A 2011 Research Report on 'The Career Aspirations and Attributes of Indian Gen Y at the Workplace'
Career Aspirations and Attributes of Indian Gen Y @ Workplace Research Report 2011 In Partnership with IKYA Human Capital Solutions Ltd, MTHR Global and The Academy of HRD
AbstractThe first of its kind in India, this research study is an empirical exploratory studyon Indian Gen Y working in urban locations of India today.India’s Generation Y covered in this study work in urban India, and were bornbetween 1981-1991. This study explores their career aspirations, motivations(extrinsic and intrinsic) and values at the workplace, and explores how thesefactors impact organizations.The study examines career aspirations and their relationship with motivations(extrinsic and intrinsic) and values (achievement, money and role immersion) ofIndian Gen Y at the workplace today. The findings reveal heterogeneity of GenYs’ career aspirations, and suggest that the respondents aspire to achievemanagerial competence, brand identity, and a sense of service. They aremotivated by extrinsic factors (i.e. tangible rewards obtained from externalsources such as salary, perks and physical conditions) only marginally, and aremainly motivated by intrinsic factors (i.e. Individuals are intrinsically motivatedwhen they seek enjoyment, interest, satisfaction of curiosity, self-expression, orpersonal challenge in the work) and they highly value achievement. Overallcareer aspirations are positively correlated with intrinsic motivations and values(achievement, monetary and role orientations). However, partial negativecorrelation is seen between the career anchors and intrinsic motivations, such as,technical & functional competence - technically competent supervisor, autonomy& independence - Equitable Pay, geographical stability - equitable pay. Alike,some career anchors are partially negatively correlated with extrinsicmotivations, such as sound company policies - managerial competence, fringebenefits - job stability and alike. Further analyses showed significant differenceswithin the different cohorts, such as, industry, gender, location and work -experience for overall career aspirations, motives and values. From thequalitative sessions we also inferred that the career aspirations, motives andvalues of Indian Gen Y do depend on their individual socio-cultural background.Also, when one moves forward in their career & life stages, their careeraspirations also gets influenced by their personal and socio-cultural needs.However, these are the areas for future investigation. The implications on HRpolicies and practices for management and suggestions for future research areput forward.
Key Findings Key FindingsOverall Region specific• The Indian Gen Y professionals aspire mostly for managerial • Gen Y working in the northern zone of India are seen to have low extrinsic competence, brand identity, and sense of service. motivations (earnings, benefits, infrastructure, etc) & values• The Indian Gen Y professionals are motivated when they have a (Achievement/ monetary orientation/ role immersion) as compared to considerate and sympathetic supervisor, work-life balance, sound the east, west and south zones of India. company policies and practices and, equitable pay. • In terms of career aspirations, Southern zone Gen Y career aspirations are• The Indian Gen Y highly value achievement. The Gen Yers expressed in prominent than the other zoners and they are highly motivated by both the quantitative and qualitative study, the importance of advancement in career and life. achievement, not only in their professional environment, but in the social environment in which they belong. Industry specific• They want to prove themselves and work ‘NOW’. They ask questions • Job stability is the highest aspiration in the healthcare industry, closely only to be clear of what they have to do. Once, they know which area of followed by the IT industry, the education industry and the infrastructure specialization to pursue in their career, there is no stopping them as industry. they are the most focused lot, are emotionally intelligent and dare to • Brand Identity is aspired highest by the Gen Yers from the IT industry, speak out their mind. closely followed by the Gen Yers from the consulting industry cohort.• Peer pressure is very high in this group and the pressure to compete within their peer group also motivates them to be offbeat and create Work-experience specific their own identity and their own space. • It is interesting to note that Gen yers from the 0-5.5 years of work• Gen Y respondents appear to be motivated by a series of tradeoffs experience are oriented more towards achievement, while the Gen Yers between diametric motivational gratifications. with more than 6 years of work experience are seen to value money more.Gender specific• Equitable pay (male-higher), sound co. policies & practices (female- Location specific higher) and career advancement (male-higher) are key differentiating • Urban work location is highly preferred by the Indian Gen Y. motivators for male and female Indian Gen Y.
value preferences and motivating factors will give a foundation for 1. INTRODUCTION developing effective management strategies in attracting, motivating, engaging and retaining the Gen Yers. It is a proven fact that knowledgeThe newest and youngest members of work forces all over the world and human capital are increasingly important determinants of anare making their presence felt, causing businesses to re-think their organizations sustainable competitive advantage.workplace practices and adapting flexibility at workplace to this newbreed of Generation Y (Gen Y) employees and managers. With about After reaffirming the facts that there is a lack of validated Indianhalf of India’s one billion people under the age of 25, Generation Y in studies on Indian Gen Y working population and, a growing concern ofIndia is the world’s largest compared out of total of 1,723,911,077, organizations on how to tap the opportunities and challenges posed onwhich is 25.47% of world population (Indian Population Bureau, 2009). them by the Gen Yers which has brought about a radical transformation, perplexing organization(s) today to rethink on theirThe Gen Y, in our study, is the generation born in between 1981-1991, human resources strategies to sustain in the competitive and dynamicas the scope of our research study is limited to the working Gen Y market, ‘we’- IKYA Human Capitals, MTHR Global and the Academy ofprofessionals in India today. The Generation Y in India is a remarkable HRD, have come together to conduct, first of its kind-exploratorygroup which is ambitious, optimistic, embraces change and has a clear research on Indian Gen Y professionals working in urban India.sense of where they are headed. In India, they will be the largestpercentage of employed workforce for next 50 years, thus, Generation We intend to make the research study an open resource for everyY professionals’ skills and potentials are crucial if economies are to professional from all walks of life and organizations and gain importantmove up the value chain. In addition, as the Baby Boomers (born 1946 insights from this research.– 1964) retire, both Generation X (born 1965 –1979) and Generation Y(born 1980– 2000) replaces them. Despite the large potential Gen Y Definition of keywords 1. Career anchors: A persons career anchor is his or her self-conceptworkforce, it is mentioned many a times that not all are ‘employment consisting of 1) self-perceived talents and abilities, 2) basic values, and,ready’ and so their talents are in short supply. most important, 3) the evolved sense of motives and needs as they pertain to the career.Whether the challenges posed by Gen Y, also called as Millennial,outweigh the opportunities they present, i.e. their ability to use 2. Managerial Task/Competence: People in this category exhibit a strongcommunication technologies and social media, their tech-savvy desire to climb the corporate general management ladder. Their ultimateculture, new ways of contemplating work, new managerial forms etc, objective is management per se and the responsibility which accompaniesor they are creating both challenges and opportunities in the general management positions. Technical or functional competence isworkplace. There is little doubt, however, that organizations that viewed only as a necessary interim stage while their perception of requiredembrace the challenges will be in a better position to benefit from competence lies in a blend of analytical, interpersonal, and emotional skills.their skills and high potential. Therefore, deep insights and They are willing to accept challenge, crisis, group conflict and work under conditions of incomplete information and high uncertainty.understanding of Gen Yers’ characteristics, their career aspirations,
