Mobile NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction:
Architecture Proposal and Evaluation
IWAAL 2013

Pablo Curiel, Koldo Zabaleta...
Outline

Introduction
State of the Art

The Platform
Evaluation
Conclusion

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

2/38
Outline

Introduction
State of the Art

The Platform
Evaluation
Conclusion

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

3/38
Advances in ICTs

►

Increasing number of electronic devices with noticeable
computing capabilities.

NFC vs Touchscreen B...
Advances in ICTs

►
►

Increasing number of electronic devices with noticeable
computing capabilities.
Wide range of advan...
Usability issues

►

Yet accessing these services can be troublesome…

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

Introduction
...
NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

7/38
NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

8/38
Outline

Introduction
State of the Art

The Platform
Evaluation
Conclusion

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

9/38
Related Projects

►
►
►

Several studies have used NFC-enabled phones to ease
the interaction with them and provide differ...
Our Proposal

A tag represents an object or concept of the
real world, not a particular service. Thus, it is
the combinati...
Outline

Introduction
State of the Art

The Platform
Evaluation
Conclusion

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

12/38
The Platform

►

Activate the most used services on mobile devices by
interacting with NFC tags.

►

Client-Server archite...
The Model

►

OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled.

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

Proposed Solut...
The Model

►

OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled.
► Real

world entities to be represented on NFC tags
...
The Model

►

OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled.
► Real

world entities to be represented on NFC tags
...
The Model

►

OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled.
► Real

world entities to be represented on NFC tags
...
The Model

►

OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled.
► Real

world entities to be represented on NFC tags
...
The Server

►

Checks if the combination of tags read by the user is
valid…
And if so, it determines the action they repre...
The Server – The Rule Engine

One rule per action or service available.
► Each rule checks if the information of the tags ...
The Server –Consistency Checking

►

Once an action with its corresponding attributes is
created, its consistency is check...
The Server –Consistency Checking

►

Once an action with its corresponding attributes is
created, its consistency is check...
The Mobile Application – Object Creation

►

The representation of the objects in the tags follows the
ontological model.
...
The Mobile Application – Object Creation

►

The representation of the objects in the tags follows the
ontological model.
...
The Mobile Application – Object Creation

►

The representation of the objects in the tags follows the
ontological model.
...
The Mobile Application – Action Execution

►

When a user reads a combination of tags to execute an
action, the URIs writt...
Outline

Introduction
State of the Art

The Platform
Evaluation
Conclusion

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

27/38
Evaluation

►

Goals
► Validate

our proposal
► Compare it to traditional Touchscreen-based interaction
►

Hypothesis: Int...
Experiment design

►

Subjects executed three different actions, both with NFC
and an ad-hoc touchscreen-based GUI.
► See
...
NFC-based Interaction

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

Evaluation

30/38
NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

31/38
Touchscreen-based Interaction

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

Evaluation

32/38
Experiment steps

Application explanation
► Live demo
► Training for one subject group
► Subjects executed the actions
►

...
Subject characteristics

40 Subjects
► Between 20 and 60 years old
►

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

Evaluation

34...
Subject characteristics

40 Subjects
► Between 20 and 60 years old
► 30 men and 10 women
► Varied technological skills
►

...
Subject characteristics

40 Subjects
► Between 20 and 60 years old
► 30 men and 10 women
► Varied technological skills
► 8...
Subject characteristics - Dependencies

►

Age and technological skills
► Older

subjects took less advantage of their sma...
Subject characteristics - Dependencies

►

Age and technological skills
► Older

►

subjects took less advantage of their ...
Subject characteristics - Dependencies

►

Age and technological skills
► Older

►

Age and phone type
► All

►

subjects ...
Subject impressions

►
►

Nearly all subjects found the NFC-based interaction
useful
75% of the subjects would use it at l...
Task efficiency

►

NFC 0.5 seconds faster on average

►

No significant difference between the different actions
21 subje...
Task efficiency (II)

►

Significant correlation between task efficiency and
subject age
► Specially
► 630

ms slower per ...
Task efficiency (III)

►

Interaction time differences (touchscreen time minus
NFC time for each subject and task)
► For

...
Task efficiency (IV)

►

Subjects who own a touchscreen-phone are clearly
faster with this kind of interaction
► 18

►

se...
Outline

Introduction
State of the Art

The Platform
Evaluation
Conclusion

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

45/38
Conclusion (I)

►

Platform to access the most-used services in mobile
phones using NFC.

