Organisational Creativity
The systemic view of creativity: towards a comprehensive
framework for creativity development
Pa...
agenda
A little bit of history
The best definition I know about creativity
Obstacles
Creative project
The systemic view of ...
dynamic capabilities
personal skills learning systems
change management
resource base
environment
strategy
business model
...
is there any formula for innovation?
Thursday, 21 October 2010
is there any formula for innovation?
Thursday, 21 October 2010
is there any formula for innovation?
Thursday, 21 October 2010
is there any formula for innovation?
Thursday, 21 October 2010
great, but
Thursday, 21 October 2010
“Economic forces such as the growing service economy and
commoditisation of traditional value chains have led many
organis...
Traditionally understood (corporate
level),innovation is an outcome
and the only place to look
for it is in the past...
Th...
Launched on
October 23rd,2001
NO ONE could have said on October 22nd,2001:“This is an innovation”
Thursday, 21 October 2010
no keyboard !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!NO ONE could say today:“This is an innovation”
Thursday, 21 October 2010
research indicates that innovation is related to emergent processes
driven by knowledge creation,organisational learning a...
research indicates that innovation is related toemergent processes
driven by knowledge creation,organisational learning an...
research indicates that innovation is related toemergent processes
driven by knowledge creation,organisational learning an...
creativityThursday, 21 October 2010
The production of new and useful concepts, ideas or products
(Amabile, 1988; Boden, 1999; Stein, 1974).
The ability to ove...
so...creativity
Thursday, 21 October 2010
“Don’t memorise formulas; work them out instead.”
Ruth Noller
creativity formula
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Is the result of the interaction between knowledge,imagination and
evaluation,moderated by the creative attitude
Ruth Noll...
A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values
and dispositions to act in certain ways
A personal motiva...
A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values
and dispositions to act in certain ways
A personal motiva...
beliefs attitude
language
physiological
behaviour
Routines are patterns of interactions that represent
successful solution...
so,why not everyone does that?
Thursday, 21 October 2010
obstacles
Thursday, 21 October 2010
There’s no time for changes
#1Thursday, 21 October 2010
-30
0
30
60
90
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8
Performance
Time
Proyect A Proyect B Proyect C
There’s no time for changes
Thursday...
RED BLUE GREEN
Y E L L O W O R A N G E
GREY BROWN BLACK
GREEN RED BLUE
YELLOW BLACK BLUE
Y E L L O W G R E Y
ORANGE GREY B...
Creative Change Management
William Bridges
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Satisfying and premature convergence
#2Thursday, 21 October 2010
Things that are
impossible for human beings
to do…
but would be really cool
if we could do them.
Thursday, 21 October 2010
! Breathe under water
! Shape or colour shift (be invisible)
! X-Ray vision
! Read minds (human and other)
! Time travel (...
!"
!"
The miracle of the
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Our gator brain
#3Thursday, 21 October 2010
human nature
and the nervous
system
Thursday, 21 October 2010
The R-complex
The Limbic system
The Neo-cortex
Thursday, 21 October 2010
The R-complex is named for the most
advanced part of the brain higher mammals
share with reptiles. It is responsible for r...
fight
fly
freeze
Thursday, 21 October 2010
The limbic system is the set of brain
structures that forms the inner border of the
cortex which support a variety of func...
It is involved in higher functions such as
sensory perception, generation of motor
commands, working memory, spatial
reaso...
You can’t escape your gator,
But you can decide
who’s in charge.
Thursday, 21 October 2010
however
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Paradigms and patterns of behaviour
#4Thursday, 21 October 2010
We’ll rent cars to people
who’ve had their license
suspended for speeding or
driving under the influence!
A new service id...
• 60,000 Swiss people annually have their licenses suspended for 1 to 12 months
• In 2003 it became legal for most people ...
4-5 year olds! ! ! 98%
10-11 year olds! ! ! 30%
15-16 year olds! ! ! 12%
Over 30 years old! ! 2%
People scoring high in st...
“The problem is never how to get new,
innovative thoughts into your mind, but how
to get old ones out. Every mind is a bui...
(some) obstacles
There’s no time for changes (& learn new things) - creative change management
Satisfying and premature co...
The biggest obstacles to innovate
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
Resistance to change
Lack of time
Fear of risk taking
Not thi...
7 ways to stop companies from being more innovative
Source: Vardis,Selden (2008) Report Card on Innovation.
Center for Bus...
so,what can we do about it?
Thursday, 21 October 2010
The Creative Studies Project
The Creative Studies Project took place from 1969 through 1972 at
Buffalo State College – Sta...
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Leadership
Product
(e.g., theories,
solutions to
problems, ideas,
services,
inventions,etc.)