3. Technical / Functional Competence: For individuals anchored in technical / 9. Basic identity: The need to be associated with a firm or occupation which functional competence, actual work content becomes a primary concern and externally or visibly enhances or substitutes for self definition. chief area of interest in formulating career decisions. Feelings of well being and competence are more closely aligned with subject or discipline 10. Intrinsic motivation: proficiency rather than management per se. Intrinsic motivation is "the motivation to engage in work primarily for its own sake (Amabile, Hennesy & Tighe 1994:950) and refers to the pleasure or the4. Security and Stability: The primary concern of people in this anchor category personal fulfilment from performing the activity itself (Sonesh-Kedar & is stability and / or security. This need can be manifested in at least two ways. Geirland 1998). Individuals are intrinsically motivated when they seek For some the central theme involves the security and stability that enjoyment, interest, satisfaction of curiosity, self-expression, or personal accompanies membership in the firm or organization. For others the needs challenge in the work (Amabile 1997: 211). tend to be more geographically based and involve the feelings and comfort associated with settling down, stabilizing family, and establishing community 11. Extrinsic motivation: ties. In both instances, the driving or constraining forces are tied to a Extrinsic motivation emphasizes the value an individual places on the ends of personal sense of security, certainty, and future predictability. an action. It is "the motivation to work primarily in response to something apart from the work itself (Amabile, Hennesy & Tighe 1994: 950) and5. Service to others: The drive to express needs, talents and values through extrinsic reward systems are mainly tangible rewards obtained from external efforts designed to assist others; high dedication to cause. sources such as salary, perks and physical conditions (Sonesh-Kedar & Geirland 1998).6. Variety: The centrally important theme would involve the diversity of challenges and the need to maintain flexibility of responses. 12. Achievement orientation: Achievement orientation is conceptualized as a perceptual-cognitive framework that influences how individuals approach,7. Creativity: Individuals anchored in creativity are dominantly influenced by a interpret, and respond to achievement activities. (Dweck & Leggett, 1989). motivation to build, create, invent or produce something of their own. In essence, they are entrepreneurial by nature and are driven by the need to 13. Role immersion: High orientation and involvement in one’s professional role demonstrate self-extension through their occupational efforts. in an organization.8. Autonomy and Independence: In this category, emphasis is on personal freedom which can be expressed in any number of ways. Members of this group manifest an overriding desire to be on their own, establish their own lifestyle, set their own pace, work habits, and schedules. The autonomy seeker will strive to minimize organizational constraints in pursuit of his or her perceived competences.
detail, in order to have deeper insights into the complexity of concerns and disguised opportunities of Gen Y at workplace. The following is a brief illustration of the research activities carried out in each of the project phases and, a brief narration of the flow of the report. The research was conducted from May’2011 to October’2011 in 4 project stages as explained briefly below:Research ObjectiveThe key objective of the research is to explore the career aspirations Table 1: 4 project stages with description of the activities conductedand attributes of Gen-Y professionals working in urban India. Theresearch further identifies how intrinsic & extrinsic motivators & thevalues of Gen Y are compatible with their career aspirations atworkplaces. The following questions are addressed in the researchstudy:• What are the Indian Gen Y professionals’ career aspirations, motivations and value preferences?• What are the relationship between career aspirations with motivations and value preference?• Are there any differences in the career aspirations, motivations and value preferences of the Indian Gen Y professionals from different zones of India, gender, work-experience, size of organization and industry?• What are current challenges and opportunities posed by the Indian Generation Y at workplace today?• What HR policies & processes will make them engaged and happy?In order to answer these questions, it’s equally important tounderstand the generational blend, portrait of Gen Y, current status ofGen Y in India, how it’s affecting workplace and challenges associatedwith attracting, engaging and retaining Gen Y employees, their careeraspirations, motivations and values. We reviewed literatures on Gen Yfrom reputed journals, reports, and articles and studied each topic in
2. LITERATURE REVIEW The Millennials or Gen Y (born 1980– 2000) are the newest generation to enter the workforce. While being touted as the most “watched- over” generation in history, they are also being portrayed as possibly “the best generation yet” (Martin & Tulgan, 2001). As children they were heavily programmed with multiple at-school and after-school activities. They are highly collaborative and optimistic (Howe &The Flow of the report Strauss, 2000). They want a voice in the workplace as they haveThe report begins with a brief description of the areas under the become accustomed to having significant influence on family decisionsresearch study’s investigation through an extensive reviews of and teams throughout their lives (Alsop, 2008). They are technology-research studies, articles and reports published in reputed journals and dependent and expect automation in the workplace to support theirsome available as open resource. Following which, the methodology skills at multitasking. On the other hand, they share their feelingsand conception of our study is reproduced in the methodology section. easily and also share Gen Xers’ emphasis on work–life balance.The result of the quantitative and qualitative is discussedsubsequently. The figures & tables accentuating the quantitative Generation Y in Indiaresults are presented below the sub-headings. In the discussion sectionof the report, we have integrated the insights from both the qualitativeand quantitative analysis to finally arrive at the research conclusions,mentioning the limitations of the study.The Academy of HRD conducted a round table conference on the 3rd ofOct’2011, where we presented the findings of the quantitativeresearch to a panel of experts and professionals from the Industry, inand around Ahmedabad. Their perspectives and the insights of theAcademy of HRD’s experts are put forth in the recommendationsection of the report. In India, they make up the more than half of the population. Despite the large potential workforce, not all are ‘employment ready’ and so their talents are in short supply. The Generation Y in India is a remarkable group that is ambitious, optimistic, embraces change and has a clear sense of where they are headed. With about half of India’s
one billion people under the age of 25, Generation Y in India is the Challenges Associated with Attracting, Engaging, andworld’s largest. Positioned in a time of exciting and rapid economic Retaining Generation Ygrowth in the country, they are keen to participate in the country’s A major challenge which faces organizations is how to attract, engage,future and success. Highly competitive, Generation Y is more than ever and retain Gen Y who, because of their characteristics and attitudebefore seeking higher education and landing jobs in multi-national towards work, is markedly different from Baby Boomers in theircompanies in diverse areas such as finance, marketing, project, IT, back workplace needs and expectations. Cited in the literature the Gen Yoffice operations, media, strategy and management positions across have low levels of trust and loyalty to corporate cultures, attributed todifferent industry sectors like information technology, infrastructure, intense media scrutiny of corporations tainted with scandal (Wolburgmanufacturing, ITES, services etc. Research indicates that as & Pokrywczynski, 2001) and having witnessed several instances ofemployees, the Generation Y value work life balance more than any organizational downsizing (Loughlin & Barling, 2001). Consequently,other generation. Level of engagement among Generation Y they have become skeptical; mistrustful, and apathetic towardsemployees in India was found to be about the same as the other traditional hierarchies and authority (Martin & Tulgan, 2002). Withgenerations, making them an exception compared to their cohorts Gen Y declared “the most entrepreneurial generation in history”,around the world. While they are willing to work in shifts to support organizations are confronted with the added weight of convincingglobal operations, they are averse to working long hours. young employees that working for a corporation has greater appeal than self-employment (Martin, 2005). Indian – Demographic pyramid, Gen Y brings an impressive, portfolio of academic credentials and requisite skills in technology to the workplace along with lofty expectations for fast-track promotion, raises, perks, independence, flexible work arrangements, a need for fun (Zemke, 2001), and meaningful work that adds value to the organization’s strategic direction (Rekar Munro, 2008). They expect continuous recognition and daily feedback (Hastings, 2008). They also call for managerial support as well as clear and comprehensive instructions, yet seek autonomy to chart the path and pace for achieving goals (Yeaton, 2008; Martin, 2005). Today, organizational leaders lack understanding of the communication preferences of Gen Y (Reynolds, Campbell Bush, Geist, 2010 2008). Given their pressing sense of immediacy and impatience, Gen Y Source: United Nations (2009), International Database is unlikely to be enticed by promises of distant pay raises and promotions (Lancaster & Stillman, 2002). As stated by senior management interviewed by Weber (2008), “You want to think about
