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Concentrated organic manure , sludge, pk mani


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Concentrated organic manure , sewage,sludge, etc.

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Concentrated organic manure , sludge, pk mani

  1. 1. Concentrated organic manures and Sewage and sludge Dr. P. K. Mani Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya E-mail: Website:
  2. 2. Concentrated organic manures Oil cake, Bone meal, blood meal, fish manure, meat meal etc. Oilcakes: is the residue left after the oil is extracted from oil bearing seeds Edible oil Cakes : feed to the cattle Coconut cake : 3.0% N Mustard Cake : 5.2% N Ground nut cake : 7.2% N Safflower cake : 7.9% N Sesame cake : 6.2% N  OC should be well powdered before application for quick decomposition  nutrients are liberated after decomposition of oil cakes,  C:N=3-15, low,  nitrifies quickly, nearly 50-80% N is available within 2-3 months,  Used as top dressing
  3. 3. Non-edible Oilcakes  Toxic substances: (Saponin) Castor Cake : 4.3% N  Muhua cake- poorest Neem cake : 5.2% N N available after 2 months of appln. Mahua Cake : 2.6% N  Suitable for orcahrd , Long Day Crop like Sugarcane, Tapioca  Neem cake: used for controlling nematodes @ 1 t /ha Concentrated organic manures has no residual effect Except Mahua Cake Oil Cake may apply as top dressing
  4. 4. Use as a fertilizer:  Neem cake organic manure protects plant roots from Nematodes, soil grubs and White ants probably due to its residual limonoid content. It also acts as a natural fertilizer with pesticidal properties. Neem cake is widely used in India to fertilize paddy , cotton and sugarcane. Neem seed cake also reduce alkalinity in soil, as it produces organic acids on decomposition. Being totally natural, it is compatible with soil microbes, improves rhizosphere microflora and hence ensures fertility of the soil. The cake contains salannin, nimbin, azadirachtin and azadiradione as the major components.
  5. 5.  Hoof and Horn Meal organic fertilizer is a great source of N (12%) for organic garden plants, especially high feeders like corn, tomato and lettuce. It also has a small amount of P (2%) for healthy roots and stems. It is made from cooked ground dehydrated cattle hooves and horns obtained from slaughterhouses. H&H Meal is equivalent to Blood Meal in N content, but the nutrient availability is slower, which is better for organic crops and with less "leaf burn" damage and it contains P.  It nutrient availability starts at around 4-6 weeks and can lasts 12 months.
  6. 6. Bone meal Essentially P fertilizer, slow acting manure, apply at the time of planting or sowing, suitable for acid soil, rich in sesquioxides Bones consisits of Ca3 (PO4)2 together with some organic substances like fats and protiens. So, good source of Lime, phosphoric acid and N The presence of fat hinders the process of decomposition. Therefore, bones are sometimes treated with steam to remove fat before they crushed. Steamed bone meals are more brittle, and easy to crush and decomposes quickly. Bone meal Total P Avail P (citrate soluble) 20.2 8.0 Steamed bone meal 22.0 16.0
  7. 7. Sewage sludge –a potential threat to heavy metal pollution in Indian soils 200 major cities in India generate 2600 million m3 of raw sewage per year Production of sludge is estimated to be around 1200 tonnes per day, potentiality is 4000 tonnes per day Delhi city produces 600 Mm3 of waster water per day, 175 Mm3 untreated Five major sewage treatment plants in Delhi produce 1200 M lit treated effluents per day-used to irrigated crops
  8. 8. Disposal of sewage effluents for irrigation
  9. 9. Sewage has two components, Solid portion technically known as sludge Liquid portion, commonly known as sewage water or effluent . The raw or crude sewage consists mainly of water carrying various solids partly in soln and partly in suspension Both the components of sewage are used in increasing crop production but due to bacterial contamination untreated sewage is not advocated for growing vegetables Bacterial contamination is reduced by fermentation and Oxidation treatment
  10. 10. Settled sludge :Produced by plain sedimentation Digested sludge:- Digested sludge is obtained from raw sewage through settling by gravity and sedimentation. The solid parts subsequently digested anaerobically for a period of 10-15 days. This digested material is then pumped in suitable beds for drying out. This sludge’s usually gave an offensive odour but they are free from pathogenic organisms present in unprocessed sludges  Activated sludge: produced by a special rapid aerobic treatment of sewage that results in coagulation and settling of suspended materials. This pdt is superior to digested sludge and has no offensive adour. Chemically precipitated sludge:- Produced by treatment of certain chemicals to remove certain poisonous compounds and heavy metals as also to precipitate the dispersed material. Digested activated sludge :-
