UNEP South America Regional Workshop


Low-
Low-GWP, Energy-Efficient HCFC Replacement Technologies in the
         Energy...
2006    2010 UNEP RTOC Report
    Overview
•   Introduction
•   Chapter 2 refrigerants
•   Chapter 3 domestic refrigeratio...
2006       2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Introduction
• From 2006 to 2010 report
   – Major focus is on low-GWP alternatives
   ...
2006     2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Domestic
• Two well-known refrigerant, HFC-134a and HC-600a
• Conversion still ongoing fr...
2006     2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Commercial refrigeration
• In stand-alone products a change from HFC-134a to HCs
  is occ...
2006      2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Commercial refrigeration
• Centralised systems in supermarkets
     – Vary from 20 kW to...
2006        2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Unitary
• Globally, air-cooled air conditioners and heat pumps --ranging
  in size fro...
2006      2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Unitary Air Conditioning-Current Situation
              Conditioning-
• HCFC-22 was the...
2006      2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Unitary Air Conditioning – HFCs
• R-407C is mostly used as a retrofit refrigerant (requi...
2006       2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Unitary Air Conditioning – HC-290
                             HC-
• HC-290 is consider...
2006    2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Unitary Air Conditioning – future outlook
• The air conditioning industry is currently exp...
2006      2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Chillers – Past and Present Refrigerants
• Prior to the Montreal Protocol, chillers used...
2006       2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Chillers using Ammonia and Water
• Using reciprocating compressors, ammonia (R-717) chi...
2006       2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Chillers using Propane and CO2
• Propane (HC-290) is used in chillers (<300 kW) in both...
2006      2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Centrifugal Chillers – low GWP Alternatives
• Centrifugal chillers
   – No replacements ...
2006     2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Industrial and Transport Refrigeration
• Large amount of industrial systems have been and...
2006    2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Mobile AC
• MAC was one of the sectors where the conversion to HFC-
  134a was complete at...
2006          2010 UNEP RTOC Report
      HCFC Replacement – A5 Factors
•     Technical suitability
•     Low capital conv...
2006        2010 UNEP RTOC Report
  Summary
• HFCs
   –   Technically suitable for applications
   –   High GWPs
   –   Hi...
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3 low gwp, energy-efficient hcfc replacement technologies in the rac sector

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Low-GWP, Energy-Efficient HCFC Replacement Technologies in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector

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3 low gwp, energy-efficient hcfc replacement technologies in the rac sector

