc b a ol' lakc rncmbcraccounls. Accordingly,asa seconday layer of protcction,l,inkedln implenrentcd its to 2 1 IJCV systerrto thwart this tnisconduct. fho UCV systemuscsa nunlbcr ofparaDrcters 22 detcnnine ncw account iIa signupis suspicious. suspicious lfa signupis iclentiticd, UCV the 23 systcmimposesbarriersintcndcdto separatc lcgitilnateprospcclivemcmbersllom aulomatcd data scrapingprograms and bos. Specifically,rhe UCV sysrcminkoducesa CAp-l CHAr ticld thal 25 rcqulresprospcctlve ntcnlbcrsto rc-typea word or tcxt thot appears obscured, in coioredtype. 26 ' An Il'address thiscontext alumericallabelassigncd each in is to access pointto thc Interne(. 27 t CAPTCHAis an for "Completely Automated PublicTuringtcstto tell Computers and "..onym Humans ADart." 28 COMPLAINT
  8. 8. I 'l'heseobscured words or text irrelegiblc to a rcal pcrson ancilamiliar to thosepurchasing 2 concertdckcls, lbr instance, a conlmon stcp in an online rcgistralionprocess but difl'icult for as 3 an aulomatcdprogramor bot to recognize.By using C,APl CHA.S, IJCV syste prevenlsdala thc 4 scraperc rcgisteringmany new and illegitimatcrnembcraccounts. from automatically 5 32. l-ir (edln alsocmploys technicalprolocolsdcsigncdlo prcvcnl unauthorizcd 6 autonlated and wcbcrawlcrs bots parts the[,inkedln fton accessing othcrw-isc of fublicly availablc 7 site. I(nownasr fobots.txl thissaftguind lilc, provides scl ol instltlclions any aulonatcd a to 8 lcchnologies visitingthc l-inkcdln robots.lxl docspeDnitsomc sitc. Whilc LiDkcdlD's lile (c.g.9 u'ebcrawlers search engiucs suchas Googleol lling) to vicw lhc cntircsitc.il prchibjts and t 0 is intenclcd prcvcnt to rlilornetcd programs thoscLrsed datascrapers. likc by ll t2 Thc l)oc l)ofcndants'D:rtaScrapingAclivitics 33. llcl$ccn May 2013ancl prcscnt, Doc I)clcndants knowinglyand thc thc I 3 intenlionally protocol cifcLlnlvcntcd IrtJSIi, Scntincl, UCV systcrlr. fobots.txt tho and/or othcr thc t 4 l.inkcrllnsccurity surcsin ordcrto cueirgc thcirdatascrapints nrc in lctivilics. I5 34. I)urirlgthistirrrc pcriod.the l)oc I)oloDdanls cfoalcd thousands r)lolnbcr ol irccounls l 6 (wi1hltrl(c nanles contlcl inlbflriltion)k) ircocss sclilpe and drlil liom rnanyLirrkeclln and Inemb0l t't prolilcs. It3 35. lD ordcflo cl-ciltc cachand cvoryonc ol-thcsc lakenrcrnber accour)ts, Doc thc l 9 l)elcndrnts to ag|ccto ahiclc thc acocss usercstficlions Linkcdln s IJser had by in Agfccment, and 20 thich. irlur rrlrr. prolribit -'scrapirg,spidering,crawliDgor olhcr lcchnologyor soliwarc usedto 2l access datawithoullhc cxpress wl-illcn andrccluire consel)t LinkedlD ils Mcmbers." ol or that 2 2 nTembcrs only mirintair "r.viLl one Lirkedln account any givcnlinrc" and"rvill uscltheirllcal at 23 nameand only providc accumleinlbtmation to Linkcdln." 'l'he Doc Delindants knou'ingly 24 violated eachol'thesc access uselestrictions cltgaging and in inthcir unlawl.Lcollduot. 25 36. ln May andJune2013, the Doe Defendants FUSE wlich limits thc circumventcd 26 volume ofactivity fbr eachindividual account- by creatiDg thousands ofdiflerent ncrv membcr 21 accourtsthroughthc useofvaious automatcd technologies.Regislcringso many uniquenew 2 8 accounts allowcd the I)oc Dcfendants view iTundrcds oflhousandsofnrcmber profiles pcr day. to -7- (ioMPI-AlNt'
