Regional Ozone Network Europe and Central Asia Options of using low GWP refrigerants Belgrade, SerbiaInternational May 10-13, 2011 Institute ofRefrigeration Didier COULOMB, Director of the International Institute of Refrigeration International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) - www.iifiir.org
Member Countries Intergovernmental organization 60 Member Countries Developed and developing countriesInternational Institute ofRefrigeration
The IIR - Members Member Countries Commission Members (nominated by countries) Country Number of Number of Commission Members Category countries per country 1 5 30 2 2 20 3 5 15 4 11 10 5 18 5 6 20 3International Institute of Corporate and Private MembersRefrigeration - Private companies (equipment, utilities, food and health products,… ), Consultants, Universities,… - For valuable and updated information
Mission of the IIR The International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) is the only independent intergovernmental organization which promotes knowledge of refrigeration and associated technologies that are necessary for life in a science-based, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable manner including: Food quality and safety from farm to consumer Comfort in homes and commercial buildings, space heating and hot water with heat pumps Process cooling in many industries Health products and servicesInternational Institute of Low temperatures and liquefied gas technologiesRefrigeration Energy efficiency Use of non-ozone depleting and low global warming refrigerants in a safe manner
Tools (1) Selection of scientific, technical and economical articles from all over the world, in various languages, included in a database: Fridoc - 90 000 entries - 3 000 keywords - 50 000 authors Completely renovated with new functionnalities in 2011. Free accesss until July 2011. Please try it. Periodicals - International Journal of Refrigeration (IJR) for scientific articles withInternational peer-review. Papers from IIR Conferences can be selected. Institute ofRefrigeration The best impact factor in its field. - Newsletter - Bulletin
Tools (2) Books, guides: Technical books, brochures, diagrams… For instance: the guide, Ammonia as a Refrigerant (2008), with translations into French and Spanish Reference documents: International Dictionary of Refrigeration (11 languages)… for example Training courses International standardsInternational Institute ofRefrigeration Review articles Informatory notes
Tools (3) Statements prepared for international events: - Montreal Protocol on ozone depletion: The last one: MOP22 (Bangkok, Thaïland, November 2010) - Mitigation of Global Warming and Kyoto Protocol: The last one: COP-16/CMP-6 (Cancun, Mexico, December 2010) - Sustainable Development: Johannesburg Summit, 2002International Institute ofRefrigeration - Food Safety: FAO Forum, 2009 …
Tools (4) Conferences 3-6 IIR Conferences per year and 8-15 IIR co-sponsored Conferences per year on an average IIR conferences / IIR co-sponsored / co-organized 23rd IIR International Congress of Refrigeration: Refrigeration for Sustainable Development Prague, Czech Republic, August 21-26, 2011 - 42nd International Conference on Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Belgrade, Serbia, November 30-December 2, 2011 - 10th IIR-Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Working Fluids (GL2012) Delft, Netherlands, June 25-27, 2012International Institute of -12th Cryogenics 2012, Dresden, Germany, September 11-14, 2012Refrigeration - LNG 17 - 17th International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas Houston, United States, April 16-19, 2013 See our Web site: www.iifiir.org
Key elements to take into account: - Reducing greenhouse gases emissions = various solutions: Reducing leakage Reducing the refrigerant charge Choosing a low-GWP refrigerant Reducing the energy consumption - The evolution of regulations: The F-gas regulation and its review in Europe Montreal Protocol obligations and the current discussions on HFCs Safety regulations - Industrial strategies: Refrigerant manufacturers Refrigerant prices InstallersInternational Institute of - Each case is different:Refrigeration Age of the equipment Size of the equipment and use of it Location of the equipment Staff experience
Reducing greenhouse gases emissions = Various solutions 1/ Reducing leakage Variability -> Margins for progress Example: in the EU (30% in the 80s -> 5% and less) Key factor: the EU example The difficulty: training. 2/ Reducing the refrigerant charge Issue of safety + GHG emissions: research and development for all refrigerants Secondary refrigerantInternational Microchannels Institute ofRefrigeration 3/ Choosing a low-GWP refrigerant What is a low-GWP refrigerant?