  1. 1. UNEP South America Regional Workshop Low- Low-GWP, Energy-Efficient HCFC Replacement Technologies in the Energy- Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector Update of the 2006 2010 UNEP Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Technical Options Report Air- 22nd – 23rd April, 2010, Bogota, Columbia Lambert Kuijpers [Daniel Colbourne]
  2. 2. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Overview • Introduction • Chapter 2 refrigerants • Chapter 3 domestic refrigeration • Chapter 4 commercial refrigeration • Chapter 5 industrial refrigeration • Chapter 6 transport refrigeration • Chapter 7 air conditioners and heat pumps • Chapter 8 water-heating heat pumps • Chapter 9 chillers • Chapter 10 vehicle air conditioning • Chapter 11 refrigerant conservation
  3. 3. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Introduction • From 2006 to 2010 report – Major focus is on low-GWP alternatives – Especially in relation to phase-out of HCFCs/R22 – Minimising Climate Impacts (Decision XIX/6) – Alternatives will applied for HCFCs that should minimise impacts on the environment, including on the climate – Climate “gains” realised if GWPs are lower and if the energy efficiency is comparable or lower – Decision XXI/9 (MOP-21) – Requires report to illustrate the efficiency, cost and availability of the low-GWP alternatives
  4. 4. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Domestic • Two well-known refrigerant, HFC-134a and HC-600a • Conversion still ongoing from HFC-134a to HC-600a (could also be done under the Clean Development Mechanism); market share HC-600a is growing • The low-GWP option is HC-600a • HC-600a has low pressure which has favourable aspects for the noise production of the refrigerator • HC-600a is a very efficient refrigerant (high Tcrit) • There is no advantage to change to any short lived (HFC) compounds (flammable) for any reason
  5. 5. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Commercial refrigeration • In stand-alone products a change from HFC-134a to HCs is occurring, but also to CO2 (small amount) (Coca Cola greening of vending machines is mainly HCs now) • Condensing units (cooling equipment at bakeries, butchers, smaller shops) uses HCFC-22 (in particular in A5), HFC-134a and R-404A – first difficulty is the conversion away from HCFC-22 here – difficulty also lies in the low costs, which do not make it possible to compete when introducing low-GWP solutions – subsector is slightly moving towards HCs and ammonia (Japan); – CO2 not considered in this subsector
  6. 6. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Commercial refrigeration • Centralised systems in supermarkets – Vary from 20 kW to 1 MW in capacity – Use of high-GWP refrigerants (e.g. R-404A with GWP 3900) will not be part of a sustainable future – Indirect systems often with carbon dioxide in the secondary circuit – Low pressure CO2 cascade systems, with choices for several refrigerants in the primary circuit (from HFCs to HCs and ammonia) – Two stage CO2 systems becoming more common
  7. 7. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Unitary • Globally, air-cooled air conditioners and heat pumps --ranging in size from 2 to 420 kW – Comprise a vast majority of the AC market below 1,500 kW capacity • Nearly all air-cooled AC and heat pumps manufactured prior to 2000 used HCFC-22 • Air-cooled AC & HPs generally fall into four distinct categories – small self-contained air conditioners (window- and through-wall) – non-ducted or duct-free split residential and commercial – ducted split residential – ducted commercial split and packaged
  8. 8. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Unitary Air Conditioning-Current Situation Conditioning- • HCFC-22 was the ideal refrigerant in the past for AC and is still being massively applied in Article 5 countries. – The transition away from HCFC-22 is nearly complete (Europe in 2004) or is well underway in most developed countries. – HFC refrigerant blends R-410A and R-407C have been dominant replacements for HCFC-22 in all categories of unitary air conditioners in developed countries. – Hydrocarbons have been used in some applications, including lower capacity portable room units and splits • Most developing countries continue utilising HCFC-22 as the predominant refrigerant in unitary air conditioning applications – The two largest developing country markets China and India
  9. 9. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Unitary Air Conditioning – HFCs • R-407C is mostly used as a retrofit refrigerant (requires less redesign when converting from HCFC-22) and was also used for new equipment especially in Europe (to facilitate the early HCFC-22 phase-out for new equipment, 2002) • R-410A is the most likely refrigerant to replace HCFC-22 in most applications in the developed countries and requires significant redesign. – Article 5 countries may go slightly different routes to phase out R-22 – As many HFC blends containing HFC-125, R-410A shows a capacity and energy efficiency decrease with higher ambient temperatures (much more than e.g. HFC-134a or R-290, both having a much higher critical temperature)
  10. 10. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Unitary Air Conditioning – HC-290 HC- • HC-290 is considered as an alternative to HCFC-22, particularly in low charge applications – IEC 60335-2-40 has established the maximum charge limits • Broader use of HCs in unitary air conditioners will be more difficult, because the many unitary AC have higher charge – Significant progress made in reducing charges via redesign and micro-channel HXs • HC-290 is considered as one of the candidates in the phase- out process of HCFC-22 in air conditioning in Article 5 countries; full cost implications are not yet established. • There is a significant research conducted on CO2 (R-744) systems to address efficiency issues – It is not yet clear whether this will be a serious candidate