Person
Process
Environm
ent
I...
consciousness
ability
(-)
(-) (+)
(+)
unconscious
inability
conscious
inability
conscious
ability
unconscious
ability
Crea...
Tools
techniques
Processes
methodologies
Values,beliefs
attitudes,
behaviours
tool set
mind set
skill set
tool set
mind se...
The Creative Process
Creative Problem Solving & ProductiveThinking
Frameworks for
creative thinking
Thursday, 21 October 2...
Creative Problem Solving is a comprehensive cognitive and affective
system built on our natural creative processes that de...
Creative Problem Solving
(50 years of development and research)
1.The CPS process parallels people’s natural creative thin...
Predicament Opportunity
Formulaic Maintenance
Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2008) Creative Problem Solving: Background and Intro...
Principles of divergence and convergence
Zoneoffamiliarity
divergence
divergence
convergence
convergence
zone
of
discovery...
CPS 6.1 / 4.0 divergence
convergence
divergence
convergence
divergence
convergence
divergence
convergence
divergence
conve...
Creative Problem Solving 6.1
(Thinking skills)
Divergent Thinking Skills
Fluency (getting a large number of ideas or respo...
Creative Problem Solving 6.1
(Thinking skills and the process)
Puccio, Murdock, Mance
(2008) Identifying Complex
Thinking ...
The productive thinking process is designed to help discover
and explore new, often challenging, ideas, concepts, and
solu...
ProductiveThinking
Productive thinking, therefore, is a balanced
process of making lists and making choices.
Creative thin...
Creative thinking is
about
making
lists
Thursday, 21 October 2010
!"#$#%&'($)#*+#*,(#-(
&./0$
1&+#*,(
%)/#%2-
Thursday, 21 October 2010
“The best way to have good ideas is to have a
lot of ideas...
and then throw the bad ones away”
Linus Pauling
Thursday, 21...
Now here’s my plan....
Thursday, 21 October 2010
ProductiveThinking
Our productive thinking training and entraining programmes are designed to:
•!Provide immediate experie...
How to put Thinkx Productive Thinking to work
Thinkx productive thinking labs
Problem-solving and opportunity-finding works...
What’s This?
Defer Judgement
Build on Ideas
Seek Wild Ideas
Go for Quantity
Thursday, 21 October 2010
First
Use creative thinking to
generate as many options
as possible
Then
Use critical thinking to
choose ideas with potent...
ProductiveThinking overarching principles
Creative thinking guidelines Critical thinking guidelines
Defer judgement.This d...
DivergentThinking:Creativity training provides the capacity to
generate multiple solutions as opposed to the one correct
s...
Effects of creativity training
1. Be concerned with what may happen in the future
and deal with the resulting insecurity a...
Leadership
Product
(e.g., theories,
solutions to
problems, ideas,
services,
inventions,etc.)
Person
Process
Environm
ent
I...
culture
climate
Shared mental programming
of those within the same organisation
Shared meanings,values,
attitudes and beli...
List three places or activities where
you get your best ideas…
Thursday, 21 October 2010
List three places or activities where
you get your best ideas…
Now rank them.
! 1st most productive
! 2nd most productive
...
Survey says...
1. Shower, bath, bathroom ! 57%
2. Bed!! ! 51%
3. Driving (or passenger) 42%
4. Walking! ! ! 28%
5. Exercis...
The scientific explanation
Brain's Problem-Solving Function At Work When We Daydream
A new University of British Columbia s...
1. Shower, bath, bathroom ! 57%
2. Bed!! ! 51%
3. Driving (or passenger) 42%
4. Walking! ! ! 28%
5. Exercise, running, swi...
1. Shower, bath, bathroom ! 57%
2. Bed!! ! 51%
3. Driving (or passenger) 42%
4. Walking! ! ! 28%
5. Exercise, running, swi...
Classifications based on the work of Goran Ekvall and Scott Isaksen
(1971) Creativity at the work place
(1987)The climate m...
so,who else is doing it?
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Design thinking is a process for
practical,creative resolution of
problems or issues that looks for an
improved future res...
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Thursday, 21 October 2010
Thursday, 21 October 2010
General Framework
DuPont wanted to stimulate new product development and overall organizational improvement."They created ...
Organisational Creativity
The systemic view of creativity: towards a comprehensive
framework for creativity development
Pa...
