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A Journey in English (2), 2008.08.01

An updated version of: Beaufait, P. "A journey in English (2): From here to there and back again - English education from a global perspective." Oyano Prefectural Senior High School. Amakusa Seinen no Ie, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Guest lecture. 1 August 2008.

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A Journey in English (2), 2008.08.01

  1. 1. A Journey in English About English From Here to There & Back Again By Paul Beaufait Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License
  2. 2. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 2 How Many Languages? (1)  "'They say if you speak two languages,  you are bilingual;  Three languages,  you are trilingual.  But if you only speak one language,  then you are an American.'"  (Pete Groux; in Mervine, 2005)
  3. 3. Benefits of Learning English 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 3
  4. 4. Policies for Learning English 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 4
  5. 5. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 5 A Quick Look Around Czech Republic (Central Europe) Thailand (Southeast Asia) South Korea (East Asia) Language Outlooks: Snapshots of English Education
  6. 6. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 6 Europe
  7. 7. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 7 How Many Languages? (2)  "According to the [European Commission's] plan,  every European citizen should have command of at least two languages,  apart from his or her native language."  (Hospodarske noviny, August 30, 2005)
  8. 8. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 8 Which Language? Czech Loss of Choice  "There is a possibility that in three years Czech children will not ...  be able to choose which of foreign languages they will start learning at schools and...  English will become the first mandatory foreign language to be learnt."  (Hospodarske noviny, August 30, 2005)
  9. 9. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 9 When? Czech Lifelong learning  "All schools - beginning with nurseries and ending with high schools -  will pay more attention to the teaching of foreign languages."  "Adults will be able to attend foreign language courses partly paid by the state."  (Hospodarske noviny, August 30, 2005)
  10. 10. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 10 South Asia
  11. 11. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 11 When? Pakistani primary schools  "The government in Pakistan's Sindh province has decided to teach English to students from Class I in all schools run by it."  "Sindh Minister for Education Dr Hamida Khuhro said... the decision had been taken keeping in view the growing dependability of the world on English language skills."  (The Peninsula, 2005)
  12. 12. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 12 Southeast Asia (1)
  13. 13. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 13 Southeast Asia (2)  Thailand  Malaysia
  14. 14. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 14 When? National-type Chinese schools in Malaysia  Educators wanted the Malaysian "Government to abolish [stop] the use of English to teach Science and Mathematics."  Just two years after...  "The use of English in the teaching of Mathematics and Science in Standard One was introduced in 2003."  (New Sunday Times Online, 2005)
  15. 15. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 15 "Rethink on classes for 1st graders"  Thai government officers reconsider,  "Starting too early may do more harm than good."  Because students who cannot communicate "after years of learning"  May have had "bad experiences in compulsory classes"  Starting in the first grade.  (The Nation, September 19, 2005)
  16. 16. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 16 "Inability to communicate in English" (1)  Thailand's "Education Minister Chaturon Chaisang said that  most students’ inability to communicate in English  despite spending years learning the language  pointed to a clear failure in language- teaching in Thailand."  (The Nation, August 28, 2005)
  17. 17. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 17 "Inability to communicate in English" (2)  Minister Chaisang "added that  the practice of encouraging students to memorise grammatical rules by rote  must be discontinued  in favour of providing them with opportunities to practice speaking, listening and writing."  (The Nation, 2005)
  18. 18. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 18 East Asia (1)
  19. 19. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 19 East Asia (2)  Korea  Japan
  20. 20. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 20 Korea: TOEFL reforms (1)  Major English exams did not require practical communication.  As a result, students could score highly on tests and yet not be able to communicate in real life.  In other words, real communication or interaction was not needed either between people or between areas of language use.
  21. 21. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 21 Korea: TOEFL reforms (2)  New test to be used in Korea as of May 2006  The new form of TOEFL test will measure the language ability of students,  not only academic understanding but  also communication skills in various settings.