how to prepare the next generation to move into leadership and systems (Baruch, 2004) have emerged. This approach focuses on thethey’re already thinking about buying the company.” individual, not the organization, who takes responsibility for their own career. Baruch (2004) contends that it is not restricted to the realm ofCareer Aspirations of Gen Yers paid work or work and non-work domains. He also argues that alongGiven unique characteristics and attributes Gen Yers are certainly with the hierarchical ladder climb, other criteria are now held to beinstrumental in changing the workplace rules. Gen Yers grew up with important: inner satisfaction, life balance, autonomy and freedom. Ifboomer parents telling them how wonderful they are. They are used to we relate these criteria to Generations Ys, we can see parallelsgetting what they want, when they want it, and they were given prizes between them and the values Generation Ys hold. When thinking offor everything even when coming in last. It is not surprising they want careers, a traditional linear career structure is often considered theto run the company from day one. Being told for the first time they most successful and the most sought after. This has traditionally beenhave to wait for rewards can be difficult to accept. Baruch (2004) reinforced by many organizational structures, cultures andargues that the social context in which people grows and develops remuneration packages along with definitions of success andinfluences their values, norms and beliefs which, in turn, influence commitment, which may be opposed to the Generation Y’s value oftheir career aspirations, career choice, and progress. Arnold (1997) equality (Morton, 2002).defines a career as a sequence of employment related positions, roles,activities and experiences encountered by a person. According to Key findings from the Oxygenz (2008) research reveal the following:Nicholson and Arnold (1989), career transition from higher education • Money matters: Remuneration is important to this age group andinto employment goes through various phases: preparation or they seek out competitive packages. But they also want a goodanticipation, encounter, adjustment and stabilization. contractual package – they want money, work-life balance, and they want to work for an attractive brand that reflects their own values.With regard to their careers, Generation Ys have a drive for career • Experiential learning is crucial: Employers and Gen Y themselves seesuccess and security, craving opportunity and responsibility (Kerslake, experiential learning as key to developing the skills required of2005). Traditional career structures, where a person made a series of todays finance professional. Face-to-face learning still resonatesupward career moves usually within a single company have, since the with this generation and they are less reliant on e-learning thanbeginning of the 1990s, been supplanted by the boundary-less career may have been previously thought. Organizations need to develop afor Gen Y employees (Arthur, 1994). More transactional and short- wide range of learning opportunities to engage this generationterm relationships are common place nowadays and people now successfully.expect an organization to serve them – rather than the other way • Be attractive, be different: Employers need to put careerround – which might only be for two-to-three years (Baruch, 2004a). development at the heart of their proposition to make themFurthermore, as many organizations have been downsized and de- attractive to Generation Y. Contrary to popular perception, thelayered, so career paths have become blurred. Many of them are survey shows this is a generation who value job security but areredesigning jobs and roles. People now expect to move between prepared to leave if career promises are not fulfilled.companies more than in the past. As a result, multi-directional career
Motivating Generation Y be mindful of the environment which is conducive to maximizing Gen YThe subject of motivation has always been the prime focus of both productivity. Generally the group will rebel against process and craveresearchers and managers. Different methods of motivation have been flexibility. The less you tell them what to do the better! Instead focusapplied to the workforce –positive and negative reinforcements have on output and not process. So wherever possible be creative andbeen used by organizations to move employees to work. The flexible on dress codes, work hours, and work locations.employees of the modern organizations are required to perform moresophisticated tasks. Two factors feed this attitudinal shift. One, unlike Generation Ys’ Valuesprevious generations, the parents of educated millennial provides Upon entering the workforce full time, a Gen Y has already beenfinancial support for their children. The second factor is the motivation exposed to innumerable influences through his/her formative years,of millennial s on the whole. This requires them to be more innovative involving learning experiences from family, friends, academic andand technically updated so as to survive in the face of intense perhaps religious institutions. Additionally, many will sample orcompetition. Motivated employees provide maximum benefit to the experiment with the workforce through a part-time job, internship, ororganization and hence the organizations should provide such volunteer activity. Collectively, these influences and experiencesenvironment that provides maximum motivation to its workforce. contribute to their own set of core beliefs and to his/her expectations of others. Such beliefs are values representing adherence to "specificThe most widely used classification in career choice selection and mode[s] of conduct or [an] end-state of existence [as being] personallymotivation is the three-dimensional framework by Carpenter and or socially preferable" to the opposite conduct or end state ofFoster (1977) and Beyon et al. (1998) which are as below: existence.• intrinsic (interest in the job, personally satisfying work);• extrinsic (availability of jobs, well paying occupations); and Importantly, values are not just specific to an individual Gen Y; rather,• Interpersonal (influence of parents and significant others). values are common to archetypes of Gen Y exposed to similar social forces during their formative years. With respect to prioritizing valuesTo motivate Gen Y, managers must show interest and be genuine in and value systems, researchers agree that people tend to order or ranktheir interaction. Many organizations experienced that the easiest way their personal values to reconcile various conflicts among actions thatto show that you care is to promote dialogue which focuses on events involve more than one value. Thus, although two or more generationsoutside of work. Leverage from shared interests or previously may share similar values as described by Schwartz, one generationsobtained knowledge about an employee. Sporting teams, movies, rank-ordering of values may differ significantly from that of anothersocial events, two way conversations and the like are great examples in generation. In order to build and nurture a set of work values, thebuilding rapport. If need be, record the observations and knowledge same needed to be imparted through participative approaches. Gen Yfor future reference. Like it or not, but work for Gen Y is a social must feel and own the values in order to have organizational-valueactivity, so using the knowledge to engage with them- create an integration. For Generation Y employment, and even more so, loyaltyenvironment where two way conversations can start and develop is an even value for value exchange rather than the traditional one-naturally is crucial for organizations now. The organizations need is to sided transaction.
