ACTION RESEARCH IS… an approach to collecting and interpreting data that involves a clear, repeated cycle of procedures.
It has three major characteristics: It is carried out by practitioners, It is collaborative, It is aimed at changing things.
Action reserach is contextual, small-scale and localized, It is evaluative and reflective, It is participatory , Changes in practice are based on collection on information or data which provides the impetus for change.
KURT LEWIN DESCRIBES ACTION RESEARCH AS…A process of: Planning Action Observing Reflecting (Lewin, 1946)
Kemmis and McTaggard (1992) contend that there areseveral reasons why action research is far more thanteachers reflecting on their own problems. It is not the usual thinking teachers do when think about their teaching. It is not simply problem-solving. It is not research done on other people. Action research is not „ the scientific method „ applied to teaching.
ACTION RESEARCH PROCEDURESResearchers: Stage 1: Identify, evaluate and formulate a problem Stage 2: Consult with other interested parlies Stage 3: Review research literature Stage 4: Modify or redefine the initial statament of the problem
Stage 5: Specify the research design Stage6: Clarify how the project will be evaluated Stage 7: Implement the project Stage8: Analyze the data, draw inferences and evaluate the project
CLASSROOM RESEARCH Long defined classroom research as „ research on second language learning and teaching, all or part of whose data are derived from the observation or measurement of the classroom performance of teachers and students‟(Long 1980, p.3).
The purpose for doing classroom-based research is to induce teacher learning. The process can be revolutionary to our practice. The process is rarely linear and usually ambiguous. The process of teacher research systematizes and legitimizes the process of teacher learning.
THE CLASSROOM RESEARCH CYCLE Begins with questions from our practice Development of a plan (research design) that is manageable. Review of current research literature (“Distant Teachers”)
Making decisions about data (student work, etc.)Gathering and analyzing dataAnalysisusually generates more questions
TEACHERS RESEARCH Teacherresearch is often connected with the concept of teacher development and empowerment.A systematic look at one‟s classroom practice. Teacherresearch usually does take place in classrooms, and it typically focuses on some elements of classroom interaction.
TEACHER RESEARCH PROVIDES Anopportunity to ask questions about your practice.A way to make decisions about what to do based on “facts” rather than hunches.A way to share your work with colleagues.
WHAT ARE CHALLENGES TO DOING TEACHERRESEARCH? Knowing how to “build it in.” Knowing what the steps are. Committing oneself to the process. Finding the time and support.
HOW DO THESE CONCEPTS FITTOGETHER? Classroom research refers to the location and the focus of the study. Teacher research refers to the agents who conduct the study. Action research denotes a particular approach, a codified but flexible set of reiterated procedures, for participants to conduct research in their own settings.
CLASSROOM RESEARCH ON TEACHERCOGNıTıONTeacher cognition research: Investigates how teachers think about their work, What skilled decision making goes into effective teaching, Hownovice teachers‟ thinking and teaching expertise develop over time.
STIMULATED RECALL„Stimulated recall (SR) as a researchapproach falls into the group of researchmethods that are often referred to asintrospective method.‟
In stimulated recall: A researcher uses some record of an event to prompt the recollections of that event by someone who participated in it. The records or data can include audio or video recordings of the class, observers‟ fieldsnotes or transcripts of classroom interaction. The participants verbalize their recollections and the researchers record those collections while the participants review the data.
WASHBACK STUDIES IN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM Washback refers to the influence of language testing on teaching and learning. Inthe field of language testing, researchers major interest has traditionally been focused on issues and solving problems inherent in tests in order to increase their reliability and validity.
Baseline data refers to „information that documents the normal state of affairs and provides the basis against which we make comparative claims about how different or unusual the phenomena we have seen may be‟
In the case of the washback studies: Baseline data are usually collected before the implementation of a new test, so that the effects of that test on teaching and learning can be studied subsequently by collecting parallel data after the test has been used for some specific period of time
TEACHER‟S ROLE ıN LANGUAGE CLASSROOMRESEARCH There is much more inclusive view of teachers,as partners in the research enterprise,working in collaboration with researchers. Teacher discover interesting new puzzles and answers both of which can energize their teaching. They can get new ideas for teaching and for their investigations They can get feedback from other teachers and learn from their experiences.