  9. 9. 1 37. At the samctime, thc l)oc Del'cndallts also circumvertedthe UCV systetn using by 2 autornated tcchnologics1olcgister thousands without triggeting the offikc memberaccor.lnts 3 UCV systcm's imposilion C,P'lCIIAs. -l'hcDoc Def!nclants circr,rmvented bypassed of irlso and 4 Linlcdln's robots.txtfile, which specilicallybansand is intcndedto prevcntthc useol ) unaulhorizcd aulomaleddatascrapingptogralnsand bols. 6 18. In early Seplcmbcr2011,thc l)oc l)el'enda|1ts agaii accesscd l-inlicdln's wcbsire 7 nnd crrgaged dittascrapingthroughthe uscofautontatcddatascrapingplogrants. ln so doing. in 8 the Doc Delindanls circumvcntcdLinl(cdln's Scnlinelprogranl.hich lirlits thc nunlberolsucccssivc rcqucsls madeby an Il' addrcss sctoJ ll) addresscs. hcy alsocircuntvcnted or l thc t0 frdlibitions sctli)[h i Linl(cdln's robols.rxt lilc. ll 19. [,illkcdlniniliallyidcnrilicd Doc DclrJr]dants thc nliscondUot whcnit obscrvocllhrt t2 thousdnds lirkcmcrnbcf ol accounts collootivcly had vicwcdntanylncmbcfprolllcsin a shorl I] pcriodol tinrc. l,inkcdlndctcrminccl thc uscrlccountswcrc llkc allcr closeinspcction that ol- t4 dccounl dolails rcvc.rlcd clciu paltcnls auk)nlatioD. ol l,inkcdlD obscrvcd thc aul(nnalcd lhat bots I 5 lhal werc un,ring llrcsclakcaccouDts woul(lusccachaccoull( viow n snlallnumbcr pll)lilcs. to ol ' bypassing circunrvcntiug thercby antl ljLlSli s pagcvicw tcslrictions. thenwoLrld and irovc on l() 1 7 thc ncxtrcgistercd acoount vicw additional lo prolilest8 40. Linkedlnconductcd cxtensive ar invcstigalion ofthc I)oe I)clendants' misconduct. 1 9 In lhc coufso ils invcsligatiolr, conlpilcd of i1 sprcadshccts tracking IP addrcsscs by the the used 20 Doc l)elendants. l,inkedlnalsoidelltificd cataloged I)oc I)eiindants'lakenrcmbcr ard tl]e 2l proiiles, numbcr lcgitimatc thc of profilcs viowedby eachfakc mcmber, andthc dales andtimcsol' 22 the Doc Delendanls'activily on thc Linkedln ,cbsite. l,inkcdln disabledthc ti*e DrcmDef 2 3 prolilcs and implementcdadditionallechnological sal'eguards protccl againstunauthorized to 24 acccss lhc Linkedln site. 1() 25 41. As a rcsult ofthis investigatio Linkedln dctct.mincd that tlrc Doe Dcfirndants 26 accessed Linkedln using a cioud computingplatlonn oltcred by Amazofi Web Sen,iccs (,,AWS"). 2 7 'fhis platform callcd ArnazonElasticComputcCllo[d or Amazon ]:C2 - allows userslikc the 2 8 Doe Delendants rcnt virtual computcrson which to rn their own computorprogmnlsand to COMPL IN'I'
  10. 10. I applications.AmazonEC2 providesresizable computingcapacity. fhis fcatureallor'susersk) 2 quickly scalecapacity,both up and down. Amazon EC2 uscrsmay temporarilyrun hundrcdsor 3 thousaldsofvirtual computingmachines.The Doc l)eftndontsuscdAmazon EC2 to create 4 5 virtual machines run automatcd to bots to scrapcdatal'romLinkcdln's *,ebsite. 42. As a result Doe Delendants' ofAnrazon!C2, t,inkcdlncxpects be ableto ol usc to 6 identifythc l)oc I)cfcndants serving by tltird-pa(ydiscovc|y AWS.a I-inkcdlnintends lilc on to 7 nlotions to cxpcditelhesedi$corery requcsts. 