Low cost housing India

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Present solutions for low cost housing in India keeping in mind speed of construction and strength of conventional buildings.

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Low cost housing India

  1. 1. Submitted by: Aakash Dev Civil Department Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science Indore Email: dev.aakash1794@gmail.com
  2. 2. Key Features  Inexpensive to build  Save money while also maintaining building quality  Not sacrificing the strength, performance and life of the structure  Takes less time in building in comparison to the conventional ones  Use of resources while not harming the environment  Final result should be affordable for most people
  3. 3. Why do we need low cost houses?  Growing population day by day  Affordable housing for BPL people  We need a solution that is fast  Easy to build  Fulfills the needs of conventional houses  Our country aims that in our near future each and every individual has his/her shelter for his family and to fulfill this need we definitely need some immediate plans
  4. 4. Different building techniques are:  Recycling  Extensive planning  Modular planning  Infilling
  5. 5. Recycling  Recycled materials adapted for low- cost housing include wood and rubber that are previously been used.  Reprocessed into materials that are used in building walls and other parts of a house.  Recycled glass and metal are also used on occasion.  These recycled materials are often less expensive than using fully natural products.
  6. 6. Extensive planning  In extensive planning, the more planning goes into a house, the less the actual construction will cost.  Contractors should plan out exact dimensions and should gather facts.  Contractors should look for the best materials at the cheapest prices so they can order exactly what they need.  This saves money that would otherwise be wasted on unnecessary supplies and cleanup caused by littered materials.  Most houses are built as quickly as possible without this detailed planning beforehand.
  7. 7. Modular planning  Modular building is a type of construction where pieces of the home or typically whole rooms or major parts of rooms ,are built off- site in large factories.  This process allows the pieces to be built efficiently and exactly according to building standards.  At the site, the pieces are connected to the house.  Since materials aren't assembled on-site, owners save money on construction time,
  8. 8. Infilling  Infilling is the practice of going back through residential areas and building in areas that had previously been left empty.  Now its possible to build on because of resolved environmental concerns, space issues or other problems that have since been remedied.  Infilling makes better use of existing space.  It is less expensive for contractors overall
  9. 9. Techniques to reduce cost from area  Reduce plinth area by using thinner wall concept.  Use locally available material in an innovative form like soil cement blocks in place of burnt brick.  Use energy efficiency materials which consumes less energy like concrete block in place of burnt brick.  Use environmentally friendly materials which are substitute for conventional building components like use R.C.C. Door and window frames in place of wooden frames.  Preplan every component of a house and rationalize the design procedure for reducing the size of the component in the building.  By planning each and every component of a house the wastage of materials due to demolition of the unplanned component of the house can be avoided.
  10. 10. Construction technique adopted  Foundation  Wall  Lintel  Roof
  11. 11. Foundation  The foundation cost comes to about 10 to 15% of the total building  Suggested to adopt arch foundation in ordinary soil for effecting reduction in construction cost up to 40%.  In the case black cotton and other soft soils it is recommend to use under ream pile foundation which saves about 20 to 25% in cost over the conventional method of construction.
  12. 12. wall  Making use of Rat – trap bond wall & Concrete block wall.  It is a cavity wall construction and leads to reduction in the quantity of bricks required for masonry work.  By adopting this method of bonding of brick masonry compared to traditional English or Flemish bond masonry, it is possible to reduce in the material cost of bricks by 25% and about 10to 15% in the masonry cost.  By adopting rat-trap bond method one can create aesthetically pleasing wall surface and plastering can be avoided.
  13. 13. Concrete block walling  In view of high energy consumption by burnt brick it is suggested to use concrete block which consumes about only 1/3 of the energy of the burnt bricks in its production.  By using concrete block masonry the wall thickness can be reduced from 20 cms to 15 Cms.  Concrete block masonry saves mortar consumption, speedy construction of wall resulting in higher output of labour, plastering can be avoided thereby an overall saving of 10 to 25% can be achieved.
  14. 14. Lintel  The traditional R.C.C. lintels which are costly can be replaced by brick arches for small spans and save construction cost up to 30 to 40% over the traditional method of construction.  By adopting arches of different shapes a good architectural pleasing appearance can be given to the external wall surfaces of the brick masonry.
  15. 15. Roof  Normally 5" thick R.C.C. slabs is used for roofing of residential buildings.  By adopting rationally designed construction practices like filler slab and precast elements the construction cost of roofing can be reduced by about 20 to 25%.  Filler slabs They are normal RCC slabs where bottom half (tension) concrete portions are replaced by filler materials such as bricks, tiles, cellular concrete blocks, etc  These filler materials are so placed as not to compromise structural strength, result in replacing unwanted and nonfunctional tension concrete, thus resulting in economy.  These are safe, sound and provide aesthetically pleasing pattern ceilings and also need no plaster.
  16. 16. Laurie Baker(1917-2007)  Laurie baker Was an award- winning British-born Indian architect.  Renowned for his initiatives in cost-effective energy-efficient architecture.  Made many concepts related to low cost housing.