As organizations in India are taking new leap to the next orbit while For questionnaire design & development, we used three scales,struggling to engage Generation-Y employees, many questions ignite Schein’s (1985) career orientation inventory, intrinsic and extrinsicabout Generation-Y’s aspirations and values, and how they are motivation instrument developed by Udai Pareek (1997) and valuedifferent and can be engaged at the workplaces. preference scale used by Sarupriya (1983). They are all validated instruments, used by researchers, both in India & abroad for different sample groups. Career aspirations were measured based on Schein’s (1996) internal career anchors, which is a comprehensive model. Schein’s (1987) career anchor explains that individuals hold a wide variety of career interests. A “growing sense of self – this is me, and that is not me” (Schein, 1987, p. 159) which derived from the experiences was termed career anchor or career orientation. To 3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND understand & compare results, all three instruments which were differently scaled were converted into single scale using, average mean METHODOLOGY percentage scale using indexing.This study is a large cross-sectional exploratory study conducted on Socio-demographic variables such as date of birth, gender (title),Indian Gen Y working in urban locations of India, especially belonging location, industry, educational attainment, organization size and totalto the service and manufacturing industries. This segment may be very work experience as well as organizational tenure were also taken tosmall compared to the whole Gen Y population of India. Therefore, describe the sample. Respondents were asked to indicate theirthe findings and implications would be limited to this segment. The responses in open ended statements. The respondents’ age wasGen Yers born in between 1981 to 1991 are our target sample, located measured from the date of birth, and tenure in current job as well asin 4 zones (North, South, East and West) of India. Thereby, a huge organization tenure was assessed in months. Many respondents alsosection of Gen Y is not covered by the study and future studies may gave away their email-id and contact numbers.need to be done to generalize the study. Pilot StudyFor the study, a mixed methodology, both qualitative and quantitative A pilot study was conducted to gauge the feasibility of the researchwas designed. In four stages as illustrated in table 1 above, the study design and test the questionnaires developed for the study in thewas designed and executed accordingly. Two stage sampling was used month of May’2011, wherein qualitative sessions (i.e. 2 focus groupi.e. in the first stage, for the selection of Gen Y in organizations discussions with each group of 6 Gen Y respondents and 3 interviewsjudgmental sampling was used and, for the selection of Gen Y with each team of two Gen X & one Gen Y respondents) wereProfessionals, convenience sampling was used. conducted in Ahmedabad and Delhi. Coinciding distribution of the self – administer questionnaire was arranged in an MTHR Global event in Pune.
From the pilot study data of 68 completed questionnaires, the From the qualitative sessions conducted during the pilot study, thereliability of the scale was analyzed. Career aspirations were measured questionnaire guides for focus group discussion and triad wereusing Schein’s (1985) career orientation inventory. The first 22 items enhanced. The objectives of the focus group discussion guides was topertaining to the respondents’ career and are rated on a six-point scale get information from Gen Y on their perception of the present trendsranging from 1 “of not important” to 6 “centrally important”. in society and at workplace today; their needs, wants, desires,Additionally, the following 19 items are relating to the respondents’ concerns, fears, anxieties related to work; and conflicts between Gen Xcareer preferences where each response ranges from 1 “not true at Managers and Gen Y employees, etc. The objectives of the triadall” to 6 “absolutely true”. According to Igbaria and Baroudi (1993), interviews (interview with 3 participants) was to investigate the areasthis measure of career orientation has established validity and of conflicts between Gen Yers and their previous generations, how doreliability. Specifically, the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients of reliability they perceive Gen Y at workplace today and, their implications on HRfor the career orientations (41 items) is α=0.818. Responses to each of policies and practices.the factor were averaged to produce the nine career orientations.Examples of the items are “To build my career around some specific Main Studyfunctional or technical area is…” and “The excitement of participating During the month of July and September’ 2011, we conducted thein many areas of work has been the underlying motivation in my main study. We invited Gen Yers to participate in the Focus Groupcareer ….” Meanwhile, the motivational factors in the context of what discussion and, invited Gen Y and Gen X managers for the triadone looks for in a job were measured using an intrinsic and extrinsic interviews. The number of participants we recruited for each focusmotivation instrument developed by Dr. Udai Pareek (1997). This group discussion and triads were 6 and 3 respectively. In total, duringfourteen items instrument is administered through ranking order 1-14, the main study, we conducted 8 focus group discussions and 18 triadwhere 1 signifies the most important factor for deciding whether or interviews in Ahmedabad, Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore.not to take up a job and so on. 14th rank against the factor signifies thelowest priority. The Cronbach’s Alpha of the motivation scale’s We have received a total of 707 total responses from the onlinereliability on 14 items is α=0.824. Examples of the items are job survey; however, we received only 378 completed responses. Thesecurity, adequate salary, interesting work, etc. The value preference research findings are based out of the quantitative data of 378instrument has been used by Sarupriya (1983) which measures the responses and the observations from conducting 10 focus groupvalue of various outcomes (achievement, monetary and role discussions and 21 triad interviews.immersion). The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients of reliability for thevalue preference instrument (7 items) is α=0.856. The Cronbach’s The online questionnaire survey was uploaded on the internet, forAlpha coefficients of the combined scales is α=0.849, Cronbachs Alpha wide accessibility and convenience of Gen Yers working from differentBased on Standardized Items is α=0.889. The total items measured are locations of India. The link of the Gen Y online survey62. http://survey.academyofhrd.org/ was sent to many organizations, inviting them to call upon their Gen Y employees to fill the survey. By the 26th of Sept’2011, 378 fully completed questionnaires were received which were then, used for further analysis.
The following gives a detail description of the qualitative sessions,during the month of May, July and August’2011. 4. DATA ANALYSES, FINDINGS AND Table 2: Description of the Qualitative sessions INTERPRETATIONS 1. Profile of the Respondents Date of Birth: 61% respondents’ date of birth is in between 1981-1985 and 35.19% in between 1986-1991. Figure 1 Gender: In this study, the sample composition of the gender represented 51% as male respondents and 41% as female respondents. Figure 2
Work Experience: 21 % respondents born between, 1981-1985 have a total Economic Sector: Likewise, 74% belonged to the industries in servicework experience ranging from 2- 8 years. 80% of respondents born between, sector and 23% belonged to the industries in the manufacturing sector.1986- 1991 have a total work experience ranging from 6 months to 4.5 years. Figure 5 Figure 3Educational Qualification: In terms of educational level, 60 % of the Service Sector: Specifically, from the 74% of the service sector sample,respondents hold post graduate degrees. 29% hold graduate degrees. 5% belonged to the BFSI industry, 17% from the Consulting & professional services, 15% from the Education sector, 8% from the Figure 4 healthcare industry, 3% from the tourism and hospitality industry, 9% from the Infrastructure industry, 24% from the IT industry, only 1% from the ITES, 5% from Media and entertainment industry, 5% from the retail industry, 2% from the Shipping and logistics industry, and 6% from the telecom industry. Manufacturing Sector: Similarly, out of the 23% manufacturing sector sample, 14% percent belonged to the automotive industry, 3% from the cement industry, 11% from the Chemical industry, 14% from the Consumer Electronics Industry, 20% from the Power and Energy industry, 4% from the steel industry and the rest 34% were from other industries belonging to the manufacturing sector of the Indian economy. It should be noted that the categories of the industry was duly verified and approved by the experts.