8 Doc Dclcndants Havc Crused and'l'hrertcn Ongoingand lrrcptrable Injury to Linkcdln 43. Ily cng.Lgiug thc datascraping in incidcnts dcscribcd abovc, l)oc l)eiendunts thc l0 hayccauscd, ifnol halledwill ooDtinuc cause, and to ongoin!iand irreparablc harnt10Linkcdln,in tl r varielyol *ays. l2 44. l hc thoLrsandsllke nlcnrbcr prolllcsoreirtocl thc Doe Delcnd ntsdisrupt ol by and t3 dcgradc )-inkcd)n's andscNiccs rcducing accuracy inlcgrilyol thc inlbrmation sitc thc and by lhc t4 sitc corrlains. l-inkcdln's nrcnlbcNcxpcct thc sitc to conlainaccuratcand lcgitirnatcprolcssi(nul t5 profllcs nol usoless liotions crolicdby ddtdscrtpcrs. 45. lhc proscncc lirl(cnrcnrbcr ol prolilcsalsoirnpairs lcgitirnatc lncmbcrs'ability 10 t7 idcntilyvalid professidralcontncls. pa(i0ular, ln l,inkcdlncnables nrcDrbcrs vicw bccause i(s Io l 8 whichuscrs havevie.ecl thcir proliles, whoscprolilcshavcbccn legitintatc Linkedlnuscrs l 9 viewedby a Doc l)cfcnddnl usinga fakcaccounl may bc 0onlused mislcdwhentheysecthatan or 20 unknown, litkcmember vicwedtheirprolilcs. Indced, has l,inkcdlnobscrlcdsomeof its valid 2 l membersoltenpling to conncclwith theselikc nremberprofilcs after noticiug thatthc fakc 22 accounls vielved hud thcir profilcs. 23 46. l his type of poliulion to thc Lil)l(cdln network,il not haltcd,threatens ongoilg and 24 irrcparableharmto the iDlegrityofrhe Linkedln platfonn and Linkcdln's repulalion. Linkedln 25 2 6 a .See http://portal.aws.amazon.corr/gplaws/htnl-formscontrollcr/contactuvAWSAhuse#subpocna.s (detailingprocedures scrviogthird-party for discoveryon Amazon to obtain informationrelalingto "suspeclcd lllastic abuscof AmaT-on Conpute Cloud (Amazon f,:C2)"). 28 2'7 COMPLAINT
  11. 11. I goodwill and trust, also will suffcr ongoingand irreparablc hann to the valuc ofils consumer 2 *.hich Linkedln hasworkcd hard for ycarsto carn irnd maintain,il the Doc l)cfcndants'conduct l 4 continues. 47. Irurther, pilliring mcmbcr by datolrom thc Linkedli site,thc l)oc Deienclanls producL, 5 misconduct thrcatcns degrade valuool l,inkcdln's to Lhe Recruiter whichLinkedlnhas 6 investcd subst.rntially ovcrthc ycars.Or information bclicf,lhe Doc Dclcndants, havc in who and '1 irvested nonc ol-thcil ou,1ltimc and rcsourccs developingand builclingthe l,inkcdln platform. into 8 havccngagcdin thcir scrapingactiviticsi|r an altempl to cstablislr compctingrccruitingwcbsites pKxluct. 9 andusurpLinkcdln'sl{ccruiter 10 ll 4ti. 'lhe DoeDelendants' nrisconc|.rol hirsinposedsignitioanl irlso strrinb un LinkcdJn's scrvcrs, includinS throLlSh uscol lutonlatcd technoLogicsvicw mauymt:rrrbcr 1o thc 1 2 p r o fi l cs.'lhcI)ocI)clcndarlts'ille g it in ra t c p ro lilo v ic ws jmp a irc d l, in l(c d ln ' s a l) i l i t y t o d c d i c a t c t3 its seNcrst()suppor'limg activilics lcgitirnatc thc ol Linkcdlnnrcnrbcrs. l4 4.). l.inkcdlnhi|ssul'lcrccl and signilicant hr|nr to its compulcr syslcnrs, h s cxpcndod limc, t5 hunun. lina cial.andtcchnological rcsourccs, including hundrcds hours crnplo)cc ol ol invcsligating rcsponding thc I)oc L)clcnchots' ancl !o Lrnlawlirl activilios, a cost10[.inkcdln rt ol' 1 7 Drorclhon lj;5,000. t8 rlltsl t9 Cl,AIM I,'Oll Rlll,llll' Computcr !-raud and AbuscAct, ltl U.S.C.$1030el scq. 20 50. Linliedln realleges and ircorporatcsby ref'ercncc ol lhe prcccdingparagraphs. all 2t 51. Linkcdln-s computcrs scrvcrs involvcdin iDlelslatc forcign and arc and conlrncrcc 22 andcommunicalion, areprotected and comlutefs undcr18 U.S.C.