../.. Reducing greenhouse gases emissions = Various solutions The TEAP report: regulation challenge All « very-low-GWP refrigerants » present safety risks andInternational drawbacks: flammability, toxicity, corrosion, pressure. Institute ofRefrigeration all need adaptation of the equipment but HFOs need the least: can be a good solution for drop-in. However, they are considered as HFCs, thus with the same kind of regulations as for other HFCs.
../.. Reducing greenhouse gases emissions = Various solutions 4/ Reducing energy consumption The energy consumption of the equipment has the main impact on GHG emissions Countries need to reduce the energy consumption for environmental reasons + electrical capacity reasons The price of electricity will increase: new sources of energy have higher costs Changing the system because of the refrigerant issue must take intoInternational account a reduction in the energy consumption. Institute ofRefrigeration
The evolution of regulations 1/ The F-gas regulation review for the European Union = first step for a phase-down of HFCs The new regulation will be stricter. Ideas: banning pre-charging of equipment (impact on air-conditioning equipment) reducing the charge limit for controls consequences at least in neighbouring countries 2/ Montreal Protocol obligations and the current discussions on HFCs HCFC phase-outInternational and HFC phase-down in the future (very probably) Institute ofRefrigeration sooner, international financial incentives for « low-GWP » refrigerant solutions / « high-GWP » refrigerant solutions (very probably)
../.. The evolution of regulations 3/ Safety regulations A barrier for ammonia, a barrier for hydrocarbons, but Ammonia is still recognized as the most efficient refrigerant The example of France: regulations can change Hydrocarbons are a good solution for low charges.International The US example: regulations can change; Institute ofRefrigeration barriers would be similar for HFOs and hydrocarbons
Industrial strategies 1/ Refrigerant manufacturers The will to have only one market = lobbying of Dupont + Honeywell for HFC phase-down according to the Montreal Protocol; lobbying for acceptance of HFOs. Difficulties: manufacturers in developing countries; industrial capacity vs the huge market for car air conditioning. HFOs will be the refrigerant choice of car manufacturers in Europe; then in the US, then all over the world.International Institute of HFOs manufacturers are developing products for other uses:Refrigeration foams, commercial refrigeration, stationary air conditioning…
../.. Industrial strategies 2/ Refrigerant prices There will be shortages: - shortage of HCFCs because of phase-out in developed countries (already in force) and because of manufacturers’ forecasts. - shortage of HFCs produced by HFO manufacturers: they need to convert their plants Their price will increase The development of HFOs was expensive: their price will be higherInternational than those of HCFCs and HFCs Institute of Even if moving to natural refrigerants is a costly investment, runningRefrigeration costs will be lower.
../.. Industrial strategies 3/ Installers 2 kinds of positions: Limiting the competition (cf AREA’s position): Resistance to change, because of lack of expertise, lack of training (some European countries still have not implemented the F-gas regulation!) Working with the installers and funding training when implementingInternational Institute ofRefrigeration an HCFC phase-out plan is a necessity.
Each case is different 1/ Age of the equipment For relatively new equipment: Drop-in solutions with HFCs and maybe HFOs in the future. For old equipment: replacement solutions, taking into account the energy consumption + solution with natural refrigerant if possible (safety constraints, quality of maintenance) and low charge, even if the investment cost is higher.International 2/ Size of the equipment and use of it Institute ofRefrigeration No universal solution Refrigerant properties are different
../.. Each case is different 3/ Location of the equipment Constraints related to the local environment (regulations on ammonia for instance) Ambient temperature constraints (CO2 efficiency is better in « cold » countries than in « warm » countries for instance). 4/ Staff experience The maintenance issue is a key elementInternational / leakage Institute ofRefrigeration / safety
CONCLUSION Presentation of the key elements of a strategic plan However, numerous current technical developments on low-GWP refrigerants and on more efficient equipment Need for updated information in administrations, in companies, in universities The IIR can help you Become a member.International Institute ofRefrigeration See our Web site: www.iifiir.org