Low Global Warming Replacements for HCFCs in Stationary Air Conditioning Equipment


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Low Global Warming Replacements for HCFCs in Stationary Air Conditioning Equipment

  1. 1. Low Global Warming Replacements for HCFCs in Stationary Air Conditioning Equipment. Mark W. Spatz, Global Leader Refrigerant Technology, Honeywell Refrigerants
  2. 2. <ul><li>Honeywell initiated R&D on low global warming programs more than 10 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Programs in place for all fluorocarbon applications </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-year development projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity, environmental & regulatory approvals, performance testing, manufacturing technology development, plant design & construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near term low global warming products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1234yf: Auto air conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1234ze: 1-component foam, aerosol, chillers … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuing development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial refrigeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary air conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyurethane foam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning & deposition solvents </li></ul></ul>Low Global Warming Platform <ul><li>1234ze available now </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to launch 1234yf late 2011 </li></ul>
  3. 3. HFO Blends for Stationary Applications N Series (A1) L Series (A2L) L-41 GWP <500 R-410A GWP=2088 L-YF GWP = 4 L-ZE GWP = 6 N-13 GWP ~600 HFC-134a GWP=1430 L-20+ GWP <350 N-20 GWP ~1000 HCFC-22 GWP=1810 L-40 GWP~200-300 N-40 GWP~1300 (retrofit) N-20 GWP~1000 (new equip) R-404A GWP=3922 Lowest GWP Option (Mildly Flammable) Reduced GWP Option (Non-flammable) Current Product
  4. 4. HFO-1234yf Flammability Properties <ul><li>Flammability is evaluated by ‘Chance of Flame occurring’ and ‘Effect of Flame occurring’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chance of Flame occurring -> Lower Flame Limit, Minimum Ignition Energy </li></ul></ul>Difficult to ignite HFO-1234yf due to high Minimum Ignition Energy Lower Flame Limit, g/m 3 Minimum Ignition Energy, mJ Methane R-152a Acetylene Propane Iso-Butane Gasoline HFO-1234yf R-32 Ammonia 1243zf Increasing Flammability > 5000 times more energy to ignite!
  5. 5. HFO-1234yf Flammability Properties <ul><li>Flammability is evaluated by ‘Chance of Flame occurring’ and ‘Effect of Flame occurring’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of Flame occurring -> Burning Velocity, Heat of Combustion </li></ul></ul>HFO-1234yf will be classified in Class 2L (Low Burning Velocity) Burning Velocity, cm/s Heat of Combustion, MJ/kg Increasing Impact R152a Ammonia R32 HFO-1234yf R134a methane propane butane ASHRAE Class 3 ASHRAE Class 2 Class 2L gasoline
  6. 6. Allowable Charges: Equivalent Basis <ul><li>Simulated a 3m x 3m x 2.4 m room with required venting ( 1.8 m x 1.8 m vent) to allow for combustion of 50g of isobutane without reaching a pressure rise of 3kPa (the pressure rise where structural damage can start to occur) . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50g of isobutane used as reference </li></ul></ul>Stochiometric composition of 1157g will produce less than 3kPa of pressure rise
  7. 7. Replacing HCFC-22 in Air Conditioning Systems L-41 / HFC32 HCFC 22 CO 2 HFC 410A HFC 407C Operating Pressures System redesign necessary if using refrigerants with higher operating pressures Non-flammable GWP = 2088 Properties enable cost-effective efficient system Non-flammable GWP=1824 Can utilize R-22 design Non-ozone Depleting Low GWP Highly flammable GWP<20 Mildly flammable GWP<350 Utilize R22 Designs Very high pressure major design changes needed Poor efficiency GWP = 1 Mildly flammable GWP = 675 (R32) GWP < 500 (L41) R410A Performance R32 - high discharge T Hydro Carbons HFO Blend L-20
  8. 8. R-22 (R-410A) Replacements – A/C & Heat Pumps <ul><li>Test Systems: Ducted Air-to-Air Residential Reversible Heat Pumps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R-410A 3.8 Seasonal COP, 10.6 kW Split-type Heat Pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R-22 3.8 Seasonal COP, 10.6 kW Split-type Heat Pump </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tests Conditions: AHRI Standard 210 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All tests performed using the original equipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Electronic Expansion Valve used for alternatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigerant charge adequate for cooling and heating mode operation. </li></ul></ul>Test Condition DB( º C) WB(ºC) DB(ºC) WB(ºC) AHRI Std. A 26.7 19 35 24 AHRI Std. B 26.7 19 27.8 18 AHRI Std. C 26.7 14 27.8 - AHRI Std. MOC 26.7 19 46.1 24 Operating Conditions (Cooling Mode) Indoor Ambient Outdoor Ambient
  9. 9. R-22 Reversible Heat Pump: Cooling Results <ul><li>Two HCFC replacements look promising as options in existing R-22 designed equipment </li></ul><ul><li>A non-flammable non-ozone depleting refrigerant (N-20) with 45% lower GWP than R-22 shows similar performance to R-22. </li></ul><ul><li>A mildly flammable option, L-20+, has a GWP 80% lower than R-22 also with comparable performance. </li></ul>
  10. 10. R410A Reversible Heat Pump: Cooling Results <ul><li>The above performance properties, and research into other properties, of L-41 show its potential to replace R-410A with a reduction in GWP of over 75%. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is accomplished with a lower discharge temperature and pressure than R-32. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A/C for Hot Climates There are Viable Options for Stationary A/C Systems Operating in Hot Regions
  12. 12. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>Recently developed low global warming fluids may have potential applications in systems that currently employ medium pressure refrigerants and there is a need for this transition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as small commercial refrigeration systems and chillers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparable performance to existing refrigerants can be achieved in applications investigated to date without significant hardware modification. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary evaluations of higher pressure blends show promise. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two of these blends can potentially replace R-22 a/c systems without significant design changes enabling both the elimination of ozone depleting substances and significant reductions in GWP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another blend, L-41, can be an alternative to the higher pressure R-22 replacement, R-410A which enables compact high efficiency systems in many regions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This initial work is promising and ongoing further work will enhance performance in these applications. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. DISCLAIMER Although all statements and information contained herein are believed to be accurate and reliable, they are presented without guarantee or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. Information provided herein does not relieve the user from the responsibility of carrying out its own tests and experiments, and the user assumes all risks and liability for use of the information and results obtained. Statements or suggestions concerning the use of materials and processes are made without representation or warranty that any such use is free of patent infringement and are not recommendations to infringe on any patents. The user should not assume that all toxicity data and safety measures are indicated herein or that other measures may not be required. Thank you! Questions?