$1030(e)(2). 23 52. Ou inlbrmation and beliel, the Doe l)cfcndantsklowingly and intcntionall], 24 ilccesscd Li|kgdln's computcrsand scrvelswithout aulhodzationor in exoess ofthe aulhorization 25 permilledunderLinkedln's Uscr Agreenlentand in circumventionofvadous tcchnicalbarriers 26 includingFUSF, Scntinel,the IJCV systcm.thc robots.txtprotocol,aod additiorral safeguards 27 Linkedln hasemployedlo proteclLinkedln's computersand scrvcrslrom unatrthodzed acccss. 28 -10COMPLAINl
  12. 12. I 53. On information belief,affcrgaining and unauthorircd acc€ss Linkcdln's to 2 computers scruers, DoeDcfcndarls iuld the and valuable informatjon from obtained used 3 Linkcdln'sprotectcd computcrs senersin tlansaclions and involvinginterstatc forcign or 4 communications violation 18 U.S.C. 1030(a)(2). infornration ir of This includes, among othcr S profiles, thisuse,on inlbrmation beliet, 5 things, contcnts the olmany Lintcdln membcr and and 6 inuludcs. lnrong olhcr lhings. distributing t contcnr 6thcn, rh ro 7 5,1. l-lrcDoeDcfindants knowing)y, willf'ully.andwith an intentto dcfraud, acccsscd 8 Linkcdln's computcrs scrvcrs and without or authorizationin cxcess ofauthorization obtaincd and valuable inlbrnratioD l.inkedln's liom and lhat, ancl lhc computcrs sclvers on inlbrrnation bcliel. l 0 Doel)clcndauts to obluin uscd in somcthing valuc violalion l8 tJ.S.C. 1030(.rxa). ol of $ u 55. Linkcdlihas suffercd oflhcscviolations, including, darnagc loss rcason and by t2 withoutLinril{ti(nllufin to Linkcdln'scolnpulcr systcms, exl)clrses assooiatcd bcinglbrccd with ano iulq l 3 to invcstigalc rcspond thcuflilrrthorizod andabusc ils computers sorvcrs, and to acccss ol t4 othcrlosscs danl gc in anarnounl bc provcn trial,in cxccss and at of$5.000aggrcgdtcd ir ovcr lo pcfrod. 1 5 orc yoar I6 56. harm, In acldition, l,inkedln sullbrcd will continue sul'ler dnd to irreparablc and has t7 ils rcmedy law is not itscll adcquntc compcnsatc for injuries inllictcdby thc l)oc ill to it t8 Dclcndnts, AcootclingLy, fciicl'. Linkedln cntillcd injunclivc is to l9 SIiCOND CI-AIM FOII RITLIEF 20 Crlifornir Comprohcnsivo Computer ,tnd rt Access FraudAct,Cal.I'er!l Codc$502 scq. 2l 57. peLragraphs. Linkcclln rcallcges iicorporatcs feiercnce ol theprooeding all and by 22 5ll. 'Ihc DoeDctbndanls oblaincd used and valuable information lionr wrongfully 2 3 Linkcdln's asallcged sitc, abovc. 59. TheDocDel'endants knor,vingly, fraudrrlcntly, withoulpermission and accessed or to 2 5 causcd beaccessed Linkedln's computcrs, systcms, and/orcomputer nctwork rn computcr vrolrtiun ol(hl. Pcnrl Codc 502(c)(7). S 2'7 60. The DoeDefendants and took,copied knowingly, fraudulcntly, withoutpcrmission 2 8 alrd)nade ofdata,andfiles liom Linkedhr's use conputers, computer systems, and/or computer -t tCOMPLAIN-I