  11. 11. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Unitary Air Conditioning – future outlook • The air conditioning industry is currently exploring alternatives to R-410A and R-407C, which have lower GWP and/or better TEWI • Alternatives include: HFC-32, HC-290, CO2, HFC-152a and possibly HFC-1234yf • Technical challenges: flammability, toxicity, peak load efficiency and economic feasibility • Products with HC-290 have already been developed by some manufacturers • The development of products with the other options is expected to require significant additional research and development
  12. 12. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Chillers – Past and Present Refrigerants • Prior to the Montreal Protocol, chillers used: – Centrifugal chillers: CFC-11, CFC-12, R-500 – Reciprocating and screw chillers: CFC-12 and HCFC-22 with a few using R-717 (ammonia) • Now chillers use these refrigerants: – Centrifugal chillers: HCFC-123, HFC-134a, HFC-245fa (limited use) – Screw and scroll chillers: HCFC-22, HFC-134a, R-410A, R-407C (decreasing) – Screw and reciprocating chillers – also available with R-717, R290 • HCFC-22 was phased out for use in new equipment in all developed countries by 1 January 2010 (Europe, 2004)
  13. 13. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Chillers using Ammonia and Water • Using reciprocating compressors, ammonia (R-717) chillers are available in the 10-1600 kW range – With screw the range is 100-7000 kW, with scroll the range goes up to 10,000 kW – Techniques are available to reduce system volume and charge – The market for R-717 chillers is likely to grow in the future in regions where concerns about use of high-GWP refrigerants are strong – Safety concerns in comfort cooling applications may increase costs • Water (R-718) applications have been less common for comfort than process cooling – Some water chillers are installed in Europe – Large process cooling chillers have enormous compressor swept volumes (low density of water) – Mainly applied in mines (South Africa) – Higher costs inherent and are associated with large physical size
  14. 14. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Chillers using Propane and CO2 • Propane (HC-290) is used in chillers (<300 kW) in both industrial and in larger buildings in Europe – Some Article 5 countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines are applying HC chillers to large space cooling needs – The use of HC refrigerants in small chillers is likely to grow in the future where codes and regulations allow • Several companies started production of R-744 (CO2) chillers – In cooler climates such as in northern Europe, R-744 chillers are accepted as alternatives to HFC chillers – R-744 chillers offer the advantage of being able to use waste heat to raise water to higher temperatures with higher efficiency than other refrigerants – For this application, R-744 heat recovery chillers provide good efficiency
  15. 15. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Centrifugal Chillers – low GWP Alternatives • Centrifugal chillers – No replacements for HCFC-123 or HFC-134a have been commercialised yet – After phase-out for new equipment, HCFC-123 can be produced for servicing existing chillers – Hydrocarbons are used in centrifugal chillers in process applications but not for comfort cooling because of safety concerns with large refrigerant charges – Water (R-718) can be used with centrifugal compressors, but chillers are relatively large – HFC-1234yf may prove suitable for centrifugal chillers but too early – It is not clear whether HFC-1234ze will find any use in chillers
  16. 16. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Industrial and Transport Refrigeration • Large amount of industrial systems have been and are using HCFC-22 • HFCs have not been used that much as in other subsectors • Ammonia and CO2 first candidates, not so many HCs • Transport refrigeration covers large amount of different subsectors, from trucks to ships and containers • HCFC-22 difficult to replace (in particular on ships) and low- GWP solutions not often easy to introduce • Use of HFCs (containers), some HCs, but also intermediate systems (with eutectic salts) in trucks
  17. 17. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Mobile AC • MAC was one of the sectors where the conversion to HFC- 134a was complete at an early stage (nA5; A5) • Candidates for conversion away from HFC-134a originally were CO2 and HFC-152a; this is the reason for the GWP 150 limit in the EC directive • Introduction of blends with short lived HFCs in 2005-2007 (however, not successful) • Change to the HFC-1234yf candidate, which can be used in HFC-134a systems (no real converting yet) • German position on “CO2” has not formally changed • It has become clear that HFC-1234yf will be the future...
  18. 18. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report HCFC Replacement – A5 Factors • Technical suitability • Low capital conversion cost • Low operating cost • No further conversions required HCs HFCs CO2/ Unsatur. NH3 HFCs Proven technical suitability Yes Yes Yes No Acceptability Depends Yes Depends Yes/ ? Low capital conversion cost Depends Yes/? No/? Yes Low operating cost Yes No Yes No No further conversions Yes No Yes ??
  19. 19. 2006 2010 UNEP RTOC Report Summary • HFCs – Technically suitable for applications – High GWPs – High operating costs – Technology: transitional or not ? • Natural refrigerants, HCs, NH3, CO2 – Technically suitable for applications – In most cases good or better performance – Low operating costs – Dependent on building and equipment design (acceptability) • Unsaturated HFCs – When commercially available in quantities; which ones ? – Technical suitability for subsectors and (operating) costs ?

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