  22. 22. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 22 Korea: "Why TOEIC for All?"  "... [I]t does not make sense that people with excellent English abilities should have to take TOEIC to apply for a company."  "TOEIC is not the best option for evaluating someone's English skills...."
  23. 23. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 23 Job Korea's Enquête: Company Testing Policies  193 of top 300 companies in Korea  27% to change testing methods in 2008  + speaking  + interviews  + speeches  + listening  + writing  Samsung Group, Korea's largest conglomerate, is considering:  OPIc  "a test for practical English largely focused on speaking ability"
  24. 24. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 24 From Here What Why How English Education in Japan
  25. 25. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 25 IntegrativeInstrumentalAcademicNon- academic GeneralSpecificNo apparent purposes entrance exams TOEIC‘Eiken’CommunicationResearch & publication Global understanding & cooperation Self-expressionInter- personal relations TOEFL Learning English: What for? (1)
  26. 26. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 26 IntegrativeInstrumentalAcademicNon- academic GeneralSpecificNo apparent purposes entrance exams TOEIC‘Eiken’CommunicationResearch & publication Global understanding & cooperation Self-expressionInter- personal relations TOEFL Learning English: What for? (2) 0. No apparent purposes; 1. General purposes; 2. Instrumental purposes; 3. Integrative purposes; or 4. Specific purposes.
  27. 27. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 27 "An important language"  "English is an important language to be learned  in order to do business and  communicate with other peoples of the world."  (Nakata 2002b)
  28. 28. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 28 "An important role in society" (1)  "Historically we Japanese people didn't think any foreign languages so important  as we didn't feel inconvenient at all in communicating with each other in the closed society.  But [a] time has come that Japanese people must face reality."  (Language Teacher Development Project participant)
  29. 29. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 29 "An important role in society" (2)  "As we were making an effort to catch up with other developing countries,  we realize[d] that English is playing an important role in our society."  (Language Teacher Development Project participant)
  30. 30. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 30 English education: When & where?  K-12  Pre-school - Primary  Kindergartens  Elementary schools  Cram schools  Secondary  Junior high schools  Cram schools  Senior high schools  Cram schools
  31. 31. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 31 English education: When & where?  Adult  Tertiary  Colleges & universities  Students  Auditors  Vocational- technical schools  Skills  Trades
  32. 32. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 32 English education: When & where?  Adult  Other:  Self-development plans and activities;  'Conversation' schools; or  Online learning:  Almost  Anywhere,  Anytime!
  33. 33. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 33 "A complete & systematic approach"  "There has to be a strong lead connecting English teaching from children all the way up to adults  in order to have a complete and systematic approach to English education."  (Nakata, 2002a)
  34. 34. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 34 Bridging the gaps  Getting more input:  Listening,  Reading, &  Viewing.  Making more output:  Producing;  Speaking; &  Writing.
  35. 35. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 35 Models & motivation  "Many high school teachers are highly proficient in English and  motivated to integrate new theoretical and research insights into their teaching."  (Matsuda, 2002, p. 53)
  36. 36. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 36 To Get There  You'll need:  Vision,  Passion, &  Action.  (Murphey, 1998)  Based upon:  World views;  Local knowledge; &  Personal objectives.
  37. 37. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 37 "Passion, Vision, & Action"  All three are required for what Tim Murphey has called "Olympian Technology."  Language Hungry  MACMILLAN LANGUAGEHOUSE (1998), Chapter 15  Without action:  Dreamers;  Without vision:  Workaholics;  Without passion:  People going for average (or less).
  38. 38. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 38 And Back Again: Virtually (1)  A virtual high school...  with real high goals:  To create: Excitement, Interest, & Opportunity.
  39. 39. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 39 And Back Again: Virtually (2)  "Funded by the National Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)...  Kumamoto was selected  as one of 16 'kens' to be the host of a pilot program with  the goal of improving English education for the entire country."  (Super Virtual High School, 2002-2004)
  40. 40. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 40 Virtual High Goals (1)  "Get students excited about English by  teaching them in English  about topics that interest them" [emphasis added].  "Further facilitate internationalization  by increasing student exposure to non- Japanese young people."  (Super Virtual High School)
