Airstrip One, a province of Oceania, acts as the primary setting. It is located inwhat "had been called England or Britain", and is the home of the maincharacters of the book, including its protagonist, Winston Smith.Even the names of countries, and their shapes on the map, had been different.Airstrip One, for instance, had not been so called in those days: it had beencalled England, or Britain, though London, he felt, had always been calledLondon. Big BrotherSpeculation has also focused on Lord Kitchener, who among other things wasprominently involved in British military recruitment in World War I. As a child Orwell(under his real name Eric Blair) published poems praising Kitchener and warrecruitment in his local newspaper. Additional speculation from Douglas Kellnerof UCLA argued that Big Brother represents Joseph Stalin and that the novel portrayedlife undertotalitarianism.
In the novel it is not clear whether Big Brother is (or was) a real person or a fiction inventedby the Party to personify it. In Party propaganda Big Brother is presented as a real person:one of the founders of the Party, along with Goldstein
• Ingsoc (Newspeak for "English Socialism") is the political ideology of the totalitarian government of Oceania in George Orwells dystopian science fiction novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. [WikiPedia]• With doublethink, the people believe what they otherwise know is false; in believing the revised (new) past, the new past is what was, hence "he who controls the past controls the future, and he who controls the present controls the past". The Ministry of Love (MiniLuv), via brainwashing and torture, and the Ministry of Truth (MiniTrue), with propaganda, ensure that perpetual infallibility of the Party is instilled in the mind of each Oceanian. The person exists only as part of the collective, hence, for the collective, nothing exists beyond the goodness of the Party and the evil of other nations and the Partys power.
WikipediaIn the year 1984, Ingsoc divides Oceanian society into three social classes, the InnerParty, the Outer Party, and the Proles:• The Inner Party make policy, affect decisions, and govern; they are known as “The Party”. One of their upper-class privileges is (temporarily) shutting off their telescreens, for time alone. They live in spacious, comfortable homes, have good food and drink, personal servants, and speedy transportation. No Outer Party member or Prole may enter an Inner party neighbourhood without a good pretext.
• The Outer Party work the state’s administrative jobs; they are the middle class, whose “members are allowed no vices other than cigarettes and Victory Gin”, and who are the citizens most spied upon, via telescreens and surveillance. This is because, according to history, the middle class is the most dangerous; they are the ones to incite revolution, the one thing The Party does not want. They live in rundown neighbourhoods, use crowded subways as transportation, have poorer food and drink, and are denied sex for any other purpose than having children within marriage, and are expected to look at it as a duty, rather than pleasure.• The Proles are the lower class of workers. They live in the poorest conditions, but they can be considered as more fortunate than the Outer Party members since they are not constantly watched by Big Brother, and the Party keeps them happy and sedates them with alcohol, gambling, sport, sexual promiscuity, and prolefeed (Fabricated books, pornography). A few agents of the Thought Police do mark down and eliminate any individuals deemed capable of becoming dangerous and spread false rumours. Proletariat are 85 percent of Oceania’s populace. Wikipedia
Double ThinkThe power of holding two contradictory beliefs in ones mind simultaneously, andaccepting both of them....To tell deliberate lies while genuinely believing in them, toforget any fact that has become inconvenient, and then, when it becomes necessaryagain, to draw it back from oblivion for just as long as it is needed, to deny the existenceof objective reality and all the while to take account of the reality which one denies - allthis is indispensably necessary. Even in using the word doublethink it is necessary toexercise doublethink. For by using the word one admits that one is tampering withreality; by a fresh act of doublethink one erases this knowledge; and so onindefinitely, with the lie always one leap ahead of the truth.In the case of workers at the Records Department in the Ministry of Truth, doublethinkmeans being able to falsify public records, and then believe in the new history that theythemselves have just rewritten. As revealed in Goldsteins Book, the Ministrys name isitself an example of doublethink: the Ministry of Truth is really concerned with lies. Theother ministries of Airstrip One are similarly named: the Ministry of Peace is concernedwith war, the Ministry of Love is concerned with torture, and the Ministry of Plenty isconcerned with starvation. The three slogans of the Party - War is Peace, Freedom isSlavery, and Ignorance is Strength - are also examples. Wikipedia
• Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. In the novel, it refers to the deliberately impoverished language promoted by the state. Orwell included an essay about it in the form of an appendix in which the basic principles of the language are explained. Newspeak is closely based on English but has a greatly reduced and simplifiedvocabulary and grammar. This suits the totalitarian regime of the Party, whose aim is to make any alternative thinking— "thoughtcrime", or "crimethink" in the newest edition of Newspeak—impossible by removing any words or possible constructs which describe the ideas of freedom, rebellion and so on. One character, Syme, says admiringly of the shrinking volume of the new dictionary: "Its a beautiful thing, the destruction of words.“• The basic idea behind Newspeak is to remove all shades of meaning from language, leaving simple dichotomies (pleasure and pain, happiness and sadness, goodthink and crimethink) which reinforce the total dominance of the State. Similarly, Newspeak root words served as both nouns and verbs, which allowed further reduction in the total number of words; for example, "think" served as both noun and verb, so the word thought was not required and could be abolished. A staccato rhythm of short syllables was also a goal, further reducing the need for deep thinking about language. (See duckspeak.) Successful Newspeak meant that there would be fewer and fewer words – dictionaries would get thinner and thinner.
The Thought Police (thinkpol in Newspeak) are the secret police of the novel NineteenEighty-Four whose job it is to uncover and punish thoughtcrime. The Thought Policeuse psychology surveillance to find and eliminate members of society who are capableof the mere thought of challenging ruling authority.The Thought Police of Orwell and their pursuit of thoughtcrime were based on themethods used by the totalitarian states and competing ideologies of the 20th century.It also had much to do with, as Orwell called it, the "power of facing unpleasantfacts", and his willingness to criticize prevailing ideas which brought him into conflictwith others and their "smelly little orthodoxies".The term "Thought Police", by extension, has come to refer to real or perceivedenforcement of ideological correctness.Technology played a significant part in the detection of thoughtcrime in NineteenEighty-Four—with the ubiquitous telescreens which could inform thegovernment, misinform and monitor the population. The citizens of Oceania arewatched by the Thought Police through the telescreens. Every movement, reflex, facialexpression, and reaction is measured by this system, monitored by the Ministry ofLove.
Senate House, London, where Orwell worked at the Ministry of Information, was his model for the Ministry of TruthThe Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue, in Newspeak) is one of the four ministries thatgovern Oceania in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. As with the otherMinistries in the novel, the Ministry of Truth is a misnomer and in reality serves anopposing purpose to that which its name would imply, being responsible for thefalsification of historical events; and yet is aptly named in a deeper sense, in that itcreates/manufactures "truth" in the newspeak sense of the word.
• The Ministry of Love, like the other ministries, is ironically named, since it is largely responsible for the practice and infliction of misery, fear, suffering, and torture. In a sense, however, the term is accurate, since its ultimate purpose is to instill love of Big Brother in the minds of thoughtcriminals. This is typical of the language of Newspeak, in which words and names frequently contain both an idea and its opposite; the orthodox party member is nonetheless able to resolve these contradictions through the disciplined use of Doublethink.
OBrienThe protagonist, Winston Smith, secretly hates the Party and Big Brother; in the event, heapproaches O’Brien, a high-level member of the Inner Party, believing him part of theBrotherhood, Goldsteins conspiracy against Oceania, Big Brother, and the Party. Initially, heappears as such, especially in giving Winston a copy of Goldstein’s illegal book, whichO’Brien says reveals the true, totalitarian nature of the society the Party established inOceania; full membership to the Brotherhood requires reading and knowing The Theory andPractice of Oligarchical Collectivism, the true title of "the book". When alone in the roomabove Mr. Charringtons shop, Winston examines the book, before reading it, noting that itwas: A heavy black volume, amateurishly bound, with no name or title on the cover. The print also looked slightly irregular. The pages were worn at the edges, and fell apart easily, as though the book had passed through many hands. The inscription on the title-page ran:THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF OLIGARCHICAL COLLECTIVISM by Emmanuel Goldstein