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Organisational Creativity: The systemic view of creativity: towards a comprehensive framework for creativity development

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Module: Understanding and Managing Creativity
MSc Innovation, Creativity and Entrepreneurship
MSc Arts, Business and Creativity
Newcastle University Business School

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Organisational Creativity: The systemic view of creativity: towards a comprehensive framework for creativity development

  1. 1. Organisational Creativity The systemic view of creativity: towards a comprehensive framework for creativity development Pablo Munoz PhD Researcher , Newcastle University Business School Consulting Partner,Thinkx Intellectual Capital MScABC / MSc ICE October 2010 Thursday, 21 October 2010
  2. 2. agenda A little bit of history The best definition I know about creativity Obstacles Creative project The systemic view of creativity Training framework Creative processes Divergent and critical thinking Effects of creativity training Climate and leadership Case studies Thursday, 21 October 2010
  3. 3. dynamic capabilities personal skills learning systems change management resource base environment strategy business model organisational abilities organisational structure continuous innovation routinesattitude behaviour creativity training innovation problem solving processes paths assets innovativenessbusiness performance knowledge Thursday, 21 October 2010
  4. 4. is there any formula for innovation? Thursday, 21 October 2010
  5. 5. is there any formula for innovation? Thursday, 21 October 2010
  6. 6. is there any formula for innovation? Thursday, 21 October 2010
  7. 7. is there any formula for innovation? Thursday, 21 October 2010
  8. 8. great, but Thursday, 21 October 2010
  9. 9. “Economic forces such as the growing service economy and commoditisation of traditional value chains have led many organisations to pursue breakthrough innovations as part of their business strategy” Dr. Casimer DeCusatis IBM Corporation Creating, Growing, and Sustaining Efficient InnovationTeams (wp) Innovation Ecosystem Study. IBM Academy ofTechnology FROM TO Monolithic Invention Collaborative innovation Patent based own & protect Customer value based share & expand Well defined objectives Sense and respond to demand Single discipline Multiple discipline Structured,top down Symbiotic partnership Passive consumers Consumers are producers Specialized,local R&D teams“not invented here” Everyone is an innovator,best from anywhere The changing nature of innovation Thursday, 21 October 2010
  10. 10. Traditionally understood (corporate level),innovation is an outcome and the only place to look for it is in the past... Thursday, 21 October 2010
  11. 11. Launched on October 23rd,2001 NO ONE could have said on October 22nd,2001:“This is an innovation” Thursday, 21 October 2010
  12. 12. no keyboard !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!NO ONE could say today:“This is an innovation” Thursday, 21 October 2010
  13. 13. research indicates that innovation is related to emergent processes driven by knowledge creation,organisational learning and creativity; these processes should be sustained by organisational structures and work flows based on innovative behaviours. (the author) Thursday, 21 October 2010
  14. 14. research indicates that innovation is related toemergent processes driven by knowledge creation,organisational learning and creativity; these processes should be sustained byorganisational structures and work flows based on innovative behaviours. (the author) Thursday, 21 October 2010
  15. 15. research indicates that innovation is related toemergent processes driven by knowledge creation,organisational learning andcreativity; these processes should be sustained byorganisational structures and work flows based on innovative behaviours. (the author) Thursday, 21 October 2010
  16. 16. creativityThursday, 21 October 2010
  17. 17. The production of new and useful concepts, ideas or products (Amabile, 1988; Boden, 1999; Stein, 1974). The ability to overcome self limitations (Ackoff &Vergara, 1988). The result of the interaction between knowledge, imagination, evaluation and the creative attitude (Noller). Thursday, 21 October 2010
  18. 18. so...creativity Thursday, 21 October 2010
  19. 19. “Don’t memorise formulas; work them out instead.” Ruth Noller creativity formula Thursday, 21 October 2010
  20. 20. Is the result of the interaction between knowledge,imagination and evaluation,moderated by the creative attitude Ruth Noller Thursday, 21 October 2010
  21. 21. A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways A personal motivational predisposition to respond to persons, situations, or events in a given manner that can, nevertheless, be changed or modified through training as a sort of mental shortcut to decision making. attitude Thursday, 21 October 2010
  22. 22. A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways A personal motivational predisposition to respond to persons, situations, or events in a given manner that can, nevertheless, be changed or modified through training as a sort of mental shortcut to decision making. attitude Thursday, 21 October 2010
  23. 23. beliefs attitude language physiological behaviour Routines are patterns of interactions that represent successful solutions to particular problems.These patterns of interaction are resident in group behaviour and certain sub-routines may be resident in individual behaviour Attitude Thursday, 21 October 2010