  17. 17. Techniques used by Laurie Baker
  18. 18. The Hamlet Laurie bakers home  This is Baker’s home in Trivandrum built on a plot of land along the slope of a rocky hill, with limited access to water.  Baker’s genius has created a wonderful home for his family.  Material used from unconventional sources.  Electricity wiring is not concealed.  According to Baker, fans and lamps can be avoided as in India there is sunlight all round the year, which also means that if water is stored in the southern part of the house, hot water can be made available.
  19. 19.  Made Use of BRICK JALLIS.  Effective way to minimize your electricity bills  Built In Furniture For The Hamlet
  20. 20. Recycled Wood from traditional demolished building.
  21. 21. All materials are used in their natural form, exposed brick work, mortar, concrete shows the truthfulness of materials.  Baker’s loves to material in their natural form.
  22. 22. Quality of spaces
  23. 23. Major plans progressing at present in India
  24. 24. •Affordable Housing Affordable housing Demand for housing in India is literally going through the roof. To cater to the increasing demand, Tata BlueScope Steel supplies affordable housing solution - a Complete Solution to the customer right from Conceptualization- Design-Manufacturing- Supply. Thus, using light guage structure (LGS) along with world class ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel, Tata BlueScope Steel provides all benefits of a conventional house in a very short span of time.
  25. 25. More about the solution  Benefits of ZINCALUME® steel- durability, design flexibility, termite resistance, corrosion resistance, high strength, dimensional stability, light-weight structure, etc.  Being steel, it is earthquake resistant, fire resistant and thermally efficient; also has energy efficiency and environmental friendly credentials.  The insulation laid against the underside of roof sheeting dampens the rain induced vibration at point of impact and a substantial noise reduction is achieved.  In addition to noise reduction, the insulation also significantly adds to the thermal insulation properties of the roof system.  The Steel Building is easy to build. What more, it helps reduce cost by reducing foundation cost due to lighter superstructure, reduced cranage cost, less labour requirement, fast construction time, etc.
  26. 26. To counter the various problems, optimum residential buildings have to be built in huge numbers, not only to prevent the expansion of slums and chawls, but also for its eradication. This solution provides steel houses that can be erected in a very short span of time and which have all features equivalent to or better than conventional houses. These LGS houses have been tested and are in use in various countries such as the USA, China, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, etc. to name a few. NGOs, Government Agencies, Corporates and Individuals involved in Rehabilitation/ Relief works can make use of our affordable housing solutions. Benefit to society
  27. 27. IIT Madras-The 6.5 lakh home The researchers from the civil engineering department of IIT Madras have developed a method for low cost housing. This is to build rapid, cost-effective mass housing using glass fiber reinforced gypsum (GFRG) panels. Gypsum is a waste by product of the fertilizer industry & an environmental hazard too. This method of construction is not only less expensive(cost 2/3rd), but also less time consuming as the 'GFRG demo building' was constructed by the IIT team in just a month and is even ecofriendly. Since 2003, the IIT-Madras research team had conducted
  28. 28. How its made ? These panels, originally developed by RBS Australia, were intended as wall panels ('Rapidwall') suitable for rapid erection of walls in buildings to carry gravity loads.  The panels are made of calcined gypsum plaster, combined with special additives and glass fibres, to produce GFRG panels - 12m long, 3m high and 124mm thick (with hollow cavities). The IITM research group extended the application of this product for the entire building system - including floors, roofs, and staircases, thus significantly reducing the consumption of Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC). The team also collaborated in the indigenous development of an excellent water-proofing material, which is essential for prolonged durability of the GFRG panels, especially in the case of roofs and
  29. 29. The panels are prefabricated and cut to desired sizes based on room dimensions with openings for doors and windows, thus making rapid construction possible. Filling the cavities with concrete increases the vertical load-carrying capacity almost tenfold, and inserting vertical steel bars in these cavities, contributes to their earthquake resistance.
  30. 30. Advantages over conventional buildings: High speed of construction Less built-up area for the same carpet area. Less embodied energy and carbon footprint: significant reduction in use of cement, sand, steel and water; recycling of industrial waste gypsum. Lower cost of structure: savings in materials; no plastering. Lower building weight (panels weigh only 43 kg/m2), contributing to savings in foundation and reduction in design for earthquake forces, particularly in multi- storeyed construction. Buildings up to 8-10 storeys can be designed using this load-bearing system, without the need for beams and columns.
  31. 31. Starting from the foundation Provide support for vertical walls
  32. 32. Construction of second storey Settling the roof
  33. 33. Fine finish and furnishing Smooth walls
  34. 34. Conclusion  There is a strict need at present in India for building cheap and affordable houses  It is the key to nations development ,to provide proper shelter to its citizens  The growing population in urban areas have led to a strict shortage in land, congested traffic and housing shortfall  This has also led to the hike in prices which makes it impossible for common people to have their own houses  Thus there is a immediate need for construction of
  35. 35. Bibliography  Google search  Wiki  Times of India  NDTV  Tata BlueScope steel  Slide share
  36. 36. Thank You….

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