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High-Temperature Superconducting Generators

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A basic introduction to superconductivity and superconducting generators

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High-Temperature Superconducting Generators

  1. 1. High-Temperature Superconducting Generators for Direct Drive Applications OZAN KEYSAN [email_address] Institute for Energy Systems The University of Edinburgh April 2011
  2. 2. Superconductor? <ul><li>Abolish the OHM’s Law </li></ul>Kakani2009 Zero Resistivity
  3. 3. MERCURY <ul><li>The First Superconductor Material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Temp = 4.2 K (-269 C) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Infinite Current? Unfortunately NOT. www.superox.ru
  5. 5. <ul><li>YBCO (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Density > 200 A/mm2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5-10 A/mm2 for copper) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Perfect Diamagnetism
  7. 7. Applications: MagLev Train
  8. 8. Applications: Large Hadron Collider <ul><ul><li>Superconducting Magnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 16 T, Normal PM ~1.5 T </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Applications: MRI
  10. 10. Power Applications Courtesy AMSC, InnoPower Superconductor <ul><li>Transmission Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Fault Current Limiter </li></ul>
  11. 11. Power Applications : Electrical Machines Courtesy of Siemens, Converteam (ALSTOM) <ul><li>Siemens: 400 kW </li></ul><ul><li>Converteam (ALSTOM): 5 MW HTS </li></ul>
  12. 12. Power Applications : Electrical Machines <ul><li>36.5 MW, 120 rpm (U.S. Navy, AMSC) </li></ul>Courtesy of AMSC
  13. 13. Wind Turbine Applications? M. Lesser, J. Müller, “Superconductor Technology – Generating the Future of Offshore Wind Power,” BARD 5MW
  14. 14. Direct-Drive Solutions EESM: Electrically excited Synchronous Machine HTSG: High-Temperature Superconducting Generator PMG: Permanent-Magnet Generator Bubble Size: Power Rating
  15. 15. Cost Comparison (HTSG vs. PMG) Lesser2009
  16. 16. Types of HTS Machines <ul><li>Rotating DC Superconducting Field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Common Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transient Torques on HTS wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryocooler Coupler + Brushes  Low Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling Times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnetized Bulk HTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Difficult to Handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demagnetization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All Superconducting Machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AC Losses on HTS wire </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Reliability? <ul><li>Stationary SC Coil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Cryogenic Coupler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Brushes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Transient Torque on SC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified Cooling, Isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DC Field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No AC losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximized Current </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Homopolar HTSG
  19. 19. Homopolar HTSG
  20. 20. Axial Bipolar HTS Machine
  21. 21. Bonus: Bipolar Linear HTSG <ul><li>Suitable for WECs </li></ul>
  22. 22. Transversal Flux HTSG
  23. 23. Thanks. OZAN KEYSAN [email_address] www.see.ed.ac.uk/~okeysan

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