  11. 11. Activated sludge contains : 3-6% N, ~ 2% P2O5 and 1% K2O in form a that can become readily available when applied to soil. (ISSS,2009) On an average, the sewage sludge has the following composition on oven dry basis Composition Amount on oven dry weight basis (%) Organics 40-50 Inert materials 30-40 Bio-resistant organics 10-15 Miscellaneous substances 5-8
  12. 12. Basic flow of sewage sludge composting process
  13. 13. Composition of Sludge N (1.5 – 3.5% ) Sewage: P (0.75- 4.0%) K (0.3- 0.6%) Effluent waters which should be removed from settlements and industrial enterprises are known as Sewage Municipal sewage food wastes, various washings and laundry wastes, waters from lavatories, baths etc. waste waters are unstable polydispersed system Inorganic impurities are sand, clay, particles of ore, slag, chalk, mineral salts, mineral oils
  14. 14. Sewage water : can be used as an irrigation source. However, it should be treated before application to fields. Soil sickness: results from excessive organic and N loading, which causes anaerobiosis and imbalance C:N and C:P. in Excessive N-loading: also induces production of more foliage, resulting in less fruiting, particularly in the case of vegetables like brinjal, okra, chillies. The yield decline: due to continuous application of untreated sewage water is primarily due to blocking of soil pore spaces by colloidal matter. The soil quickly becomes sewage-sick.
  15. 15. Industrial sewage special methods of the treatment are reqd. (i) NaCN+ H2SO4→ (Na)2SO4 + HCN (260C) (ii) NaCN + HOCl = CNCl + NaOH CNCl + H2O → HCNO + HCl Cyanogen chloride Cyanic acid HCNO + Cl2 + H2O → CO2 + N2 + 2HCl (at pH 10.0)
  16. 16. Crops suitable for sewage irrigation Fodder crops like Oats, Jowar, Maize, berseem and lucerne Sugarcane Vegetable crops, like Cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, potato, brinjal, lady’s finger, beans etc. Crops unsuitable for sewage irrigation • Tomato • Radish • Onion • Ggarlic • Carrot and leafy vegetables
  17. 17. Heavy metal composition of sewage sludge from different cities in India City Cu Zn Cd Cr Ni Pb mg/kg Ahmeda bad Delhi 535 2147 3.5 60.4 32.3 76.8 440 1610 5.5 53.5 81.5 34.5 Nagpur 272 832 1.5 49.2 14.8 24.3 Chennai 210 935 8.3 38.5 60.5 16.6 Jaipur 265 1720 7.3 17.6 37.5 66.9 Source : Maity et al (1992).
  18. 18. DTPA-extractable heavy metals in soils under different crops irrigated with sewage and underground water Crop Source of irrigation water Zn Fe Cu Mn Cd mg/kg Berseem Sewage 13.4 Underground 4.20 75.3 38.0 24.4 7.80 33.2 28.4 0.119 0.074 Spinach Sewage Underground 41.2 4.20 65.6 59.4 32.2 7.00 28.8 24.4 0.253 0.079 Coriander Sewage Underground 21.1 6.60 69.0 32.4 49.4 9.50 23.0 18.4 0.208 0.054 Source: Sharma and Kansal(1986)
  19. 19. DTPA-extractable heavy metal status in Peri-Urban Soils (treated with sewage) during Summer of 2001 Soil sample DTPA-extractable heavy metal content/ -1 Pb Cd Cr Kalyani 0.35 1.70 0.63 Mahishtala-2, Dhapa Mathpukur 0.70 1.08 1.00 1.21 7.20 4.18 Tangra, Dhapa 1.52 12.6 4.96 Bantala 1.68 1.70 17.0 0.58 18.9 8.30 2.88 1.96 1.04 1.01 3.54 2.30 South Mahishtala, Tiljala Barasat Titagarh Source: Sanyal (2002)
  20. 20. Distillery Effluents (Spent wash) Distillery is one of the most important agri based industries in India for manufacturing of ethyl alcohol from molasses. A large volume of foul smelling effluent which is commonly known as distillery effluent or spent wash is generated.  Usually with 1 L of alcohol production 12-15L spent wash effluent is generated. Approximately 40 billion Litres of spent wash is generated/ annum from 285 distilleries in the country, which is generally discharged in to the water courses under untreated or partially treated conditions, causing environmental pollution owing to its very high organic load. In order to reduce its high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), many distilleries recycle these effluents to produce methane by passing them through biomethanation digesters and the effluent thus obtained is known as Post methanation effluent (PME)
  21. 21. Let the Hundred flowers bloom
  22. 22. Feedstuffs Toxic factors Groundnut and its meal Trypsin inhibitor, goiterogen, tannins, Mustard or rape Goiterogens (thioglucosides or seed and its meal glucosinolates), tannic acid, erucic acid, sinapine (cholinester), pectins Safflower seed and its meal Estrogenic factor, Two phenolic glucosides (Bitter flavour) Sunflower seed and its meal Chlorogenic, quinic-acid Sesame seed and Phytate and Oxalates its cake Linseed and its cake Linamarin (cyanogenic glucoside), antipyridoxine (Linatin)
  23. 23. Feedstuffs Toxic factors Neem seed Bitterness → Limonoids → Triterpenoids and its meal Nonisoprenoid polypenolics- Flavanoids, Tannins and coumarin viz. Salannin and Azadirachtin Mahua cake Nimbin, Mowrin (Saponin) and Tannins Fish meal and Gizzerosine and histamine meat meal
  24. 24. Heavy metals Irradiation vessel Sewage-sludge Sewage-sludge Drying Bed
  25. 25. The Activated Sludge Process Clarifier Feed Mixed Liquor or “Sludge” OXYGEN Treated water Settled Sludge Returned Activated Sludge (RAS) Excess Sludge OXYGEN 28
  26. 26. Classical Oxygenation by sidestream oxygen injection Pure Oxygen Typically from Liquid Oxygen The OXY-DEP® process Venturi-type device Secondary Ejector Water Intake Recirculation Pump Activated Sludge Basin