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Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards


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Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards and 5-Star Labeling Program by Sandeep Garg.

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Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards

  1. 1. Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards and 5-Star Labeling Program Sandeep Garg June 2010
  2. 2. Bureau of Energy Efficiency   Established in 2002, under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.   Improve energy efficiency through various regulatory and promotional instruments –  Plan, manage and implement provisions the EC Act •  Appliance standards and labeling •  Industrial energy benchmarks •  Energy Conservation Building Codes •  Monitor energy use in high energy-consumption units •  Certify and accredit energy auditors and energy managers –  Provide a policy framework and direction to national energy conservation activities –  Disseminate information and knowledge, and facilitate pilot and demonstration projects –  Establish EE delivery systems through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP). 2
  3. 3. Products covered under Indian S&L Program Mandatory Labeling 1.  Frost-free Refrigerators 2.  Tubular Fluorescent Lamps (TFL) 3.  Air-conditioners 4.  Distribution Transformers Voluntary Labeling 1.  Direct cool 2.  Motors 3.  Pump sets 4.  Ceiling fans 5.  LPG Stoves Launched on 18th 6.  Colour TVs May 2006 , for 4 7.  Storage Water Geysers products by BEE
  4. 4. Context for Fuel Economy Standards and Labelling Programme   Energy Conservation Act, 2001 –  Formation of BEE   Auto Fuel Policy, 2003 –  “Declaration of fuel economy standards by automobile manufacturers would be made mandatory…”(pg. 7)   Integrated Energy Policy, 2006 –  “…enforce truthful labelling on equipment….Enforce minimum fuel efficiency standards for all vehicles…” (overview pg. xxi)   National Action Plan on Climate Change, 2008 –  “The Energy Conservation Act of 2001 provides a legal mandate for the implementation of the energy efficiency measures through the institutional mechanism of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) …” (pg. 3) –  “…tightening of regulatory standards such as enforcing fuel- economy standards for automobile manufacturers…” (pg. 29) Slide 4
  5. 5. Estimated Oil Consumption in 2032 (IEP 2006) Slide 5
  6. 6. Estimated Oil Imports in 2032 (IEP 2006) Slide 6
  8. 8. Fuel Consumption of Passenger Vehicles
  9. 9. International Labeling Programs Country Metric Measure Type New Zealand Fuel Consumption l/100km Star Rating across all vehicle classes Japan Fuel Economy Km/l Label for meeting/exceeding standard Singapore Fuel Consumption l/100km Comparison within engine class UK (and CO2 emissions gCO2/km Ranking ‘A’ to ‘G’ across all many EU vehicle classes countries) United States Fuel Economy Miles/ Comparison within vehicle size gallon category California Greenhouse Gas gCO2e/km Rating 1 to 10 across all vehicle Score classes Brazil Fuel Consumption l/100km Ranking ‘A’ to ‘E’ within vehicle market segment
  10. 10. Passenger Vehicle Market in India   2.4 million vehicles sold in India in FY 2009-2010 –  60% small cars, 20% large cars, 20% utility vehicles –  60% petrol, 35% diesel, 5% CNG/LPG –  Average vehicle weight 1050 kg –  Average engine size 1.4 liters –  Average test fuel consumption 6.35 l/100km (15.7 km/l) –  >90 percent vehicles have air-conditioning •  Reduces actual fuel economy by up to 20 percent   GoI is considering passenger vehicle fuel economy standards and labeling programme under the aegis of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.
  11. 11. Climate zones of India a)  Hot and dry, b)  Warm and humid, c)  Moderate, d)  Cold and cloudy, e)  Cold and sunny, and f)  Composite.
  12. 12. Cooling degree hours from around the world
  13. 13. Why MAC is being Hyped….. There are two mechanisms by which A/C systems contribute to the emissions of greenhouse gases: 1.  Through leakage of refrigerant into the atmosphere and 2.  Through the consumption of fuel to provide mechanical power to the A/C system. Impacts: •  With leakage, it is the high global warming potential (GWP) of the current automotive refrigerant (HFC-134a, with a GWP of 1430) and F-22 ( GWP of 1800) results in more fuel consumption/kms and more CO2-equivalent impact causing greater global warming impact than a similar amount of emissions of CO2 or other mobile source GHGs. Manufacturers can reduce A/C leakage emissions by using leak-tight components. •  By increasing the overall efficiency of the vehicle‘s A/C system, which in turn will reduce the additional load on the engine from A/C operation.
  14. 14. Why AC Systems are so Critical….. The refrigerant used in vehicle A/C systems can get into the atmosphere by many different means. • These refrigerant emissions occur from the slow leakage over time that all closed high pressure systems will experience. • Refrigerant loss occurs from permeation through hoses and leakage at connectors due to deterioration of parts and connections as well. • In addition, there are emissions that occur during accidents and maintenance and servicing events. Finally, there are end- of-life emissions if, at the time of vehicle scrappage, refrigerant is not fully recovered.