  24. 24. so,why not everyone does that? Thursday, 21 October 2010
  25. 25. obstacles Thursday, 21 October 2010
  26. 26. There’s no time for changes #1Thursday, 21 October 2010
  27. 27. -30 0 30 60 90 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 Performance Time Proyect A Proyect B Proyect C There’s no time for changes Thursday, 21 October 2010
  28. 28. RED BLUE GREEN Y E L L O W O R A N G E GREY BROWN BLACK GREEN RED BLUE YELLOW BLACK BLUE Y E L L O W G R E Y ORANGE GREY BLUE GREY BROWN BLACK R E D G R E Y R E D Y E L L O W B L A C K GREEN BLUE GREEN ...and it’s difficult to do it Thursday, 21 October 2010
  29. 29. Creative Change Management William Bridges Thursday, 21 October 2010
  30. 30. Satisfying and premature convergence #2Thursday, 21 October 2010
  31. 31. Things that are impossible for human beings to do… but would be really cool if we could do them. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  32. 32. ! Breathe under water ! Shape or colour shift (be invisible) ! X-Ray vision ! Read minds (human and other) ! Time travel (see future) ! No ageing or disease (instant healing) ! No death (back from dead) ! Beam (teleport) ! Two places at once ! No sleep ! Male birth ! Fly Thursday, 21 October 2010
  33. 33. !" !" The miracle of the Thursday, 21 October 2010
  34. 34. Our gator brain #3Thursday, 21 October 2010
  35. 35. human nature and the nervous system Thursday, 21 October 2010
  36. 36. The R-complex The Limbic system The Neo-cortex Thursday, 21 October 2010
  37. 37. The R-complex is named for the most advanced part of the brain higher mammals share with reptiles. It is responsible for rage and basic survival fight-or-flight responses. Often, the R-Complex can override the more rational function of the brain and result in unpredictable, primitive behaviour in even the most sentient of creatures, humans included. A well developed and healthy neo-cortex can monitor R-Complex activity in sentient beings. The Reptilian complex is the most ancient part of a very successful brain scheme, evolutionarily speaking. Reptilian brain Thursday, 21 October 2010
  38. 38. fight fly freeze Thursday, 21 October 2010
  39. 39. The limbic system is the set of brain structures that forms the inner border of the cortex which support a variety of functions including emotion, behaviour, long term memory, sensory transfer and olfaction. ! Amygdala: Involved in signalling the cortex of motivationally significant stimuli such as those related to reward and fear in addition to social functions. ! Hippocampus: Required for the formation of long-term memories and implicated in maintenance of cognitive maps for navigation. ! Parahippocampal gyrus: Plays a role in the formation of spatial memory. ! Cingulate gyrus: autonomic functions regulating heart rate, blood pressure and cognitive and attentional processing. ! Hypothalamus: Regulates the autonomic nervous system via hormone production and release. ! Thalamus:The "relay station" to the cerebral cortex Limbic system Thursday, 21 October 2010
  40. 40. It is involved in higher functions such as sensory perception, generation of motor commands, working memory, spatial reasoning, conscious thought and language (high cognitive skills) Neo cortex Thursday, 21 October 2010
  41. 41. You can’t escape your gator, But you can decide who’s in charge. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  42. 42. however Thursday, 21 October 2010
  43. 43. Paradigms and patterns of behaviour #4Thursday, 21 October 2010
  44. 44. We’ll rent cars to people who’ve had their license suspended for speeding or driving under the influence! A new service idea Thursday, 21 October 2010
  45. 45. • 60,000 Swiss people annually have their licenses suspended for 1 to 12 months • In 2003 it became legal for most people with suspended licenses to operate cars that cannot exceed 45 kph • Enzo Stretti has a fleet of Smart Cars that he rents for 60% of “Hertz/Avis’’ rates • Developed into a big business Small cars,big business Thursday, 21 October 2010
  46. 46. 4-5 year olds! ! ! 98% 10-11 year olds! ! ! 30% 15-16 year olds! ! ! 12% Over 30 years old! ! 2% People scoring high in standard tests for imagination and creativity While we grow up... Thursday, 21 October 2010
  47. 47. “The problem is never how to get new, innovative thoughts into your mind, but how to get old ones out. Every mind is a building full of archaic furniture. Clean out a corner of your mind and creativity will instantly fill it” Dee Hock, Founder, VISA Thursday, 21 October 2010
  48. 48. (some) obstacles There’s no time for changes (& learn new things) - creative change management Satisfying and premature convergence - 3/3rd Gator brain - you can decide who is in charge Paradigms and patterns of behaviour - attitudinal change Thursday, 21 October 2010
  49. 49. The biggest obstacles to innovate 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Resistance to change Lack of time Fear of risk taking Not thinking ouside the box Lack of creative skills Other Source: Vardis,Selden (2008) Report Card on Innovation. Center for Business Innovation and Creativity,Coles College of Business,Kennesaw State University,Proceedings CIM Conference Thursday, 21 October 2010