  13. 13. I net$,orl(s, including wrongfully to control Code$ 502(cXl) suchdata,in violationofCal. Pcnal 2 &(2). 3 61. lhc Doe Delendants knorvingly,liaudulcntly, and rvithoul pcmrissiotr djsruptcdor 4 caLrsed disruption the ofl,inkedln'scomputcr to users ol'Linkedln's scrvices authorized 5 compulgrs. colr]putersystcors, and/orcomputcrnctworksin violation of Cal. PenalCode 6 S s02(c)(5). '7 62. As a dircct and proxinratcrcsultol'lllc Doc Delendants'unlawtirlconduct,thc Doe h U Delendanls vc causcddamageto Linkedln in an anrounllo bc pro.cnarllrial. Lil*edln is also lo l'enalCodc$502(c). 9 entitled fccovcrits rcasonablc attomey's lccspufsuant California to l0 63. L,iukecLln aclswcrervilllirlandrnalicious thal in bclicvcs thatthe Doc l)cicndants' intcul1oiulprovc Doc tlrc t 1 Delirldants' dcscfibed Aots above wcrc donowith thc dclibemtc 1 2 I)clindanls'bLrsiDcssLinkcdln'scxpensc. al LinkcdJn thc|clbre is cnlitlccl purlilivo k) darnagcs. t3 64. ln atldition. I-inkedln sulll.fcd 1(' harm,and has and4ill continuc sullir ilfcpnrxblc inllictcdby lhc l)oc t 4 ils rcnrcdy t lnw is nol ilsclladcquirtc conrpens il li)r injr|l.ics tc lo LinkcdlD cntitlccl ir,!nctivc rclicl. t 5 Dcl'cndants. Accordingly, is lo l6 l tIllU) cl,AIM IrOli Rlit,Ilil' 11 Violltiorts ol 'l'bc l)igi(nl MillcDniumCopyrigh(Act, l7 U,S.C.S l2{)l ct scq. l8 65. paragraphs. l-inked)n reallcges incorporatcs relcrencc ol thc prccocling and by all l9 66. pro(ecliors including valioushycrs o1{cchnological FIJSE. l,inkcdlrr cmploys 20 Scntincl, tJCV systern,lhe thc robots.txt protocol, additionalsafcguards prolect and - to protcction 2 1 l-inkedln's computersand scrr'crsfiom unaulhorized access.'fhcsc lcchnologioal 22 neasuresei1!otively control acccss drecopyrightedmatedalson Linkedln's servers, to including 2 3 the Lini<edIn website.membcrprofile pages, arrdthe Linkedh honcpageand newsieed,and 2.4 plotcct Li!)kcdln's exclusiverighls in thosccopyrightcdmarerials. 25 67. DespiteLinftedln's besrcllbrts to protectthe Linkcdlr site liom the Doe 26 Dcfcndants'unaulhorized access, Doc Defendanls the circunveuted [,inkcdln's tcchnological 2'7 safeguards ilcluding IUSE, SenliDel, UCV system,thc robots.lxl protocol,and additional the 28 - 12' COMPLAINT
  14. 14. I safcguards and gajncdunauthorized access i,inkedln's copyrightcdrlaterials, including to ()1 2 wilhoutlimitation copyrighled the Linkcdlnwcbsite, violation l7 U.S.C.$ l20l(a). iD l 68. As a resl l olthc Doc Dei'erldants' is r.ronglulacts, Linledln hassr.rffered. 4 conlinuing sul'fer, will continue sullcrdarnagcs be provcnal trial. Linkcdlnis lurther to and to to 5 cntitlcd io all plollls attribulableto llre Doe Dcfcndants'$ronglul acts b be provenat trial. 6 Alternatively, uponils eleolion any tiolc bclofellnal iudgmcnt cnLercd. is l,inkcdlnis enlitlcd to ut 7 tccoverslatuluy damages om the Doe Dclcndarls li pursuor'rl I 7 lJ.S.C. is I 20J lbr each.rolol 10 lt 9 circunrvcnlion commilted thc l)oc Dcfcndarnts. by 69. lhc I)oe Delendints circumvclrtions havccauscd Linkcdlnilrcparable hlrn. also l0 lJllless reslraincd enjolncd. [)oc I)c]cndanls conlinuo colnmilsrich and thc will 1o acts. tl l,inkcdln's renrcdics Ia$,arc adcqllatc conrpcnsale lor thcscinlliclcdandlhrc tcncd al u()l it k) t 2 injulics, thusl,inkcdlnis 0ntitled injunctivc and prr)vidcd l7 tl.S.C. 1203. by to rcLicfas -s tl I.'OUItl'II CI,AIM I-OR ItI|I,IEF t4 llrcach of Col|ar{ct l5 70. parirgraphs. Linkcdlnrcallcgcs incoqrol'atcs |clc|cncc of thc p|cceding and by all 16 7t . scrvioos goverDcd al)d arc by tjsc ofthe l-illl(cclln wcbsitc andusool l-inkoclln t7 subjcctto thc [JscrAgrccnrcnt. I8 12. Ljnkcdlnmeurbcrs prcsctrtcd arc with thc t]scf Agfcemcnl dndmuslalllrmativcly l 9 accept lJscrAgrcenrcnl rcgistcr a l,inkcclln thc lo accounl. lbf 20 2l 22 1]. At all rclcva|tlinres. Linkcdlnalsopr-orninently displaycd link to the tiscr a Agreemenl Linkedln's ou hontepage. 