  15. 15. SO WHAT IMPACT DOES THE MAC HAS…… • Vehicle A/C system account • 5.5% of total vehicle fuel consumption in the United States • 3.2% in Europe • 3.4 % in Japan And 19.4% in India. •  Reasons: • Longer Summer time • Hot and Humid Climate • Number of Cooling hours is greater than in US, EU or Japan •  Higher usage of A/C through out the year • Questions on Ambient air quality and • Changes in Life styles. All Leads to higher fuel Consumption.
  16. 16. Penalty due to AC usage…. Indian average vehicle kilometres (km) travelled (VKT) : 14,685 km (9,125 miles). U.S. annual average VKT : 19,171 km (11,912 miles). VKT with AC: 12,531 km (7,756 miles) => AC requirements are 6 times more than in US The Indian A/C fuel penalty is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union. ⇒ It is more imperative that there is a need to improve Fuel economy of the vehicles in near terms. ⇒ AC systems have to be made more efficient to improve Fuel Economy of Vehicles. ⇒ Quantified reductions are possible which will translate better future for Energy Security
  17. 17. Key Lessons: Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs • Current refrigerant systems have to be phased out. • Improved HFC-134a systems provide the additional benefit of better refrigerant containment and reduction of refrigerant emissions by 50%, consumers will realize savings in repair and recharge costs. • Regulations may be required for phase out like in US/EU:
  18. 18. EU Directive on MAC Systems: • With effect from 1 January 2011, air-conditioning systems designed to contain fluorinated greenhouse gases with a global warming potential higher than 150 shall not be retrofitted to vehicles type-approved from that date. With effect from 1 January,2017, such air-conditioning systems shall not be retrofitted to any vehicles. • Air-conditioning systems fitted to vehicles type-approved on or after 1 January 2011 shall not be filled with fluorinated greenhouse gases with a global warming potential higher than 150. With effect from 1 January 2017 air conditioning systems in all vehicles shall not be filled with fluorinated greenhouse gases with a global warming potential higher than 150, with the exception of refilling of air-conditioning systems containing those gases, which have been fitted to vehicles before that date. => Move towards Cleaner and Efficient A/C Systems.
  19. 19. A/C Leakage Credits suggested by USEPA~ Depiction of PAT Scheme • EPA is adopting a design-based method for manufacturers to demonstrate improvements in their A/C systems and components. Manufacturers implementing system designs expected to result in reduced refrigerant leakage will be eligible for credits that could then be used to meet their CO2 emission compliance requirements (or otherwise banked or traded). The A/C Leakage Credit provisions will generally assign larger credits to system designs that would result in greater leakage reductions. ( Similar to PAT Scheme). • In addition, proportionately larger A/C Leakage Credits will be available to manufacturers that substitute a refrigerant with lower GWP than the current HFC-134a refrigerant.
  20. 20. A/C Efficiency Credits • Manufacturers that make improvements in their A/C systems to increase efficiency and thus reduce CO2 emissions due to A/C system operation may be eligible for A/ C Efficiency Credits. As with A/C Leakage Credits, manufacturers could apply A/C Efficiency Credits toward compliance with their overall CO2 standards (or otherwise bank and trade the credits). • EPA is adopting a design-based ―menu approach for estimating efficiency improvements and, thus, quantifying A/ C Efficiency Credits. Beginning in MY 2014, manufacturers wishing to generate A/C Efficiency Credits will need to show improvement on the new A/C Idle Test in order to then use the "menu" approach to quantify the number of credits attributable to those improvements.
  21. 21. BEE Standards and Labelling Programme   BEE Program based on star ratings –  More stars  More savings   Star rating scheme already familiar to consumers –  Mandatory star rating programme for Frost Free Refrigerators, Room ACs, Tubular Fluorescent Lamps and Distribution Transformers   Labeling to be based on fuel economy tests already performed by the vehicle manufacturers –  No additional testing is required. –  Labelling would induce a new dimension for informed choices to consumers before buying cars
  22. 22. Fuel Economy Labelling Programme   BEE analysis is based on the ARAI test data released by the manufacturers.   Labelling approach based on BEE’s Five-Star Rating Programme. –  Label to be displayed prominently on the vehicle at the time of sale   Labelling bins based on vehicle weight –  Diesel/LPG/CNG fuel economy adjusted for differential fuel energy content of fuels.   Label includes a numerical fuel economy estimate. –  Estimate on the label based as per CMVR standardized test. –  Label to display vehicle fuel economy in comparison with the fuel economy of vehicles in it’s market segment, as well as all vehicles.   BEE to actively promote the labels and educate consumers –  Participation of industry members requested in consumer education
  23. 23. Illustration of BEE Label for Passenger Vehicles In addition to star rating, each label will also show comparison of vehicle fuel economy in its market segment
  24. 24. Contact information: Sandeep Garg ( Energy Economist Bureau of Energy Efficiency (Ministry of Power, Govt. of India) 4th Floor, Sewa Bhawan R.K.Puram New Delhi – 110066 24