  50. 50. 7 ways to stop companies from being more innovative Source: Vardis,Selden (2008) Report Card on Innovation. Center for Business Innovation and Creativity,Coles College of Business,Kennesaw State University.Proceedings CIM Conference 1. Have a corporate culture that resists change 2. Have a top management that only accepts its own ideas 3. Have in place a risk-adverse top management 4. Be fearful of change, failure, risk, loss of money 5. Indulge in inertia - Believe that nothing new is needed 6. Discouraging the following: Funding of new ideas, focus of vision, employee training to be alert to new possibilities, motivation and rewards for new ideas, encouragement to take risks, flexibility of thinking, top management support 7. Micromanage most activities Thursday, 21 October 2010
  51. 51. so,what can we do about it? Thursday, 21 October 2010
  52. 52. The Creative Studies Project The Creative Studies Project took place from 1969 through 1972 at Buffalo State College – State University of New York. The purpose of this landmark investigation was “to conduct research into the nature and nurture of creative behaviour, and to translate the findings into educational programmes” (Parnes & Noller, 1972). This research was an extension of the “pilot experimentation and the development of courses, programmes, and methods designed to stimulate creative behaviour” that took place at the State University of NewYork at Buffalo from 1949 to 1967. can be studied can be assessed can be systematised can be trained Thursday, 21 October 2010
  53. 53. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  54. 54. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  55. 55. Leadership Product (e.g., theories, solutions to problems, ideas, services, inventions,etc.) Person Process Environm ent Interaction leads to Creative Change (e.g., social change, personal change, innovation etc.) Adoption leads to CHANGE THAT STICKS Una visión de sistemas de la creatividad (Puccio, Murdock, & Mance, 2007) Systemic vision of creativity(Puccio, Murdock, & Mance, 2007) Thursday, 21 October 2010
  56. 56. consciousness ability (-) (-) (+) (+) unconscious inability conscious inability conscious ability unconscious ability Creativity training framework Thursday, 21 October 2010
  57. 57. Tools techniques Processes methodologies Values,beliefs attitudes, behaviours tool set mind set skill set tool set mind set skill set tool set mind set skill set individual Group Organisational Creativity training framework Thursday, 21 October 2010
  58. 58. The Creative Process Creative Problem Solving & ProductiveThinking Frameworks for creative thinking Thursday, 21 October 2010
  59. 59. Creative Problem Solving is a comprehensive cognitive and affective system built on our natural creative processes that deliberately ignites creative thinking and, as a result, generates creative solutions and change CPS as a deliberate creative process takes intuitive responses to open-ended problems and moves them from trial and error to targeted strategies. In accomplishing this, CPS (1) influences how people think about themselves and the world around them in relation to change; and (2) improves individual and team performance for problems that appear to have no immediate solution. Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2008) Creative Problem Solving: Background and Introduction to theThinking Skills Model Creative Problem Solving (50 years of development and research) Thursday, 21 October 2010
  60. 60. Creative Problem Solving (50 years of development and research) 1.The CPS process parallels people’s natural creative thinking processes by efficiently organising what happens when they work with problems. This means that CPS has an intuitive base that is easy to tap into in more explicit ways. 2.Through the alternating phases of divergent (generating options) and convergent thinking (evaluating options), and the use of tools that support them, CPS provides a way to manage that most ferocious opponent of creative thinking—premature or inappropriate judgement. 3. CPS combines thinking with doing, which helps people accomplish concrete actions and get results from their initial ideas. 4. Finally, CPS provides a flexible format that is capable of taking in many creativity tools and approaches. Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2008) Creative Problem Solving: Background and Introduction to theThinking Skills Model Thursday, 21 October 2010
  61. 61. Predicament Opportunity Formulaic Maintenance Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2008) Creative Problem Solving: Background and Introduction to theThinking Skills Model Reactive Proactive Algoritmic (closed-endend) Heuristic (open-endend) Nature of the problem Approach to the problem Types of problems Creative Problem Solving (how and when) Thursday, 21 October 2010
  62. 62. Principles of divergence and convergence Zoneoffamiliarity divergence divergence convergence convergence zone of discovery zone of discovery Thursday, 21 October 2010
  63. 63. CPS 6.1 / 4.0 divergence convergence divergence convergence divergence convergence divergence convergence divergence convergence divergence convergence OF FF PF IF SF AF Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2008) Creative Problem Solving: Background and Introduction to theThinking Skills Model Clarification TransformationImplementation Thursday, 21 October 2010