►

New approach for NFC-based in...
Conclusion (II)

►

NFC also proved faster than touchscreen, specially for…
► Older

people (over 30 years old)
► Those le...
Future Work

►

Run a larger scale experiment
► Larger

number of subjects, more homogeneous groups

► More

subjects in o...
¡GRACIAS!

THANK YOU!

NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction

49/38
All rights of images are reserved by the original
owners*, the rest of the content is licensed under a
Creative Commons by...
Mobile NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction:
Architecture Proposal and Evaluation
Koldo Zabaleta

{koldo.zabaleta@deusto.e...
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IWAAL 2013 - Mobile NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction: Architecture Proposal and Evaluation

  1. 1. Mobile NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction: Architecture Proposal and Evaluation IWAAL 2013 Pablo Curiel, Koldo Zabaleta, Ana B. Lago DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology, University of Deusto http://www.morelab.deusto.es December 3, 2013 NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 1/38
  2. 2. Outline Introduction State of the Art The Platform Evaluation Conclusion NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 2/38
  3. 3. Outline Introduction State of the Art The Platform Evaluation Conclusion NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 3/38
  4. 4. Advances in ICTs ► Increasing number of electronic devices with noticeable computing capabilities. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Introduction 4/38
  5. 5. Advances in ICTs ► ► Increasing number of electronic devices with noticeable computing capabilities. Wide range of advanced services offered. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Introduction 5/38
  6. 6. Usability issues ► Yet accessing these services can be troublesome… NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Introduction 6/38
  7. 7. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 7/38
  8. 8. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 8/38
  9. 9. Outline Introduction State of the Art The Platform Evaluation Conclusion NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 9/38
  10. 10. Related Projects ► ► ► Several studies have used NFC-enabled phones to ease the interaction with them and provide different services. Common approach: Each NFC tag identifies a given service that is fired when the tag is read. Extensions to it: ► General tags which identify objects and special tags with additional information or services that those objects provide (Riekki et al.). ► User context as additional condition to determine which service to provide (Riekki et al.). ► Tags that identify services and tags that identify arguments for them. (Broll et al.). NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction State of the Art 10/38
  11. 11. Our Proposal A tag represents an object or concept of the real world, not a particular service. Thus, it is the combination of tags read by a user what determines the service to be provided. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction State of the Art 11/38
  12. 12. Outline Introduction State of the Art The Platform Evaluation Conclusion NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 12/38
  13. 13. The Platform ► Activate the most used services on mobile devices by interacting with NFC tags. ► Client-Server architecture ► Three main components: ► The Model ► The Server ► The Mobile Application NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 13/38
  14. 14. The Model ► OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 14/38
  15. 15. The Model ► OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled. ► Real world entities to be represented on NFC tags NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 15/38
  16. 16. The Model ► OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled. ► Real world entities to be represented on NFC tags ► Hierarchy NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 16/38
  17. 17. The Model ► OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled. ► Real world entities to be represented on NFC tags ► Hierarchy ► The actions to execute NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 17/38
  18. 18. The Model ► OWL Ontology where two kinds of elements are modelled. ► Real world entities to be represented on NFC tags ► Hierarchy ► The actions to execute ►A combination of different number and types of tags hasTag exactly 1 EmailTag EmailTag SendEmail hasAttribute min 1 Contact NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution Contact 18/38
  19. 19. The Server ► Checks if the combination of tags read by the user is valid… And if so, it determines the action they represent. ► Two steps: ► ► The Rule Engine ► Consistency Checking NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 19/38
  20. 20. The Server – The Rule Engine One rule per action or service available. ► Each rule checks if the information of the tags read matches, in principle, to its corresponding action. ► If so, it creates an instance of that action and with the attributes that apply in each case. ► Telephone And Contact instances NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Rule Engine Proposed Solution Telephone action with associated Contact 20/38
