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# Java operators and assignments

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Java is a relevant subject area taught in all computer science degree programs. This object-oriented computer language is used to write a variety of Software Applications. The wide range of its utility made Java, the one of the most happening careers in IT Industry. The career scope of Java is continuing to grow at a faster pace.

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### Java operators and assignments

1. 1. OPERATORS AND ASSIGNMENTS JAVA provides a rich set of operators to manipulate variables. We can divide all the Java operators into the following groups: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Arithmetic Operators Relational Operators Bitwise Operators Logical Operators Assignment Operators Misc Operators 1) The Arithmetic Operators: We can use arithmetic operators to perform calculations with values in programs. Arithmetic operators are used in mathematical expressions in the same way that they are used in algebra. A value used on either side of an operator is called an “operand”. Example: Operator Description Example + Addition - Adds values on either side of the operator A+B - Subtraction - Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand A-B * Multiplication - Multiplies values on either side of the operator A*B / Division - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand B/A % Modulus - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder B%A ++ Increment - Increases the value of operand by 1 B++ -- Decrement - Decreases the value of operand by 1 B-- 2) The Relational Operators: A relational operator compares two operands to determine whether one is greater than, greater than or equal to, less than, less than or equal to the other. www.p2cinfotech.com training@p2cinfotech.com Ph: +1-732-546-3607
2. 2. OPERATORS AND ASSIGNMENTS Example: Operator Description Example == Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. (A == B) != Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (A != B) > Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes (A > B) true. < Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes (A < B) true. >= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A >= B) <= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A <= B) 3) The Bitwise Operators: Java's bitwise operators operate on individual bits of integer (int and long) values. If an operand is shorter than an int, it is promoted to int before doing the operations. It helps to know how integers are represented in binary.Java defines several bitwise operators, which can be applied to the integer types, long, int, short, char, and byte.Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit-by-bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; now in binary format they will be as follows: a = 0011 1100 b = 0000 1101 ----------------a&b = 0000 1100 a|b = 0011 1101 a^b = 0011 0001 ~a = 1100 0011 www.p2cinfotech.com training@p2cinfotech.com Ph: +1-732-546-3607
3. 3. OPERATORS AND ASSIGNMENTS Example: Operator Description Example & Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A | B) ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one (A ^ B) operand but not both. ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) << Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A << >> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the A >> right operand. >>> Shift right zero fill operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the A >>> right operand and shifted values are filled up with zeros. 4) The Logical Operators: Assume Boolean variables A holds true and variable B holds false, then: Operator Description Example && Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. (A && B) is false. || Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. (A || B) is true. ! Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false. !(A && B) is true. www.p2cinfotech.com training@p2cinfotech.com Ph: +1-732-546-3607
4. 4. OPERATORS AND ASSIGNMENTS 5) The Assignment Operators: Assignment operator is the most common operator almost used with all programming languages. It is represented by "=" symbol in Java which is used to assign a value to a variable lying to the left side of the assignment operator. But, If the value already exists in that variable then it will be overwritten by the assignment operator (=). This operator can also be used to assign the references to the objects. Operator Description Example = Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand += Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand C += A is equivalent to to the left operand and assign the result to left C=C+A operand -= Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right C -= A is equivalent to operand from the left operand and assign the result C=C-A to left operand C *= A is equivalent to *= Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand C /= A is equivalent to /= C=A+B C=C*A C=C/A %= Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus C %= A is equivalent to using two operands and assign the result to left C=C%A operand <<= Left shift AND assignment operator C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2 >>= Right shift AND assignment operator www.p2cinfotech.com training@p2cinfotech.com C >>= 2 is same as Ph: +1-732-546-3607
5. 5. OPERATORS AND ASSIGNMENTS C = C >> 2 C &= 2 is same as &= Bitwise AND assignment operator C=C&2 C ^= 2 is same as ^= bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator C=C^2 C |= 2 is same as |= bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator C=C|2 6) Misc Operators: There are few other operators supported by Java Language. Conditional Operator (? : ) Conditional operator is used to perform simple conditional operation is called as a ternary operator. It is called a ternary operator because it has three operands. Syntax: var=(expr1)?(expr2):(expr3) instanceOf Operator This operator is used only for object reference variables. The operator checks whether the object is of a particular type(class type or interface type). instanceOf operator is wriiten as: Syntax: ( Object reference variable ) instanceOf (class/interface type) Precedence of Java Operators: Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression. This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator: www.p2cinfotech.com training@p2cinfotech.com Ph: +1-732-546-3607
6. 6. OPERATORS AND ASSIGNMENTS Here, operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators will be evaluated first. Category Operator Associativity Postfix () [] . (dot operator) Left to right Unary ++ - - ! ~ Right to left Multiplicative */% Left to right Additive +- Left to right Shift >> >>> << Left to right Relational > >= < <= Left to right Equality == != Left to right Bitwise AND & Left to right Bitwise XOR ^ Left to right Bitwise OR | Left to right Logical AND && Left to right Logical OR || Left to right Conditional ?: Right to left Assignment = += -= *= /= %= >>= <<= &= ^= |= Right to left Comma , Left to right Assignment: An assignment statement in Java uses the assignment operator (=) to assign the result of an expression to a variable. Syntax: variable = expression; Example: int a = (b * c) / 6; www.p2cinfotech.com training@p2cinfotech.com Ph: +1-732-546-3607
7. 7. OPERATORS AND ASSIGNMENTS A compound assignment operator is an operator that performs a calculation and an assignment at the same time. All Java binary arithmetic operators have equivalent compound assignment operators: Operator Description += Addition and assignment -= Subtraction and assignment *= Multiplication and assignment /= Division and assignment %= Remainder and assignment Example: a += 12; is equivalent to a = a + 12; www.p2cinfotech.com training@p2cinfotech.com Ph: +1-732-546-3607