Organization Size: 39% respondents worked in organization with1000+ workforce size, followed by 24% of respondents in 1-100 Location: Finally, about 42% of the respondents are located in theworkforce size. About 20% work in 101-500 size organization and western zone of India, wherein 60% were from Mumbai, 15% fromabout 12% in the 501-1001 workforce size organizations. Pune and 17% from Ahmedabad. 29% respondents are from the southern zone of India, with 40% from Bangalore, approx. 25 % from Figure 8 Chennai and 13% from Hyderabad. Similarly, respondents located in the northern zone of India comprised approximately 18% and from this sample, around 93% belonged from the National Capital Region (Delhi, Gurgaon and NOIDA). From the eastern zone of India we received only 7% responses and 89% are located in Kolkata. Figure 9
2. Characteristics of Gen Ys’ Career Aspirations (CA), Intrinsic Motivation Motivation and Value (Ref. Figure 14, 15, 16 & 17) • The top three intrinsic motivators for Gen Y are Equitable Pay (58.89), Responsibility & Independence (54.52) & Achievement (53.19). Career Aspirations • For Gen Y, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are important,• The average of overall Career Aspirations (CA) for the selected sample however, from the study a slight importance is seen towards extrinsic is high (72.86 out 100). motivators when compared with intrinsic motivators.• Gen Y’s top three career aspirations are Service & Dedication to cause Figure 15 (78.43), Managerial Task (78.12), and Identity-Occupational & Organizational (78.03).• Gen Y s’ aspiration for geographical stability is the least (58.78), comparatively. Their aspiration for strong Technical/Functional competence is seen moderate (65.99). Figure 14 Figure 16
Extrinsic Motivation 3. The Relationships between of Gen Ys’ Career Aspirations• From Figure 15 & 16, we can summarize that, Gen Y respondents give (CA), Motivation, Value with Gender Cohorts -Males & preference to Considerate & Sympathetic Supervisor as the leading Females (Ref. Figure 18, 19, 20 & 21) extrinsic motivator (64.21), closely followed by restricted hours of work (63.96), Sound company policies and practices and Comfortable Career Aspirations working conditions. • Overall Gender-wise, there is very less difference in the total career• Interestingly, as contrary to the popular notion, Gen Y gave least aspiration scores, in terms of mean differences for cohorts based on preference to adequate earnings (47.7) as compared to other extrinsic gender. factors. • The Gen Y females aspire for more geographical stability (78.4) as Figure 17 compared with their male counterparts (58.8). • The Gen Y males aspire for high degree of Job Stability (75.3) as compared with females (62.7). • Gen Y Males aspire for job advancement more (60.21) as compared with females (48.52). • Females aspire for technical & functional competence (75.21) more, as compared with males (66). It is interesting to note that Gen Y female professionals, less aspires for managerial task/competence, but aspires more for technical and functional competence than their Gen Y male counterparts. • There is absolutely no disparity seen in gender’s career anchors, such as variety or pure challenge, creativity and service & dedication to Value Preferences cause.• As seen in Figure 17, all the three values for Gen Y is high (average is • However, we see a difference in the aspiration for autonomy and more than 75%). independence more (77.3%) in Gen Y female than Gen Y male (70.4).• The highest value preference of Indian Gen Y is achievement Orientation (85.70), followed by monetary orientation (79.85) and Role immersion (67.53).
Figure 18 Gen Y females more (49.90) than the Gen Y males (45.43). And relatively, when compared with other extrinsic factors, the significance of adequate earnings is seen less. Fringe benefit’s score is little higher than adequate earnings. • Partial difference is seen between the gender cohorts for Job security and, considerate & sympathetic supervisor, however, the Gen Y males scored little higher than their Gen Y female counterpart. Figure 19 Intrinsic Motivation• In terms of intrinsic motivation, it is interesting to note that the Gen Y males are motivated by equitable pay (63.01), advancement (60.21), Responsibility & Independence (56.28), while Gen Y females are motivated by Technical competent supervisor (57.39), Respect & recognition (55.34) & Achievement (53.22). Figure 20• Contrary to the popular belief, Gen Y females get motivated by an interesting; meaningful and challenging job more, as compared with the Gen Y male. Extrinsic Motivation• In terms of extrinsic motivation, males are motivated by comfortable restricted hours of work (63.49), considerate & sympathetic supervisor (62.88) and comfortable working conditions (53.72)• Gen Y females are motivated by sound company policies & practices (64.6), considerate & sympathetic supervisor (61.8) and comfortable working conditions (58.03).• It is however, interesting to note that adequate earnings motivates
Overall, equitable pay, sound co. policies & practices and career 4. The Relationships between of Gen Ys’ Career Aspirations advancement are key differentiating motivators for male and females (CA), Motivation, Value with Location as the mean differences are large. (Ref. Figure 22) Value Preferences Overall based on location there is significant different for career• In terms of value preferences, both male and female Gen Yers are aspirations, motivators and value preferences for Gen Y. highly achievement oriented.• Interestingly, Indian Gen Yers value achievement more than monetary Career Aspirations gains. • There is significant difference for over all career aspirations particularly• Partial difference is seen in the preference of the three values by the for east zone when compared with other three zones (west, north and two Gen Y gender groups. south)(39.59). However, they aspiration is higher for geographical stability (72.39) when compared with other three zones. Gen Yers from Figure 21 the Eastern zone have higher career aspirations in terms of service & dedication to the cause (79.8), creativity (77.42) and technical & functional competence (74.17). • West zone Gen Yers have higher career aspirations in terms of service & dedication to a cause (77.47), managerial task (77.19) and brand identity-occupational & organizational (77.11). • North zone Gen Yers have higher career aspirations in terms of service & dedication to the cause (77.8), managerial task (76.96) and identity- occupational & organizational (76.9). • South zone Gen Yers have higher career aspirations in terms of service & dedication to the cause (80.1), identity-occupational & organizational (79.32) and managerial task (79.08). Intrinsic Motivation • There is significant difference for intrinsic motivators particularly for north zone when compared with other three zones (west, east and south). • There exists significant difference for intrinsic (22.10 vs. 60.40) & extrinsic motivators (53.47.29 vs. 54.8) among west zone and north zone Gen Y employees respectively.
• In terms of overall intrinsic motivation, the same is highest for south Value Preferences zone cohort. • There is significant difference for all three value preferences• Gen Yers are motivated by equitable pay (60.4), responsibility & particularly for Gen Yers from the northern zone when compared with independence (55.24) and technical competent supervisor (55.20) in other three zones (west, east and south). For north zone value west zone cohort. preferences are on lower when compared with other three zone• They are motivated by advancement (57.7), responsibility & cohorts. independence (55.24) and respect & recognition (49.9) in north zone • In terms of value preferences, achievement orientation is highest cohort. They are least motivated by Technical competent supervisor. followed by monetary orientation and role immersion respectively.• Gen Yers are motivated by responsibility & independence (60.51), equitable pay (60.26) and achievement (59.17) in east zone cohort.• And in south zone cohort, Gen Yers are motivated by responsibility & independence (61.10), equitable pay (56.63) and achievement (56.56). Extrinsic Motivation• In terms of extrinsic motivation, Gen Yers are motivated by restricted hours of work (64.15), considerate & sympathetic supervisor (63.92) and comfortable working conditions (54.84) in west zone cohort.• Gen Yers are motivated by restricted hours of work (60.05), considerate & sympathetic supervisor (54.02) and security (39.82) in north zone cohort.• They are motivated by considerate & sympathetic supervisor (65.5), sound co. policies & practices (57.55) and comfortable working conditions (51.89) in east zone cohort.• And in the south zone cohort Gen Y are motivated by considerate & sympathetic supervisor (65.16), sound co. policies & practices (55.54) and comfortable working conditions (55.47).