  21. 21. The Server –Consistency Checking ► Once an action with its corresponding attributes is created, its consistency is checked. ► Types of the attributes ► Cardinality of the attributes TelephoneCall Telephone action with associated Contact Semantic Reasoner hasAttribute exactly 1 Contact Contact NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 21/38
  22. 22. The Server –Consistency Checking ► Once an action with its corresponding attributes is created, its consistency is checked. ► Types of the attributes ► Cardinality of the attributes ► Consistent Action = Valid Action TelephoneCall Telephone action with associated Contact Semantic Reasoner Consistent! NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction hasAttribute exactly 1 Contact Contact Proposed Solution 22/38
  23. 23. The Mobile Application – Object Creation ► The representation of the objects in the tags follows the ontological model. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 23/38
  24. 24. The Mobile Application – Object Creation ► The representation of the objects in the tags follows the ontological model. <PlaceTagUri> NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 24/38
  25. 25. The Mobile Application – Object Creation ► The representation of the objects in the tags follows the ontological model. <PlaceTagUri> <rdf:type> <lnfc:PlaceTag> . <PlaceTagUri> <lnfc:latitude> “51.513016”^^xsd:double . <PlaceTagUri> <lnfc:longitude> “-0.122337”^^xsd:double . NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 25/38
  26. 26. The Mobile Application – Action Execution ► When a user reads a combination of tags to execute an action, the URIs written on them are used to retrieve the instance from the triplestore. ► The retrieved instances are sent to the server, which determines the action to execute. ► Finally, the mobile phone provides the service that corresponds according to the action returned by the server. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Proposed Solution 26/38
  27. 27. Outline Introduction State of the Art The Platform Evaluation Conclusion NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 27/38
  28. 28. Evaluation ► Goals ► Validate our proposal ► Compare it to traditional Touchscreen-based interaction ► Hypothesis: Interaction based on NFC is faster and easier for end-users than the touchscreen- based one. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 28/38
  29. 29. Experiment design ► Subjects executed three different actions, both with NFC and an ad-hoc touchscreen-based GUI. ► See weather forecast (no params) ► Make a phone call to a contact (one param) ► Send an e-mail to two contacts (two params) NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 29/38
  30. 30. NFC-based Interaction NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 30/38
  31. 31. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 31/38
  32. 32. Touchscreen-based Interaction NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 32/38
  33. 33. Experiment steps Application explanation ► Live demo ► Training for one subject group ► Subjects executed the actions ► ► Half of the subjects first with NFC, the other first with touchscreen ► Post-experiment survey ► Age, Gender, Familiarity with NFC/Touchscreen phones/New technologies in general and subjective impressions NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 33/38
  34. 34. Subject characteristics 40 Subjects ► Between 20 and 60 years old ► NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 34/38
  35. 35. Subject characteristics 40 Subjects ► Between 20 and 60 years old ► 30 men and 10 women ► Varied technological skills ► NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 35/38
  36. 36. Subject characteristics 40 Subjects ► Between 20 and 60 years old ► 30 men and 10 women ► Varied technological skills ► 80% owned a touchscreen phone ► 66% familiar with NFC/RFID ► ► But ► only 33% had used a NFC-enabled phone 15 subjects trained with the application before the experiment NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 36/38
  37. 37. Subject characteristics - Dependencies ► Age and technological skills ► Older subjects took less advantage of their smartphones NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 37/38
  38. 38. Subject characteristics - Dependencies ► Age and technological skills ► Older ► subjects took less advantage of their smartphones Age and phone type ► All subjects under 40 owned a smartphone NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 38/38
  39. 39. Subject characteristics - Dependencies ► Age and technological skills ► Older ► Age and phone type ► All ► subjects under 40 owned a smartphone Age and experience with NFC ► None ► subjects took less advantage of their smartphones of the older subjects had used a NFC phone before Phone type and experience with NFC ► Only one subject with prior experience with a NFC phone owned a non-touchscreen phone NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 39/38
  40. 40. Subject impressions ► ► Nearly all subjects found the NFC-based interaction useful 75% of the subjects would use it at least occasionally NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 40/38