71. l he Doc Dcfcndants ?rnd atlirnativelyacccltcd acccsscd Linkedlnwcbsile thc and 2 3 agrccdto the UserAgrccmcntto, amongolhcr things,crcatctlre lake nrcmbcrprolilcs thal cnabled 24 the Doe Deilndantsto access Linkedln userprofiles and scrape ddtaf'rom Linkedln's .vcbsile. 25 75. Ihe User Agrccmcnt is cnforceablc and biuding on the Doc Dcfcndanls. 26 '76. 'l'he Doe Delendants the repeatedly accesscd Linkcdln wcbsitewith knowledgeof 2'7 the Uscr Agrccmenrand all ol'its prohibitions. Dcspitetheir knowledgeol'thc UserAgrccmcnt 2 8 and its prohibitions.the l)oc l)clendantsauoesscd continue1() acccss Linkcdln websiteto, the and - l3COMPLAINl
  15. 15. l to crawl, or useother automated tcchnologyor softuarc to gain access amongothcr things, scrape, maintaincd 2 the Linkedtn *cbsitc without the conscntof Linkedln. Moreovcr,thc Doe Defendants 3 morc thanone account(indeed,thousa[dsol'accounts)at any given timc. and did not provide lheir 4 real namcsor provide accuraleinformation1ol,inkedln. 5 11. l,inkedln has beenunablelo contaclthc Doc De|nddnts to dcmandthat they cease Linkedll1docsttot desisttheir data scrapingand othcr l-inkcdln-relatcdaclivitiesbccause 6 .1nd olthc Doc Dcttndants. 7 know theideDtilies ti 78. iurd abovc,havewillfully, repeatedly, l'hc l)oc Del'endants' actions,us dcscribed breached User Agreen'lcnt. the 9 systenlatically t0 '19. rcquircd ofit in and covcnanls, promiscs Linkcdln haspcrformcd oolditions, all u,ith thc User Aglccmcnt. t 1 accordancc t2 80. 'l'hc I)oc Dcfcndants'conducthasdanragcdl,inkcdln, and causcd and continucs10 incparablc and incalculablc harmandiniuryto l,inkcdln. l 3 causc l4 81. and/or othcr danla8cs, rclicl.cornpcnsalory l-irkcdln is crllillcdlo irtiunctivc t 5 cquitrblcrelicl. I6 FIFTTI CI,AIM FOR RI'LIEF t'7 '[ rcsptrss l8 82. pafagraphs. all Linkcdlnrcallcgcs inoolporatcs relercncc of thepreceding and by l9 81. 'l'llc l)oc I)clcndants acccsscclaud intcntionally, wilhoutauthofization, ancl compuler systcDls and l,inkcdln'swebsitc, with 2 0 interacted l,inkcdln,ircludilrgwithoullinlitation, 2l 22 setvcts. 84. thcrcin The Doe Delendants'aooess l,inkedln and the inibrmationcontained to 23 rcquiredthe Doe Delendantsto abidc by thc [JserAgrccmenl. By violating the termsofthc Uscr and effons to combattheir activitics,the Doe Defbndants 24 Agreement, I-inkcdln's express wifh Linkedln, its websile,computcr to unla*firlly gainedaccess and intcrl'ered aDdintermeddlcd systcms, and its servers. 2',7 28 - I4COMPLAINl'
  16. 16. I 85. 'l he Doe Defcndanls'unauthorizgd interlerence with and access l-inkcdln, its to 2 wcbsite,computcrsystems, its seNcrs,anong othcr'halms,reducesl,inkcdln's capacityto and 3 serviceits uscrsbccause occupiesand usesLinkedln's resources. it 4 86. 'lhe Doe Defcndants'conductconstitutes trespass that ha$harmedand will 5 continuc hamrl,inkedln.As a result. to has andwill continuc be damagcd. to l,inkccllD been 6 ,] 87. l,irtl<cdln sufl'erecl will continueto sui'ierirreparahlchamr,and its rencdy has and at law is not itscll adequate conlpcnsate ibr injuriesinilicted by the l)oc l)ctcnclants. to it Accordingly. l,inkcdlnis eDlitlcd injurrctivc to rclict'. 