5. The Relationships between Gen Ys’ Career Aspirations (CA), Technical competent supervisor, adequate earnings and fringe benefits Motivation, Value with Service Industry & Manufacturing are key differentiating motivators among service and manufacturing cohorts in terms of mean differences. Industry Sectors (Ref. Figure 23) Value preferences In the overall industry sector wise analysis, significant differences in • In terms of value preferences there is large & significant difference for career aspirations, motivators and value preferences of the Indian Gen monetary orientation which in the service sector cohort is seen very Yers are seen. high (80.07) compared with the manufacturing cohort (67.19). • Interestingly, the Gen yers from the service industry are oriented Career Aspirations towards achievement, whereas the Gen Yers from the Manufacturing• Gen Y s’ from the service sector aspire for more variety (72.34) as sector are seen to be much immersed in their role(s). compared with manufacturing sector (65.59)• And aspire less for brand identity-occupational & organizational job Figure 23 (72.7) as compared with the Gen Yers from the manufacturing sector (75.6). Intrinsic Motivations• In terms of intrinsic motivation, Gen Yers from the service sector are motivated by Technical competent supervisor (57.2), Achievement (53.74) and responsibility & independence (52.13).• And those from the manufacturing sector are motivated by technical competent supervisor (62.06), respect & recognition (54.45) and responsibility & independence (53.95). Extrinsic Motivation• In terms of extrinsic motivation, Gen Yers from the service sector get motivated by considerate & sympathetic supervisor (64.78), sound co. Policies & practices (64.55) and comfortable working conditions (56.86),• For the manufacturing cohort, Gen Yers get motivated by considerate & sympathetic supervisor (63.28), sound co. Policies & practices (63.07), and comfortable working conditions (57.54).
6. The Relationships between of Gen Ys’ Career Aspirations Intrinsic Motivations (CA), Motivation, Value with Service Industry & • There is significant difference for intrinsic motivators particularly for IT industry (49.37) when compared with other four industries (consulting, Manufacturing Industry Sub-Sectors infrastructure, health care & education). However, partial difference (Ref. Figure 24) for total intrinsic motivators in IT (49.37) & consulting cohorts (51.5) is seen. The Gen Yers get motivated by advancement (59.01), Career Aspirations responsibility & independence (58.01), and technical competent Overall, based on industry type cohorts, there exists very less supervisor (55.30). The score for respect & recognition mean score difference for overall mean differences of total career aspirations. (38.18) is lowest for this cohort. However, the career aspirations for all the sub sectors are quite high • Overall intrinsic motivation is highest for consulting industry than other with an average of 70% as mean difference. cohorts. Gen Yers are motivated by equitable pay (60.3), responsibility & independence (57.75) and advancement (54.88) in consulting• Among different dimensions of career aspirations, geographical industry cohort. stability as career aspiration is found lowest as career aspiration. • They are motivated by equitable pay (60.23), responsibility &• Gen Ys from the consulting & IT industry cohorts have higher career independence (57.75) and advancement (59.01) for infrastructure aspirations in terms of technical & functional competence (83). industry cohort.• Service & dedication to a cause (80) is seen equally important for the • Gen Yers are motivated by equitable pay (61.35), advancement (59.26) Gen Yers belonging to all the 5 industry cohorts. and responsibility & independence (53.78) in the health care industry• Gen Ys from the infrastructure industry cohort have higher career cohort. aspirations in terms of service & dedication to the cause (77.92), • Gen Yers get motivated by advancement (61.37), equitable pay (58.79), technical & functional competence (77.5), and managerial task (76.25). and technical competent supervisor (55.04) in the education industry• In the healthcare industry cohort, Gen Yers have higher career cohort. aspirations in terms of managerial task (80.00), service & dedication to the cause (78.43), and job security (77.45). Extrinsic Motivations• Managerial task (80) is seen highest in the consulting, Healthcare and • In terms of extrinsic motivation Gen Y are motivated by restricted IT industries.• Job stability (78) is the highest aspiration in the healthcare industry, hours of work (65.81), considerate & sympathetic supervisor (64.59) closely followed by the IT industry (76) and the education industry and security (60.03) in the consulting industry cohort. • Gen Yers are motivated by considerate & sympathetic supervisor cohort (76) then the infrastructure cohort (75). (63.74), restricted hours of work (60.44), and sound co. policies &• Brand Identity (80) is seen highest in the IT industry, closely followed by the Gen Yers from the consulting industry cohort. practices (56.6) in the infrastructure industry cohort.
• In the healthcare industry cohort, Gen Yers get motivated by restricted Value Preferences hours of work (69.33), considerate & sympathetic supervisor (67.7), • There is significant difference for all three value preferences and sound co. policies & practices (57.98). particularly for healthcare cohort in terms of role immersion when• In the IT industry cohort, they get motivated by restricted hours of compared with other four (consulting, infrastructure, IT & education). work (65.52), sound co. policies & practices (59.48), and considerate & • Partial difference is seen based on the orientation of Gen Yers value sympathetic supervisor (58.7). preferences for the different industry based cohorts.• Gen Yers are motivated by considerate & sympathetic supervisor • For all the five cohorts achievement orientation is highest followed by (65.93), restricted hours of work (64.56), and sound comfortable monetary orientation and role immersion respectively. working conditions (58.06) belonging from the education industry • In the health care industry cohort, the value preference for role cohort. immersion is comparatively low when compared to other four cohorts. Figure 24
7. The Relationships between of Gen Ys’ Career Aspirations Value Preference (CA), Motivation, Value with Gen Ys’ work experience • In terms of value preferences very less difference is seen for monetary (Ref. Figure 25) & achievement orientation for the selected two cohorts • It is interesting to note that Gen yers from the 0-5.5 years of work From the analysis of the overall work experience cohorts, a partial level experience are oriented more towards achievement, while the Gen Yers of differences when compared in terms of mean differences for career with more than 6 years of work experience are seen to value money aspirations, motivators and value preferences dimensions is seen. more. This may indicate the importance of an individual’s life stages and the influence of socio-economical variables which further impacts one’s Career Aspirations career aspirations and decisions.• The Gen Yers from the first cohort (0-5.5 years of work experience) Figure 25 aspires more for technical & functional competence when compared with the second cohort (5.5-11 years of experience).• More experienced Gen Yers i.e. the second cohort aspires highly for service & dedication to a cause (81.19), when compared with first cohort with less years of work experience (77.60). Intrinsic Motivations• In terms of intrinsic motivation, the Gen Yers with less work experience are motivated by advancement (60.55), equitable pay (60.44) and responsibility & independence (55.07).• The more experienced Gen Yers from the second cohort are motivated by advancement (57.82), equitable pay (53.45) and responsibility & independence (51.23). Extrinsic Motivations• In terms of extrinsic motivation first cohort with less work experience are motivated by considerate & sympathetic supervisor (63.96), restricted hours of work (63.77) and sound co. Policies & practices (56.47)• The Gen Yers with more experience (second cohort) are motivated by considerate & sympathetic supervisor (64.86), restricted hours of work (64.70) and sound co. Policies & practices (57.39). Adequate earnings, equitable pay and interesting work are key differentiating motivators among less and more experience cohorts in terms of mean differences.