  41. 41. Task efficiency ► NFC 0.5 seconds faster on average ► No significant difference between the different actions 21 subjects faster with NFC / 19 faster with touchscreen Pre-experiment training equal for both interaction approaches ► ► ► Subjects with training were 2 seconds faster on average with both technologies. ► No correlation between subjective impressions and task efficiency NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 41/38
  42. 42. Task efficiency (II) ► Significant correlation between task efficiency and subject age ► Specially ► 630 ms slower per year increase (P < 0.001) ► Weaker ► 333 for touch-based interaction for NFC ms slower per year increase (P < 0.01) NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 42/38
  43. 43. Task efficiency (III) ► Interaction time differences (touchscreen time minus NFC time for each subject and task) ► For each year increase in subject age, they are 300 ms faster with NFC (P ≈ 0.001) ► On average, subjects older than 30 are faster with NFC NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 43/38
  44. 44. Task efficiency (IV) ► Subjects who own a touchscreen-phone are clearly faster with this kind of interaction ► 18 ► seconds faster on average (P < 0.001) While it is not that clear that subjects with previous experience with a NFC phone are faster ►6 seconds faster on average (P ≈ 0.05) NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Evaluation 44/38
  45. 45. Outline Introduction State of the Art The Platform Evaluation Conclusion NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 45/38
  46. 46. Conclusion (I) ► Platform to access the most-used services in mobile phones using NFC. ► New approach for NFC-based interaction: Actions as combinations of tags. ► Proposed interaction scheme considered convenient and useful by test users. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Conclusion 46/38
  47. 47. Conclusion (II) ► NFC also proved faster than touchscreen, specially for… ► Older people (over 30 years old) ► Those less familiar with touch-based interaction ► Those less familiar with new technologies in general ► Learning curve of NFC-based interaction also proved to be low. NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Conclusion 47/38
  48. 48. Future Work ► Run a larger scale experiment ► Larger number of subjects, more homogeneous groups ► More subjects in older age groups ► More people with lower technological skills ► Minimize ► dependency among variables Longer in time ► Study the long-term learning effect in both interaction approaches ► Apart from studying task efficiency, measure interaction errors with both technologies NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction Conclusion 48/38
  49. 49. ¡GRACIAS! THANK YOU! NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 49/38
  50. 50. All rights of images are reserved by the original owners*, the rest of the content is licensed under a Creative Commons by-sa 3.0 license. * Android Open Source Project: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nexus_4.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nexus_10.png Stefan Svartling: https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/LJ44WQRTFlHX5ciB_xLV8lDUMCdxqHK-2KnxRTTdAcc Google Inc.: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Google_Chrome_icon_(2011).svg Photoshopedia: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/33896/camera_photography_webdesign_icon Wwalczyszyn: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/67500/android_maps_r_icon Aha-Soft: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/54522/feed_garbage_good_tidings_journal_lection_literary_garbage_mandarin_mandarine_news_newspaper_or ange_organ_paper_print_read_reader_reading_retiree_rss_sheet_slipslop_tangerine_tidings_uncos_yellow_icon https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/54526/community_connection_consultation_consulting_earth_global_group_internet_large_group_network_polar _round_table_social_social_network_users_world_icon Alessandro Rei: http://findicons.com/icon/254687/audacity Oliver Scholtz (and others): https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/24246/and_calendar_preferences_tasks_icon Bharathp666: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/72149/android_base_gmail_icon Juan José Aza: http://www.flickr.com/photos/todojuanjo/2630161117/ Chris Arvin: http://dribbble.com/shots/396641-Freebie-PSD-Android-4-0-UI?list=users W3C: http://www.w3.org/RDF/icons/rdf_flyer.svg TAPPIN: http://tappinn.com/public/images/main2011/nfc-sticker.jpg Icons Land: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/73049/base_chartreuse_inside_map_marker_socialmediabookmark_icon Everaldo Coelho: https://www.iconfinder.com/icons/18095/clouds_sun_weather_icon NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 50/38
  51. 51. Mobile NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction: Architecture Proposal and Evaluation Koldo Zabaleta {koldo.zabaleta@deusto.es} DeustoTech - Deusto Institute of Technology, University of Deusto http://www.morelab.deusto.es NFC vs Touchscreen Based Interaction 51/38

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