  64. 64. Creative Problem Solving 6.1 (Thinking skills) Divergent Thinking Skills Fluency (getting a large number of ideas or responses); flexibility (getting variety in kinds or categories of ideas or responses); elaboration (adding to or developing existing ideas or responses); and originality (getting new, novel or different ideas or responses) Convergent Thinking Skills Screening (filtering - keeping some and discarding others for a particular reason), sorting (categorising or grouping by some implicit or explicit schema), and prioritising (determining the rank order among options); supporting (examining for positive attributes; identifying and putting them forward to be considered further), and developing (strengthening, improving, fleshing out the overall option so that it appears doable) Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2008) Creative Problem Solving: Background and Introduction to theThinking Skills Model Thursday, 21 October 2010
  65. 65. Creative Problem Solving 6.1 (Thinking skills and the process) Puccio, Murdock, Mance (2008) Identifying Complex Thinking Skills Associated with the Creative Problem Thursday, 21 October 2010
  66. 66. The productive thinking process is designed to help discover and explore new, often challenging, ideas, concepts, and solutions that may be useful, profitable, or beneficial. ProductiveThinking Productive thinking is important for innovation, growth, capacity building, differentiation, value creation, and new product and process development. Productive thinking combines and balances two distinct thinking modes — creative thinking, a free-wheeling generative process, aimed at producing as many new ideas as possible, and critical thinking, a disciplined evaluative process aimed at selecting and developing those ideas with the most promise. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  67. 67. ProductiveThinking Productive thinking, therefore, is a balanced process of making lists and making choices. Creative thinking is: •! Generative •! Non-judgmental •! Expansive In practice, creative thinking uses divergent strategies to generate long lists of possibilities. Critical thinking is: •! Selective •! Judgmental •! Focusing In practice, critical thinking uses convergent strategies to select ideas that may hold promise. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  68. 68. Creative thinking is about making lists Thursday, 21 October 2010
  69. 69. !"#$#%&'($)#*+#*,(#-( &./0$ 1&+#*,( %)/#%2- Thursday, 21 October 2010
  70. 70. “The best way to have good ideas is to have a lot of ideas... and then throw the bad ones away” Linus Pauling Thursday, 21 October 2010
  71. 71. Now here’s my plan.... Thursday, 21 October 2010
  72. 72. ProductiveThinking Our productive thinking training and entraining programmes are designed to: •!Provide immediate experience with powerful tools, techniques, and processes to enhance personal and professional creative thinking, strategic thinking and problem-solving effectiveness. •!Demonstrate proven approaches to help develop better ways to innovate, develop products and processes, discover market opportunities, save money, and be competitive. •!Understand and leverage team’s thinking styles to achieve breakthrough results."" •!Introduce an innovation vocabulary and mindset, allowing teams to collaborate more effectively, more efficiently, and more productively as they work through a disciplined, repeatable innovation process. Productive Thinking is the platform skill on which innovative teams are built. It is a skill that can be learned and developed. Everyone, regardless of starting point, can think more clearly, more creatively, and more effectively. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  73. 73. How to put Thinkx Productive Thinking to work Thinkx productive thinking labs Problem-solving and opportunity-finding workshops for strategic planning, innovation, marketing, and other major challenge (1–5 days) Thinkx group galeforce sessions Small group facilitations for maximum effect in minimum time (1/2 day) Thinkx productive thinking courses Comprehensive courses in productive thinking methods, tools, and techniques: Productive Thinking Workshop (1 day) - introduction to the ProductiveThinking model & principles Foundations of Productive Thinking (2 days) - how to use ProductiveThinking tools & techniques Facilitator Pre-certification (5 days) - intensive immersion in leading ProductiveThinking sessions Thinkx productive thinking on-line A unique online thinking tool for individuals, coaches, and small groups Productive thinking keynotes Interactive presentations to inspire your team and set a productive tone for meetings (45–90 minutes) ProductiveThinking Thursday, 21 October 2010
  74. 74. What’s This? Defer Judgement Build on Ideas Seek Wild Ideas Go for Quantity Thursday, 21 October 2010
  75. 75. First Use creative thinking to generate as many options as possible Then Use critical thinking to choose ideas with potential Make lists Make choices SeparateYourThinking Thursday, 21 October 2010
  76. 76. ProductiveThinking overarching principles Creative thinking guidelines Critical thinking guidelines Defer judgement.This doesn't mean eliminating judgement, just waiting until the appropriate time. Give ideas a chance. Build on ideas. Create more ideas by adding slight twists and variations. Seek wild ideas. It’s easier to tame a wild idea than to invigorate a dull one. Go for quantity. Stretch: set a target of 30 itches, criteria, questions, ideas — whatever you're working on.Then go for more. Use these guidelines as you make your lists. Define success. Establish the criteria against which to measure your ideas. Unpack ideas.Analyse them to understand their principles, themes, and implications. Evaluate. Measure your ideas against the success criteria you have chosen. Judge generatively.Avoid binary (yes/no) evaluations. Look for ways to improve your ideas as you evaluate them. Use these guidelines as you make your choices. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  77. 77. DivergentThinking:Creativity training provides the capacity to generate multiple solutions as opposed to the one correct solution (fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration) Problem Solving:Creativity training provides high-order cognitive processes that require the modulation and control of more routines or fundamental skills (8 core processing operations: problem construction, information gathering, concept search, conceptual combination, idea generation, idea evaluation, implementation planning, action monitoring), used to generate solutions (ad-hoc or creative) to problems (simple or complex / defined or ill-defined) Group Performance: Creativity training (CPS) provides a framework (process) through which groups members can productively work together to successfully resolve a complex problem Individuals attitude: Creativity training significantly enhances employees’ attitudes toward active divergence, as well as a tendency to avoid premature convergence. Individuals behaviours: Creativity training enhances behaviours and skills related to performance at work, (such as problem- finding, ideation and idea evaluation,) and has a long-term effect in 3 skill areas: sensitivity to problems, ability to change and the way a person approaches different kinds of problems. Sources: (1,2) Scott,Leritz,Mumford (2004)The Effectiveness of Creativity Training. Creativity Research Journal (3,4,5) Puccio,Firestein,Coyle,Masucci (2006)A Review of the Effectiveness of CPSTraining.Creativity and Innovation Management Journal Effects of creativity training Thursday, 21 October 2010
  78. 78. Effects of creativity training 1. Be concerned with what may happen in the future and deal with the resulting insecurity and uncertainty 2. Identify new and appropriate solutions to problems 3. Develop knowledge-sharing processes 4.Adapt to different contexts by achieving new skills 5. Defer judgement 6.Think outside the box 7. Open up to new experiences 8.Work on low level of inferences 9. Develop curiosity and sensibility 10.Tolerate a high level of ambiguity 11. Perform an empathetic observation 12. Consider uncertainty as a challenge 13. Elaborate good questions 14.Always consider novelty first 15. Self manage 16. Produce changes in it’s own life and some others... Thursday, 21 October 2010
  79. 79. Leadership Product (e.g., theories, solutions to problems, ideas, services, inventions,etc.) Person Process Environm ent Interaction leads to Creative Change (e.g., social change, personal change, innovation etc.) Adoption leads to CHANGE THAT STICKS Una visión de sistemas de la creatividad (Puccio, Murdock, & Mance, 2007) Creative Climate & Creative Leadership Thursday, 21 October 2010
  80. 80. culture climate Shared mental programming of those within the same organisation Shared meanings,values, attitudes and beliefs Recurring patterns of behaviour, attitudes and feelings that characterise life in the organisation. Description and perceptions of the work environment person skills,beliefs,attitudes and behaviours processorganisational routines (activities and operations) Creating a Creative Climate Thursday, 21 October 2010
  81. 81. List three places or activities where you get your best ideas… Thursday, 21 October 2010
  82. 82. List three places or activities where you get your best ideas… Now rank them. ! 1st most productive ! 2nd most productive ! 3rd most productive Thursday, 21 October 2010
  83. 83. Survey says... 1. Shower, bath, bathroom ! 57% 2. Bed!! ! 51% 3. Driving (or passenger) 42% 4. Walking! ! ! 28% 5. Exercise, running, swimming 25% 6. Routine, repetitive activities ! 21% 7. Reading, listening to music! 20% 8. Mind calming, meditation! 20% Thursday, 21 October 2010
  84. 84. The scientific explanation Brain's Problem-Solving Function At Work When We Daydream A new University of British Columbia study finds that our brains are much more active when we daydream than previously thought The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, finds that activity in numerous brain regions increases when our minds wander. It also finds that brain areas associated with complex problem-solving – previously thought to go dormant when we daydream – are in fact highly active during these episodes. "Mind wandering is typically associated with negative things like laziness or inattentiveness," says lead author, Prof. Kalina Christoff, UBC Dept. of Psychology. "But this study shows our brains are very active when we daydream – much more active than when we focus on routine tasks." For the study, subjects were placed inside an fMRI scanner, where they performed the simple routine task of pushing a button when numbers appear on a screen.The researchers tracked subjects' attentiveness moment-to-moment through brain scans, subjective reports from subjects and by tracking their performance on the task. The findings suggest that daydreaming – which can occupy as much as one third of our waking lives – is an important cognitive state where we may unconsciously turn our attention from immediate tasks to sort through important problems in our lives. Until now, the brain's "default network" – which is linked to easy, routine mental activity and includes the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), the posterior cingulate cortex and the temporoparietal junction – was the only part of the brain thought to be active when our minds