  41. 41. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 41 Virtual High Goals (2)  "Expose Japanese students to their role as world citizens and  give them enough information  to spark an interest in the world outside of our 'ken,'  thus further increasing internationalization."  (Super Virtual High School)
  42. 42. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 42 Virtual High Goals (3)  "Give our students the confidence to communicate in English,  both with native speakers and other non-native speakers alike."  (Super Virtual HS, 2005)
  43. 43. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 43 Overseas Travel and Study Abroad (1)  Overseas travel:  Developing awareness & appreciation of  target cultures,  own cultures, and  global issues;  While...  Developing self- confidence and self- reliance through  voluntary,  school, and  personal activities.
  44. 44. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 44 State funding for overseas studies?  1000 students:  English speaking countries;  Three months or more;  400,000 yen.  (Asahi, 2002)  100 teachers:  Leave of absence; for graduate studies;  A year or more;  One-half of tuition.  (Asahi, 2002)
  45. 45. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 45 Overseas Travel and Study Abroad (2)  Study abroad:  Studying and using target languages;  Experiencing & observing various cultures; and  Developing  attitudes,  knowledge, &  skills  for current and future use.
  46. 46. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 46 Educated, pro-active ciitzens have it, or get it!  Awareness of issues;  Concerns about the world around us;  Knowledge of histories;  Visions of the future, &  Passions for action.
  47. 47. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 47 "The Action Plan...  ...to cultivate 'Japanese with English abilities.'"  (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology [MEXT], 2004)  In particular,  the ability to use English at work  (Administrative studies faculty meeting; June 24, 2004)
  48. 48. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 48 Ability to use English @ work  Occupation: Full-time student  Major: Administrative studies  Responsibilities:  Class work:  Pair work  Group work  Class discussion  Homework  Self-development
  49. 49. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 49 Administrative studies: Goals in focus (1)  Introductory questions:  Are your ideas flexible?  Do you see things from diverse angles?  Are your views international?  http://www.pu- kumamoto.ac.jp/guide- e/admin-e/admin-e.htm
  50. 50. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 50 Administrative studies: Goals in focus (2)  Reflect for a moment about the introductory questions:  If so, how so?  If not, why?
  51. 51. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 51 Administrative studies: Goals in focus (3)  A range of communicative proficiencies:  "Achieving international communication skills requires not only [listening] and speaking, but also writing ability, [and] reading ability…. While the basis is English, ... students are able to study a range of languages."  http://www.pu-kumamoto.ac.jp/guide-e/admin- e/admin-e.htm
  52. 52. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 52 Online communication protocols  Learn to do it in English with computers: keyboards, mail, & other programs, & web sites; for example:  Using English, little by little, for forms, lists, notes, messages, presentations, research, reports, & reviews, including:  Names & addresses,  Subject headings & body texts,  Numbering & punctuation,  Electronic signatures, &  Internet searches.  Keep doing it to develop and polish listening, reading, speaking, writing, and computer skills!
  53. 53. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 53 Administrative studies: Goals in focus (4)  Think back:  In how many languages can you answer those introductory questions right now?  Which languages?
  54. 54. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 54 Administrative studies: Goals in focus (5)  Think ahead:  In how many languages do you want to be able to answer those questions -  by the time you graduate?  In which modes:  Speech, writing, or both;  Online and off?
  55. 55. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 55 Food for Thought (1)  In the Faculty of Administrative Studies, English courses are a world apart from:  Introductory courses,  Core courses,  Applied courses, &  Seminars.  http://www.pu-kumamoto.ac.jp/guide-e/admin- e/admin-curri-e.htm
  56. 56. 20050909, 20080801, 201107-- Journey in English (Beaufait) 56 Food for Thought (2)  A key question:  How necessary are English AND other languages in administrative studies, and  in your careers and lives beyond?
  57. 57. A Journey in English About English From Here to There & Back Again By Paul Beaufait Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License

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An updated version of: Beaufait, P. "A journey in English (2): From here to there and back again - English education from a global perspective." Oyano Prefectural Senior High School. Amakusa Seinen no Ie, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Guest lecture. 1 August 2008.

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