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  1. 1. BUILDING MATERIALS By: Celia Ruiz Alonso Pablo Ruiz Peinado 3ºA
  2. 2. BUILDING MATERIALS <ul><li>There are several types: </li><ul><li>Petreus materials
  3. 3. Binder materials
  4. 4. Concrete
  5. 5. Ceramic materials
  6. 6. Other materials </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. PETREUS MATERIALS <ul><li>They are mainly used for two types of rocks: </li><ul><li>Compact rocks: blocks of rocks made of marble, granite, limestone... that are named as ashlars, paving stones and flagstones.
  8. 8. Disintegrated rocks: pieces of rocks of all sizes. The ones that are more used in construction are: </li><ul><li>Clays, little grains of rock that absorb water.
  9. 9. Arids, fragments that come from the disintegration of other rocks. They can be thick or flat. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. BINDER MATERIALS <ul><li>These are materials used to bind together two or more other materials in mixtures. Its two principal properties are adhesion and cohesion. The more important binder materials are: </li></ul>Lime Plaster Cement
  11. 11. CONCRETE Concrete is a mixture between water, binder materials and arids. The more used are: -Reinforced concrete : bars have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. -Cellular concrete : produced by the addition of an air entraining to the concrete, making it less heavier and having a better acoustic and thermal isolation. -Mass concrete : its obtained from the mixture of cement, water, sand and gravel. It is used for foundations and walls. -Cyclopean concrete : made by cement, water and arids with a diameter of more than 30cm. Its used in walls and foundations .
  12. 12. CERAMIC MATERIALS <ul><li>These are pieces made with different types of clay. They are formed by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. For the process of making it, there are two phases: </li><ul><ul><li>Mixture and model. Machines mix clay with water. Shape is given and then, its finally cut.
  13. 13. Boiling. Cut material passes throughout a series of chambers with different temperatures, so it can´t break. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more used ceramic materials are: </li><ul><ul><ul><li>Bricks: pieces of boiled clay with holes in it. </li><ul><li>Solid bricks- without holes.
  14. 14. Plain bricks- attractive color and aspect, it has good resistance and insulation properties.
  15. 15. Common bricks- less resistance, coarse and rough.
  16. 16. Heat resistant bricks- support the heat. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. OTHER MATERIALS Metals. Such as steel, aluminium and copper. Wood. Used in roofs, doors, windows, floors... Plastic. Used as an insulator, in windows, floors... Glass. Used in windows, roofs, decorating...
  19. 19. CONSTRUCTION Construction is a process whisky consists of the building or assembling of an infrastructure. Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property. This process formed by several phases: <ul><li>The preparation of the area
  20. 20. Foundation
  21. 21. The structure
  22. 22. Covers
  23. 23. Closings
  24. 24. Bloked
  25. 25. Finished and electric and water </li></ul>
  26. 26. PREPARATION OF THE AREA - Adapt the terrain to build, there are two processes: <ul><li>Demolition
  27. 27. Leveling
  28. 28. In these processes are needed severals machines:
  29. 29. Derrick
  30. 30. Excavators
  31. 31. Wreckers
  32. 32. Mechanical roller </li></ul>
  33. 33. FOUNDATION -Consist of the colocation of all the elements which form the base of the building: Shoe Pile Slabs
  34. 34. STRUCTURE -Its form by: <ul><li>Pilons </li></ul>Vertical structure made of concrete <ul><li>Forged </li></ul>Horizontal structures made of plastic, cement or ceramic Pilon Forged
  35. 35. COVERS -The colocation of all the covers of the building Tiles Slates Metals Fibrocements Arab tiles (old) Mix tiles (modern)
  36. 36. CLOSINGS -Make the exterior walls: <ul><li>These walls are composed by; </li></ul>Thick briks Foams of poliuretano
  37. 37. SOLADE AND BLOCKED -Consist on make the interior walls and the floor of the building . SOLADE BLOCKED Simple bricks Pladur Naturals Ceramics
  38. 38. FINISHES AND OTHER INSTALLATIONS <ul><li>Water installations
  39. 39. Electric installations
  40. 40. Climatic installations
  41. 41. Alarms
  42. 42. Television and other mass media </li></ul><ul>-FINISHES <li>Plaster
  43. 43. Paints
  44. 44. Carpentry
  45. 45. Cement and paints(exterior)
  46. 46. Appeased </li></ul>