POINTS TO BE COVERED INTRODUCTION TO MATHURA. MATHURA’S GLORIOUS PAST. MATHURA’S ART,CULTURE & MUSIC. REPERCUSSIONS WITNESSED BY MATHURA. MY DREAM CITY “MATHURA”.
INTRODUCTION TO MATHURA Mathura, the nucleus of the Braj region is located in western U.P. on the banks of river Yamuna. The district is placed 145 Km southeast of Delhi and 58 Km north west of Agra. It has a geographical area of about 3329.4 sq. kms. This district is divided in 3 tehsils and 10 blocks It has an average elevation of 174 metres (570 feet).
MATHURA’S HISTORY Mathura is the city where Lord Krishna, one of the incarnations of Lord Vishnu took birth to set people free from Kans, Mathura’s king who was a cruel conceited hoity contemptuous despot. Besides Lord Krishna’s karmabhoomi, Mathura has been the capital (cultural) of great conqueror Kanishka. It has been one of the saptapuris. It has been the centre of trade since Aryan period. By the fifth century BC, during the time of Buddha, it was a major metropolis and the capital of the Surasena Kingdom - one of the 16 Mahajanapadas of the period. Mathura’s geographical location has been an advantage as many trade routes passed through it. Mainly Greek & Iranian traders pervaded here. It is this city only where the three religious currents- Brahminism, Lord Krishna Buddhism & Jainism flourished altogether.
MATHURA’S ART In the art history of India, Mathura occupies a prominent place. Mathura’s art of sculpture-making is considered very great since the past time. Kushans developed Mathura School of art during their reign. The Mathura School of art, noted for its vitality & assimilative character, was a result of pervasion of Indian sanctity of religion, Iranian simplicity & Greek beauty. The influence of Gandhara art was also manifested in its sculptures.Gautam Buddha
FEATURES OF MATHURA SCHOOL OF ART Secular in character - The sculptures worked for Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jain faiths alike. Use of spotted red (some times buff) coloured sandstone. Black clay terracottas is the special speciality of the School. Fusion of the primitive Yaksha cult with pantheon of other sects. Replacement of symbols by anthropomorphic form. Foreign elements blended with indigenous motifs. Introduction of portrait. Tutelary deities representing the popular phase of religion given important place. Exposition of feminine beauty with great delicacy and charm.
BRAJ CULTURESANJHEE RAAS LILAThis is the colourful art of According to the Bhagwat Purana, Shridecorating the ground with Krishna along with the gopis had danced the Raas on the banks of the Yamuna atflowers. The story goes Vrindavan. When the gopis felt conceitedthat Shri Krishna, in order about Lord Krishna dancing with them, heto please Radha, decorated disappeared from their midst. In the agonythe floor with flowers one of separation from their beloved Krishna,evening, and thereafter this the gopis recalled and enacted his lilasart was known as Sanjhee. (divine episodes of his life) which in course of time came to be known as the Raaslilas. The Raaslila in its present form is ascribed to Swami Haridas and Shri Narayan Bhatt. Only young Brahmin boys of 13 to 14 years of age can perform the Raaslila. The charming childhood pranks of Shri Krishna constitute the main theme of these dramas.
BRAJ CULTURECHARKULA RASIYAThis is a traditional folk dance of Braj, where This is the rich tradition of folk-songsa female dancer balances a column of that is found in the Braj area. Rasiyalighted deepikas over her head whiledancing. The charkula, a tapered wooden songs describe the love of the divinecolumn with four to five circular tiers has couple Radha and Shri Krishna. It isearthen lamps on each level. The number of an inseparable part of the Holilamps can range from 51 to 108 at times. celebrations and all other festiveThe dancer with her face veiled, moves with occasions at Braj. The Rasiya is sungswift, graceful movements while balancing to the rhythm of huge drums, locallythe 40 to 50 kilogram charkula on her head. known as bumb.A dramatic dance that is visually attractive,it is performed on the Dooj of Holi, to theaccompaniment of Rasiya songs renderedby the menfolk.
MATHURA’S MUSIC Mathura’s big contribution in the music is the Haveli Sangeet. Lord Krishna, too was fond of music & he can be so called profounder of Bansuri (Flute).
MATHURA IN PRESENTAfter looking at the slides shown before, one can imagine howglorious our city, Mathura has been in the past .But there is a great saying “Nobody has an authority overtime”. Mathura too witnessed, in fact witnessing therepercussions of degraded politics & lack of initiatives.
MATHURA’S PROBLEMS Miserable condition of roads. Pollution in Yamuna. Lack of civic sense. Improper sewage & sanitation system. Archaic traffic conditions. Willful violation of law & order by people. Lack of greenery. Inefficient electricity & drinking water supply. Absence of flyovers at busiest crossings. Humiliation of migrated Bengali widows, particularly in Vrindavan.SEEING THIS CONDITION, IT SEEMS THAT: “KRISHNA-KRISHNA IS EVERYWHERE, BUT LAND OF KRISHNA IS NOWHERE.”
SOLUTIONS OF SOME PROBLEMS• We are consuming water faster than it is being replenished, therefore, we ought to adopt measures like rainwater harvesting so that there may be no paucity of drinking water.• We should plant more & more trees to have greenery prevail in this city, so as to get a soothing environment.• We can carry out door to door visits to make the awareness amongst the people.
MY DREAM CITY “MATHURA”My dream city Mathura would be:• A totally planned Mathura with wider roads.• A Mathura with proper sewage & sanitation system.• A Mathura with proper electrification all around, not merely in areas adjacent to Janma Bhoomi.• A Mathura with apex institutions-so that aspiring students may not move out• A Mathura with full job opportunities.• A Mathura full of greenery.• A Mathura with proper traffic system.• A Mathura with its citizenries having a good civic sense.
LAST WORDSMATHURA’S GLORY CAN BE REVIVED IFPEOPLE JOIN HANDS TOGETHER TO DOSO WITH A SMART LEADER. “THE SECRET LIES AMONG US”