Abhishek Patilpabhishek147@gmail.com
   A robot is a machine    designed to execute one    or more tasks    repeatedly, with speed    and precision.   Robots...
Expert systems [Intelligence    Neural Systems   Given by      [Robot can learn Programmer]          Itself ]
   The robot must be capable of following a line.   It should be capable of taking various degrees of turns   It must b...
Clock                           Main Power         Motor Power4 MHz                             Supply             Supply ...
   Duty cycle=T_on / T_total   Virtual speed=Full speed x Duty cycle
Motor speed = 2400 rpm @ 6v Using Gear box the speed is reduced to 30 rpm @ 6v. The motors are run at 12v, so an effective...
IN1   IN2   IN3   IN4   OPERATION 1     0     1     0        BOTH MOTORS FORWARD                               (MOVE FORWA...
   Interrupter sensor modified to be a reflective sensor   ~950nm wavelength   Lens fitted to emitter and detector of f...
   Working of the sensor
Sensor circuit if external A/D conversion IC is used
MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN SENSORS IS 1cm
NS   GS   A2   A1   A0   STATE IN                 ACTION1    X    X    X    X    No surface is detected   Stop the motors0...
PROCESSES INVOLVED
Algorithm to befollowed
   Industrial automated equipment carriers   Automated cars.   Tour guides in museums and other similar    applications...
   Choice of line is made in the hardware    abstraction and cannot be changed by software.   Calibration is difficult, ...
   Lack of a four wheel drive, makes it not suitable    for a rough terrain.   Use of IR even though solves a lot of pro...
   Software control of the line type (dark or light)    to make automatic detection possible.   “Obstacle detecting sens...
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
Line following robot
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Line following robot

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Line following robot

  1. 1. Abhishek Patilpabhishek147@gmail.com
  2. 2.  A robot is a machine designed to execute one or more tasks repeatedly, with speed and precision. Robots may or may not possesses intelligence.
  3. 3. Expert systems [Intelligence Neural Systems Given by [Robot can learn Programmer] Itself ]
  4. 4.  The robot must be capable of following a line. It should be capable of taking various degrees of turns It must be prepared of a situation that it runs into a territory which has no line to follow The robot must also be capable of following a line even if it has breaks. The robot must be insensitive to environmental factors such as lighting and noise. It must allow calibration of the line’s darkness threshold. Scalability must be a primary concern in the design. The color of the line must not be a factor as long as it is darker or brighter than the surroundings.
  5. 5. Clock Main Power Motor Power4 MHz Supply Supply Left Motor Microcontroller H - Bridge DC Motor Control Right Motor Priority Encoder Analog Threshold Comparators Voltage NOR Gate ADC Module Sensor Array [If microcontroller is used for A to D conversion]
  6. 6.  Duty cycle=T_on / T_total Virtual speed=Full speed x Duty cycle
  7. 7. Motor speed = 2400 rpm @ 6v Using Gear box the speed is reduced to 30 rpm @ 6v. The motors are run at 12v, so an effective speed of 150 rpm isachieved, with a considerable increase in torque. After load is applied this speed will decrease ,depending upon load.
  8. 8. IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 OPERATION 1 0 1 0 BOTH MOTORS FORWARD (MOVE FORWARD) 0 1 0 1 BOTH MOTORS BACKWARD (MOVE BACKWARD) 1 0 0 1 RIGHT MOTOR BACKWARD LEFT MOTOR FORWARD (TURN RIGHT) 0 1 1 0 RIGHT MOTOR FORWARD LEFT MOTOR BACKWARD (TURN LEFT)
  9. 9.  Interrupter sensor modified to be a reflective sensor ~950nm wavelength Lens fitted to emitter and detector of focal length of 4mm
  10. 10.  Working of the sensor
  11. 11. Sensor circuit if external A/D conversion IC is used
  12. 12. MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN SENSORS IS 1cm
  13. 13. NS GS A2 A1 A0 STATE IN ACTION1 X X X X No surface is detected Stop the motors0 1 X X X No line is detected Execute the no line code (specially designed algorithm)0 0 0 0 0 A detects the line Sharp turn left0 0 0 0 1 B detects the line Sharp turn right0 0 0 1 0 C detects the line Turn left0 0 0 1 1 D detects the line Turn right0 0 1 0 0 E detects the line Move left0 0 1 0 1 F detects the line Move right0 0 1 1 0 G detects the line Go straight0 0 1 1 1 Forbidden state Software reset the processor
  14. 14. PROCESSES INVOLVED
  15. 15. Algorithm to befollowed
  16. 16.  Industrial automated equipment carriers Automated cars. Tour guides in museums and other similar applications. Second wave robotic reconnaissance operations.
  17. 17.  Choice of line is made in the hardware abstraction and cannot be changed by software. Calibration is difficult, and it is not easy to set a perfect value. The steering mechanism is not easily implemented in huge vehicles and impossible for non-electric vehicles (petrol powered). Few curves are not made efficiently, and must be avoided.
  18. 18.  Lack of a four wheel drive, makes it not suitable for a rough terrain. Use of IR even though solves a lot of problems pertaining to interference, makes it hard to debug a faulty sensor. Lack of speed control makes the robot unstable at times.
  19. 19.  Software control of the line type (dark or light) to make automatic detection possible. “Obstacle detecting sensors” to avoid physical obstacles and continue on the line. Distance sensing and position logging & transmission.

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