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Week 2 Evolution2009


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Week 2 Evolution2009

  1. 1. New Media Technologies: Communication Theories COM 300 – Week 2 Evolution of Digital Communication Peg Achterman 6 April 2009
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Communication Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Media: short history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More “New Media” Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS explanation (tentative) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. New media (recapped) <ul><li>Some definitions focus on computer technology, others focus on interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiences not heterogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control shifts from communicator to audience </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Communication <ul><li>A process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach mutual understanding (Rogers, 1995). </li></ul>
  5. 5. What’s it look like?
  6. 6. Mediated communication <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>d. mediated . (adj) acting or brought about through an intervening agent; (v) to be in the middle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why would we study it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We live in an ever-increasingly mediated world </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What’s it look like?
  8. 8. Part one : medium <ul><li>A go-between/intermediary in the communication binding the sender and receiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers symbolic and cognitive theories of the psychology of representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers theories of meaning in signs and symbols (semiotics) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What’s this?
  10. 10. What is Mass Media?
  11. 11. Part two : mass media <ul><li>Mass communication characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed towards a large, heterogeneous audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages are transmitted publicly, are transient in nature, and are timed to reach all simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicator works for an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Wright, 1959, from Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media, 1988, p7 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Channel <ul><li>The physical/technical transmission as well as any device needed for encoding/decoding </li></ul><ul><li>May encompass advertising channels (direct mail) or news (TV) </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-many, one-way channel is typical in mass media </li></ul>
  13. 13. So, what is new? <ul><li>Technologically? </li></ul><ul><li>Socially? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your thoughts, based on readings? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Three BIG things: </li></ul>
  14. 14. Concept of scarcity <ul><li>Gone! </li></ul><ul><li>Bits can be shared; atoms cannot </li></ul><ul><li>Implications? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this relate to Bush’s musings about Memex? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it make it easier or harder to “remediate”? Why? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Constraint of time <ul><li>Gone! </li></ul><ul><li>Time-shifting (Tivo, podcasting, 24x7 tech support via the web … what else?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you think that the speed in which we now communicate (e-mail, mobile phones, etc.) has affected our communication? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Constraint of space <ul><li>Geographical barriers: Gone! </li></ul><ul><li>Internet technology lets us “space shift” like we “time shift” – (almost) seamlessly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are environmental benefits from the advancement of technology, specifically from computers...what about the detriments? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If in the future, all of academia (from grade school & beyond) required only computer-based work, what would your response be to the change? Why? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. New channels <ul><li>WWW </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Mp3 </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile telephony </li></ul><ul><li>What do they have in common? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Computer Mediated Communication <ul><li>Desktop computers used as tools to influence human cognition and convey messages among people (focuses on the technology, older definition) </li></ul><ul><li>Any form of communication between two or more individuals who interact and/or influence each other using social software on separate computers linked by a network (focuses on the people) </li></ul>
  19. 19. CMC <ul><li>CMC software has two categories: asynchronous and synchronous (Smith, 1994). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. edb . utexas . edu/csclstudent/kim/text/ASCmC .html </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Synchronous <ul><li>Two or more group members have real-time (simultaneous) communication </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging can be synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face meetings; video conference; other? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Asynchronous <ul><li>Allows group members to work individually and “alone” </li></ul><ul><li>Provides time/space flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail, BBs </li></ul>
  22. 22. CMC/Web Characteristics <ul><li>Hardware independent </li></ul><ul><li>Software independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud computing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open standards </li></ul><ul><li>Information sharing </li></ul><ul><li>“Give back” (contribute) to the community </li></ul>
  23. 23. CMC/Web Characteristics <ul><li>A blend of characteristics from “old” media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Print Characteristics <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Reader controls pace </li></ul>
  25. 25. Radio Characteristics <ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Creator controls pace </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>“Live” — happening in real time </li></ul><ul><li>Transient audience </li></ul>
  26. 26. TV Characteristics <ul><li>Animated </li></ul><ul><li>Creator controls pace </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>“ Live” — may be happening now </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily visual </li></ul><ul><li>Transient audience </li></ul>
  27. 27. Film Characteristics <ul><li>Animated </li></ul><ul><li>Captive Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Creator Controls Pace </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Visual </li></ul>
  28. 28. Web Characteristics <ul><li>Dynamic (not fixed) content </li></ul><ul><li>“Live” (maybe) </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-media (visual, auditory) </li></ul><ul><li>Transient audience </li></ul><ul><li>More nonlinear </li></ul><ul><li>User controls pace and direction </li></ul>
  29. 29. Mass audience no longer <ul><li>From broadcast to narrowcast </li></ul><ul><li>Time-shifting </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerates a move foreshadowed by niche publishing </li></ul>
  30. 30. Summary <ul><li>Mediated Communication is … </li></ul><ul><li>Two types are … </li></ul><ul><li>Three characteristics of new media and their impacts … </li></ul>
  31. 31. Resources <ul><li>Effects of Four CMC Channels on Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary of Internet Terms </li></ul><ul><li>JCMC </li></ul>
  32. 32. Reading Discussion <ul><li>Break into your discussion groups </li></ul><ul><li>There are four questions (seven groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion – reach as much consensus as possible </li></ul><ul><li>“Report out” and group discussion </li></ul>