wander. However, the study finds that the brain's "executive network" – associated with high-level, complex problem-solving and including the lateral PFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex – also becomes activated when we daydream. "This is a surprising finding, that these two brain networks are activated in parallel," says Christoff. "Until now, scientists have thought they operated on an either-or basis – when one was activated, the other was thought to be dormant."The less subjects were aware that their mind was wandering, the more both networks were activated. The quantity and quality of brain activity suggests that people struggling to solve complicated problems might be better off switching to a simpler task and letting their mind wander. "When you daydream, you may not be achieving your immediate goal – say reading a book or paying attention in class – but your mind may be taking that time to address more important questions in your life, such as advancing your career or personal relationships," says Christoff. Source: Science Daily may 2009. Full article PNAS http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/05/11/0900234106.full.pdf+html Thursday, 21 October 2010
  85. 85. 1. Shower, bath, bathroom ! 57% 2. Bed!! ! 51% 3. Driving (or passenger) 42% 4. Walking! ! ! 28% 5. Exercise, running, swimming 25% 6. Routine, repetitive activities ! 21% 7. Reading, listening to music! 20% 8. Mind calming, meditation! 20% 30"425(-&5-666 Thursday, 21 October 2010
  86. 86. 1. Shower, bath, bathroom ! 57% 2. Bed!! ! 51% 3. Driving (or passenger) 42% 4. Walking! ! ! 28% 5. Exercise, running, swimming 25% 6. Routine, repetitive activities ! 21% 7. Reading, listening to music! 20% 8. Mind calming, meditation! 20% 30"425(-&5-666 Thursday, 21 October 2010
  87. 87. Classifications based on the work of Goran Ekvall and Scott Isaksen (1971) Creativity at the work place (1987)The climate metaphor in organizational theory (1999) Creative climate, In Encyclopedia of creativity CCQ (Ekvall) SOQ (Isaksen) Motivation Challenge and involvement Playfullness and humor Empowerment Freedom Idea time Idea support Dynamism Energy Conflict Debate Openness Experimentation Trust Risk Resouces IdeaTime Idea Support Challenge and Involvement " Personal Motivation Trust and Openness Playfulness and Humor Absence of Interpersonal Conflicts " Exploration Risk-Taking Debates about the Issues Freedom Creating a Creative Climate Thursday, 21 October 2010
  88. 88. so,who else is doing it? Thursday, 21 October 2010
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  93. 93. Design thinking is a process for practical,creative resolution of problems or issues that looks for an improved future result.Unlike analytical thinking,design thinking is a creative process based around the "building up" of ideas. There are no judgements early on in design thinking.This eliminates the fear of failure and encourages maximum input and participation in the ideation and prototype phases. Outside the box thinking is encouraged in these earlier processes since this can often lead to creative solutions. IDEO guidelines (eg) Defer judgement Build on others ideas Look for “wild ideas” Go for quantity Be visual Keep focus One conversation at a time Thursday, 21 October 2010
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  98. 98. General Framework DuPont wanted to stimulate new product development and overall organizational improvement."They created the DuPont Center for Innovation and Creativity to provide the necessary support." We trained the Center’s facilitators in the use of the Creative Problem Solving v6.1™ framework for stimulating innovation and organizational improvement." It has resulted in a wide variety of changes including the new application of core products and supported the merger of DuPont with the Forum company. Climate for Innovation’s Impact on New Product Development 3M wanted to further the climate for creativity and innovation in their organization. Using the Situational Outlook Questionnaire® (SOQ) we assessed the climate for innovation within some of the 3M innovation teams and departments. 3M’s management took the results of the SOQ and with assistance from CPSB learned how to improve certain aspects of the working climate.These insights resulted in improving new product development processes, shortening time to market and improving product market expansion. Learning a Set of Tools Procter & Gamble’s CorporateTraining and Development needed to provide employees with skills in its core competency of creativity and problem solving.We designed, delivered, and licensed a course in tools for Creative Problem Solving that has been provided for over ten years to thousands of people. Developing a Common Skill-base As a result of the success of the “Innovation Champions” program, IBM asked CPSB to help develop a program whereby creativity, problem solving and facilitation skills could be integrated organization-wide.The result of using these skills and tools has been felt throughout IBM, including significant revenue increase in IBM’s patent productivity, which has turned into a major revenue source for the business. Thursday, 21 October 2010
  99. 99. Organisational Creativity The systemic view of creativity: towards a comprehensive framework for creativity development Pablo Munoz PhD Researcher , Newcastle University Business School Consulting Partner,Thinkx Intellectual Capital MScABC / MSc ICE October 2010 Thursday, 21 October 2010

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