8. Correlation analysis of Gen Ys’ career aspiration with • Aspirations such as pure challenge/variety at work, managerial task, motivations and value preferences (Ref. Table 3) occupational and organizational brand identity and creativity are• Aspiration for managerial task or competence is positively correlated significantly and positively correlated with monetary orientation. with 3 intrinsic motivations (respect & recognition, responsibility & • Interestingly, aspirations such as creativity and pure challenge/variety at independence and, achievement) and with all the 3 value preferences work are significantly and positively correlated with role immersion. (achievement, monetary and role). Table 3: Correlation analysis of Gen Ys’ career aspiration with motivations and value• Aspiration for autonomy and independence at work is positively preferences correlated with interesting work assignments. Whereas, this aspiration of Gen Y is negatively correlated with equitable pay.• Aspiration for job stability is positively correlated with 4 intrinsic motivations (advancement, interesting work, respect & recognition, responsibility & independence and, achievement) and negatively correlated with 3 extrinsic motivations (fringe benefits, sound co. policies & practices and restricted hours at work).• Aspiration for geographical stability is interestingly seen positively correlated with restricted hours at work, and negatively correlated with equitable pay.• Aspiration for creativity at work is positively correlated with 3 intrinsic motivations (advancement, respect & recognition and, achievement) and negatively correlated with 2 extrinsic motivations (fringe benefits and sound co. policies & practices).• Aspiration for occupational and organizational brand identity is positively correlated with responsibility & independence, whereas, it is negatively correlated with sound co. policies & practices.• Aspiration for pure challenge or variety at work with responsibility & independence.• Aspiration for technical and functional competence is seen negatively correlated with technical competent supervisor.• Almost in every instance, almost all the career aspirations (except geographical stability) are positively correlated with the 3 value preferences.• Aspirations such as, occupational and organizational brand identity, managerial task, pure challenge/variety at work, dedication and service to a cause and autonomy and independence are significantly and positively correlated with achievement.
9. OBSERVATIONS FROM QUALITATIVE SESSIONS Overarching Relevant Social Trends Framing Gen Y The learning presented in this chronicle springs from personal, albeit Mindset limited contact with prospects, as well as secondary reports & market research efforts. It is not reportage. Societal shifts - Security sphere: This sphere encapsulates societal shifts contributing to willingness for risk, versus uncertainty in the workplace Qualitative assessment develops hypotheses about people’s motivation, 1. The brain drain has reduced now due to equal opportunities created in involvement and the proposition experience- a frame of reference, India. directional not conclusive.To extend beyond the big brush strokes take- 2. High salary, high standard of living, global assignments, global office away, we have also put ourselves through the second layer of analysis. locations are given by MNC today to ensure not to lose the best talent to their competitors The definitive tone in the report is intended to instigate concepts and 3. They invest their money. Many have opened DEMAT accounts. Invest surface issues and challenges. The evocative style allows us to their money in buying gold, capital goods, etc encounter the concepts close to the experience.The overall endeavor 4. Girls and young women are encouraged and expected to have careers. was to undertake an in-depth qualitative exploration of the societal 5. The concept of “spreading feet as long as the blanket permits” is gone. trends and motivational trends guiding changes in the attitude of both 6. Credit cards generation. Different card for different purpose. Few are Gen Y working professionals as well as Gen X HR Managers so as to off course careful in using the credit cards, while others have more than articulate and highlight existing and potential areas of opportunities and 2 credit cards in their name concerns. 7. One distinct fact is that they don’t like to move on with regrets and baggage of the past. They are the go getters and the EMI generation. The flow of the findings from Qualitative study: Though some find themselves in the debt trap. But sooner or later they know how to come out of it. They are ‘jugarus’. 8. They look for stability in uncertain times. Grab opportunities, when the market offers 9. Due to economic uncertainty being one of the prime reasons, Gen Y wants to earn more in less time now. Time is money for them. 10. They take decision smartly. Many are young and do take decision in haste, but the Gen Y who are now married or have a family to sustain, always take careful steps. 11. Gen Yers are comfortable with technology and technology has become even more important component of their socio-cultural DNA. 12. Technology enables convenience in their life and work
13. Gen Y today is highly connected which makes it possible for them to 3. Role models- the world is going gaga over young achievers, be it media share info about new avenues and job opportunities. They are award functions or youth icons of the year. These role models are not connected 24/7 and access any desired information at a click of a shy of showing off their achievement, be it wealth or luxurious life style button. They are restless when not connected and they want they afford, which in the past have been a taboo continuous access to information. 4. Gen Yers today are not just brand conscious about food or cloths, but it14. Gen Yers are connected to world through social networking sites. They also reflects in career choices they make. are aware of their environment, get actively involved in events of 5. Today Gen Y speaks about a shorter working life. All of them want to importance and, make sure their voice is heard. be financially independent/ free (retired) by the age of 40. Hence all of them are in a maddening rush of achieving everything at the earliest. Societal shifts – Commitment sphere: This sphere encapsulates societal 6. The biggest loyalty is towards one’s own career and everyone strive shifts contributing to emotional and time investment, or lack thereof, in hard to get the best out of it. the workplace 7. Competition/ peer pressure- the increased amount of peer pressure 1. Gen Y celebrates diversity. They are open and gel well with the people and competition has resulted into Gen Y exceedingly demanding better from different cultures and countries. This attitude has brought in a job opportunities, better salaries, better enriched roles them their culture of acceptance, openness and support in workplace today. In peers. The pressure to compete within their peer group also motivates some way they are indifferent to such differences. them to be offbeat and create their own identity and their own space. 2. Friends = Family. Love both, but like to spend fun time with friends. 8. Before making any career decision, Gen Y would prefer taking advice The advertisement, ‘har friend zaroori hain’ aptly describes friendship from their parents and peers (people they trust for guidance) than a for them. career counsellor. 3. Gen Y is not shy of changing professions and starting with new careers 9. From early age Gen Y today received career guidance on various career at any point in life. Most of them want to work for different company options available for them. Sometimes, if not guided well, they tend to for a few years and then start with their own venture. confuse themselves. They look up to mentors in life and in careers. Societal shifts – Control sphere: This sphere encapsulates societal shifts contributing to need for handholding versus individualistic ambition in the workplace 1. Gen Ys’ lifestyle is influenced by global trends. The workplace attires are now stylish and more individualistic. They want to look good. Some prefer branded cloths, some don’t but looking good 24/7 is important. 2. Enhanced education system- colleges are offering customised educational packages according to Gen Y requirements of uniqueness and difference. Today you could be a green engineer and have an additional degree in radio jockeying. Your degree totally depends on your choice.