9 sIXl'tt cl.AlM t'oR ttELIItF t0 MisnDpropriation tl 88. palagraphs. Linkcciln rcallcgcs incoryoratcs rclcrcncc ol lhc prcccding by and irll t2 t39. t.iDkodln investcd has 1ime, labof,skill,{ncl lir)oncial rcsoufces thc into substantial l 3 crcation nraintonilnce l,iDkcdln, cornplitcr and ol systcms scncrs,including aud syslcm aud its t 4 scn'cr capacily,rs wcll as thc contcnl on thc I-inkcdln websilc,lvhich is tinrc scnsilir.e. t5 l6 90. Wilhoutauthorizatior, l)oc l)clandants wronglllly lcccsscd Linkcdln's thc wcbsilc, computcr syslcnrs scf,cls. obtaiDcd rnd and dirlalroul thc Linkcdlnsitcwithouthaving t7 to rnokelhc substiLDLial irlvcsl,ncnt tin1c, in skill,and linancial rcsourccs nradc LinkcdlD. by lirbof, l8 gL On inli)rnldtion belicl,thc l)oc l)cfindants and compcto with l,inkcdlnandhavc l 9 nradcor itrlendto nr.rke data f'romthe Linkcdln sitc availablcto thcir riustonrcrs othcl third and 20 partics.As such.thc l)oc f)cl_endants' ol-l,inkedln's usc computcr systcnls servcrs, and including 2 1 syslemand scNcr oi]paoity, well asdirtaliom lhe Linl(edln si1c,constilulesliee riding on as 22 Lirkeclln'ssubstanlial investmcnl limc, cllbrt, andexpense. of 23 92. As a rcsultofthis misdppropriation, Doc Dcfendants thc wrongfully compete, and-/or enableothcrslo compete, ,ith Linkcdln, and Linkcdln hasbeen lbrcedto cxpend additionallimc and resourccs, including but not limited to, investigating and responding the to 26 Doc Dclendants'activil.ies. 2'7 93. LiDkcdlnhasbeenand rvill oonlinueto be danaged as thc rcsult ofthe Doc 2 8 Defendan{s'actso f misappropdation. COMPLAINT
  17. 17. I 94. to injury,andits remedy Linkcdlnhassuffered will continue sufcr ineparablc and 2 at la$'is not itselfadequate comperNatefbr injuriesinflictedby theDoeDefendants. to it PRAYERT'ORRELIEF 4 bc WIIEREFORE, Linkedlnpraysthatjudgment e eredin its favorandagainst as 5 theDoc Dcf'cndanls, lbllowsr 6 1. injunclion enjoinilgand A preliminarl, injunction permancrlt and and or all their represcntatives, agents, all persons cntities 7 rcstraining DoeDefendants, employecs, pcrpetually tiom with thcmduringthependcncy ofthis actionandtherealler U actingin conccrt pulpose whatsoever, 9 accessing usingLinkedln'swcbsjtcfor any0onmercial <I l0 2. data, An ordcrrc<luiring DoeDcfcndants dcstroy documents, and to all the or custody, control, wcrcwroDgfully or that othcritems, elcclronic olherwisc, thcir possession, in iiorr websitc, t 2 copied l.,inkedln's t3 3. inch.tdirrg, not limited but An award Linkedlnof rcstitution damagcs, to ard damagcs, pcrrnitled law; as by l4 to. compcnsatory, statutory, treble damages, punitive a|rd 15 4. ofsuit,including, notlimiled but to, An award Linkcdlr ils oosts to ol reosonablc AllorDey's t'bcs, permitted law; 1d os by t'7 5. SucholherrcliefasthcCourtdeemsjust propcr. and t I9 DIiMANDTOR.'URY TIIIAL jn lTereby action Linkcdln dcmands ajury trialolall issues theabovc-captioned lhatare 20 triablc ajury. to 6, 22 DATED:January 2014 TOLLF]S OLSON & MLINGEI{, 23 24 z) 26 2't Altomeys for Linkedln Coryortation 28 - l6COMPLAIN'I