Motivational drivers for Gen YNote: The sentences in Italics are ‘negative’ motivation
10.Integration of the findings of the quantitative andDiametric Motivations qualitative studies Career Aspirations of Gen Y Overall, Gen Y aspires for high Dedication to social cause and, they have strong desire to climb the corporate general management ladder and have strong need to be associated with a firm or occupation which externally or visibly enhances or substitutes for self definition. Interestingly, during our qualitative sessions, climbing the corporate general management ladder ‘fast’ was voiced out by the Gen Y participants. Organizations with strong brand name, attracts them and therefore, it reflects in the career choices they make. During the qualitative sessions, the discussions confirmed their desire to contribute to a social cause, but, in the way that suits their convenience in terms of time, money and effort. And, if given an opportunity to involve in their organization’s CSR activities, the Gen Y not only just participates, but can proactively organize and manage the activities themselves. From our sessions, the Gen Ys’ showcased an innate desire to build, create, invent or produce something of their own and are driven by the need to demonstrate self-extension through their work. If allowed, they displayed positive energy and if curtailed, the Gen Y lookout for those organizations that do. Therefore, we heard a lot about Google. They are open to the idea of starting with new careers at any point of time. The Gen Ys are sensitive and aware of the socio economic conditions. Therefore, they do aspire for secure and stable jobs especially during economic downturn, which they closely experienced during the 1998 recession. The Gen Yers aspire for job stability, especially those who belong to a humble economic society and those who are married, carrying responsibilities on their shoulders. Interestingly, male Gen Ys have high aspiration for a secure and stable job than the female Gen Y.
On the contrary, geographical stability didn’t bother much to Gen Y in From HR management and talent management perspectives, it isgeneral. However, the discussions with the Gen Y group clearly depicted apparent, that Gen Y gives extreme importance to mentoring and coachingthat it all depended on their very need or preference of job-location. One and no to bossing/ controlling.point came out strongly during the qualitative sessions, which is, urbanwork location is highly preferred by the Gen Y. The Gen X managers from It is important to note that career progression is at the core of Gen Y. It isthe manufacturing unit, shared their dichotomy between persuading the seen by Gen Y as a means to an end. Be it earning more money in a shortGen Y to locate to a remote location ( locations far from urban span of time, desire for financial stability or yearning for retirement at theenvironment, like, malls, Mc Donald, pubs, etc.) and persuading the age of 40; all can be achieved by a well-defined career.management to invest on bringing some urban-alike environment to theremote job location. Gen Yers’ are loyal to their jobs and not organizations. They believe that the organization should not expect loyalty from them. If they do, in thatDuring the qualitative sessions, challenging work assignments are desired case it should be both ways.by Gen Y, however, they described that a job is challenging when itaccelerates their learning and creates a sense of ‘real’ contribution. Also, Gen Y aspirations are also changing and eventually the inclination for workthey mentioned that they want project management approach towards profile. Gen Yers with Fresher to 5.5 yrs prefer more technical/ functionaltheir work assignments. competence where as Gen Y with experience of 5.6-11 yrs need more stability & less mobility. Task Identity as well as Respect & recognition alsoGen Y acknowledges that it’s a stiff competition. They want to prove become important as one moves to advance life styles, so policies shouldthemselves and work ‘NOW’. They ask questions only to be clear of what also be different to cater to these two groups.they have to do. Once, they know which area of specialization to pursue intheir career, there is no stopping them as they are the most focused lot, Motivation of Gen Yare emotionally intelligent and dare to speak out their mind. Peer pressure The Gen Y participants expressed that overall, the extrinsic motivationis very high in this group and the pressure to compete within their peer factors comparatively were more important than the intrinsic motivationgroup also motivates them to be offbeat and create their own identity and factors. Interestingly, a considerate and sympathetic supervisor istheir own space. preferred more than a technical competent supervisor.Technical and functional competence was expressed as important, but the Restricted hours of work, leading to a work –life balance was voiced out byGen Y participants said that this will happen eventually as they progress in every participant. They expressed how 24/7 connectivity also has createdtheir career. Presently, they get motivated when they work under a distress for them. They expressed that since Gen Y want to climb thetechnical competent boss, who walks the talk. Technical/ functional corporate ladder ‘fast’, they do not hesitate to work even on Sundays, butcompetencies are now basic needs. Interpersonal relations, conflict when they take a day off, they do not like to be disturbed.management & related behavioral competencies are much sought after bythem.
Sound company policies & practices attuned to the needs of the each Table 4: Diametric Motivations of Indian Gen Yers @ workplaceemployee generational cohorts were expressed. Clarity in communicationand transparency of the policies and practices are equally important forthe Gen Y. They expressed that they are not at all comfortable with anykind of ambiguity in their work. Gen Y are individualistic in nature and sodesire customization of the company policies and practices. However, theyare not irrational bunch of group and understand the present state of theirorganization, therefore, when they demand something, it means that theyknow that their demand is not outrageous and can be met. Hygiene factors were expressed as important, during the sessions.According to the Gen Y and Gen X participants, comfortable workingconditions not only includes conducive physical work environment butalso, the work culture, organization climate, updated technology, work-lifebalance, hygiene factors, efficient team members and boss. Gen Y desiresto express themselves in their work place. Colourful and fun workenvironment, ‘fun Fridays’ with recreational activities are given highpreference by them. Some Gen X managers expressed that creating asense of belongingness within the corporate culture, and extending thefeeling to the families of the Gen Y are very well accepted by the Gen Yemployees.From the study, we have framed the following motivating factors, equallysignificant for Gen Yers but are interestingly diametrical in motivatingthem. Clear understanding and cognizance of these factors, will enableorganizations to better understand the Gen Yers working in urban Indiatoday. For eg., the Gen yers need freedom to work their own way, but theyalso want to be responsible for a task’s successful completion. Many ofthese factors are interlinked and give different directions too. Takingforward the above example, they need freedom but when they are new toa system, or organization, or assignment, they seek handholding i.e.necessary support from the team and leaders, but not micromanagementof each and every activity they do.
Value Preference of Gen YThe participants in the qualitative session expressed their orientation to They are the ‘Now’ generation, the EMI generation with educational loansachievement higher than their orientation to money. to pay off, the highly educated ones, than their previous generations, and they know it’s a stiff competition, therefore, they are very demanding andThe Gen Yers expressed in both the quantitative and qualitative study, that value what they are paid ‘now’. Time is money for them. It is also a meansthe sense of achievement, is extremely important not only in their to get what they want and desire. They are influenced by their peers andprofessional environment, but in the social environment in which they family to accumulate wealth fast and ‘now’. They also expressed that theybelong. It reflects the uplift of the social status of the individual and believe in what they are paid and how they are paid. High fixed salary isreinforces their self-esteem. most preferred than variable salary. It is also interesting to note that Gen Y highly value meaningful and challenging work and therefore, they have noThey said learning and development programs and, getting hands on qualms in working for such a job, with comparatively less pay package,experience on everything under the hood of their area of interest, provided other motivational factors remain constant.motivates them, however, the training module and process, including theinstructor, all should keep up with their expectations to keep themengaged. Upgrading their own competencies is important for them,eventually to create a niche for themselves in the job market. Goingabroad for training and getting certification adds charm to the list of theirachievements.