AVR Microcontroller

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AVR Microcontroller

  1. 1. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR® Microcontroller Andreas Riedenauer Ineltek Mitte GmbH http://www.atmel.com
  2. 2. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Agenda  Warum gerade die? Die AVR Familie kurz vorgestellt.  Neue Bausteine. Neue Features.  Die Spezialisten: AVRs mit Sonderausstattung.  A-Note für A-Typen  Randgebiete: Die Peripherie.  42: die Antwort auf mehr als eine Frage. Hardware Design.  13 Jahre FAE – und ein bisschen weiser. Tipps und Stolperfallen.  Gut versteckt im Datenblatt.  Rechenleistung statt elektrische Leistung.  Doppelte Sicherheit – Security und Safety  Touch me – kapazitiv.  Werkzeugkasten: Was brauche ich für den Start?  Was jetzt – Assembler oder C?  Wir fangen an: ein erstes Projekt mit Studio6  Wieso „Entwanzen“?  Wie geht´s weiter?  Quiz mit Preisverleihung www.atmel.com October 13
  3. 3. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WARUM GERADE DIE? DIE AVR FAMILIE KURZ VORGESTELLT. www.atmel.com October 13
  4. 4. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Flash Microcontrollers 32-bit AVR UC3 The highest performance AVR in the world 8/16-bit AVR XMEGA Peripheral Performance 8-bit megaAVR The world’s most successful MCU family 8-bit tinyAVR Small packages, big performance http://www.atmel.com
  5. 5. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR CPU  AVR CPU  Harvard architecture  True single cycle execution  Up to 20 MIPS at 20 MHz  32 General Purpose registers  Xmega…  Up to 32 MHz CPU / 128 (256) MHz T/C  Adds DMA Controller  Adds flexible Event System  Adds Programmable Multi level Interrupt Controller http://www.atmel.com
  6. 6. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel 10/16/2013
  7. 7. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Leading 8-bit Architecture  RISC architecture with CISC instruction set  Single cycle execution  Harvard Architecture  Simultaneous, fast access to registers  Separate memories and buses for program and data  32 Working Registers (8 bit GPR)  16-bit Stack Pointer  22-bit Program Counter  Up to 20MHz System clock (Xmega: 32 MHz) 8
  8. 8. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 32x8-bit General Purpose Registers  32 Accumulator Registers with 8 bit  3 register pairs for16-bit data pointers  Instructions with auto increment, decrement and displacement of pointers  Z Pointer suited for look up tables and indirect jump (Flash)  Direct address of up to 64K R0 R1 R2 X Pointer Y Pointer Z Pointer R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 XL XH YL YH ZL ZH 9
  9. 9. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller General Purpose IO Registers - GPIOR  IO mapped variable registers  Bit variables  General variables  Status Flags  ...  Up to three registers per device  Fast access through SBI, CBI, SBIS, and SBIC instructions  GPIOR within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F only 10
  10. 10. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Single Cycle Instruction Execution Register File Register operations take ONE clock pulse on the EXTERNAL clock input ALU 11
  11. 11. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Common for all standard AVRs  Self-programming FLASH program memory  In-System Programming within the whole voltage range  Internal calibrated RC Oscillator  Internal SRAM and EEPROM  debugWIRE or JTAG OCD support 12
  12. 12. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR - Designed for C Programming  Architecture and instruction set co-designed with C-Compiler vendor  Compiler development project initiated before architecture and instruction set frozen  Compiler experts’ advice implemented in hardware  Potential HLL bottlenecks identified and removed  The design process resulted in  Instruction set support for 16-bit arithmetic operations  32 working registers which eliminate move to and from SRAM  Single Cycle execution 13
  13. 13. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Program Memory and Data Pointers  Stack Pointer + Three Data pointers  One or two pointers + SP is common for 8-bit  Code efficient memory to memory copy  Pointer handling similar to C- language  Auto Increment/Decrement  Indirect with Displacement - Efficient for accessing arrays and structs - Efficient when placing local variables on Software Stack C Source code unsigned char *var1, *var2; *var1++ = *--var2; Assembly code LD ST R16,-X Z+,R16 14
  14. 14. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Interrupt System Features  All AVR peripherals are handled through IO registers (SFR)  Automatic interrupt flag clearing  Automatic disable of other interrupts inside the interrupt routine  Each interrupt has its own vector and interrupt handler  Short response time  4 Clock Cycles + RJMP to interrupt handler Interrupt Routine 2 Interrupt Routine 1 Normal Mode INT2 flag INT1 flag I flag 15 TIME
  15. 15. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller NEUE BAUSTEINE. NEUE FEATURES. www.atmel.com October 13
  16. 16. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  17. 17. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Some New Features  Modern Attiny Controllers with Features like  Pico Power Technology  Hardware USART  Self Programming  Precisio n RC Oscillator  HW Support für Cap. Touch / Proximity Detection  32 Pin ATxmega E5 Series (see also Xmega chapter)  ADC with up to16 Bit Oversampling Hardware Support  Asynchoronous Event System  Glue Logic 18
  18. 18. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller DIE SPEZIALISTEN: AVRS MIT SONDERAUSSTATTUNG. www.atmel.com October 13
  19. 19. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Application Specific Processors (ASSPs)  USB  CAN  PWM  Battery Management  MCU Wireless 20
  20. 20. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller CAN Introduction  ISO standard (ISO 11898) for serial communication  developed 1980 by BOSCH for automotive applications  Asynchronous Serial Bus  Absence of node addressing      Message identifier specifies contents and priority Lowest message identifier has highest priority Non-destructive arbitration system by CSMA with collision detection Multi-master / Broadcasting concept Sophisticated error detection & handling system *  CAN has gained widespread use  Industrial Automation  Automotive, …etc. 22
  21. 21. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Why CAN?  Mature Standard  Hardware implementation of the protocol  Simple Transmission Medium  Excellent Error Handling (CRC)  Fault Confinement  Most used protocol in industrial and automotive world  Best Performance / Price ratio 23
  22. 22. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Motor Control: PWM3 Focus  3 Phase Brushless DC Motor  HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning)  Refrigerators  Fans  Pumps  High tech Industrial, constant speed applications  Traction elevator  Medical equipment  Hard disk, CD drives   3 Phase Induction AC Motor Automotive  HVAC  Washing machine  Blowers  Fans  Pumps  Industrial control 27
  23. 23. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AT90PWMx Family  ATmega AVR with enhanced features for light ballast and motor control  Power Stage Controller (PSC)  synchronized PWM channels for 3 phase motors  Fast emergency shut down of PWM outputs (only few 10 ns)  Adjustable dead-band control  Over current protection  64 MHz PLL, providing 12-bit PWM accuracy up to 16 KHz  Analog synchronized with PSC  DALI - Digital Addressable Lighting Interface  Integrated Power Factor Correction (PFC)  10 Bit D/A with output driver (impedance < 1KOhm)  3 comparators for Back EMF for Sensorless motors 28
  24. 24. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller From PWM Channels BLDC Motor Application Hall sensors to INT (sensor) Back EMF to ADC (sensor-less) 0 1 2 3 4 5 D R I V E R S 0 2 4 C U + C V 1 3 N S 5 C W To amplifier and ADC for regulation To comparator for emergency stop 29
  25. 25. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 3 Phases Induction AC Motor Application Hall sensors to INT From PWM Channels Tachometer to ADC 0 1 2 3 4 5 D R I V E R S 0 2 4 C U + C V 1 3 5 C W To amplifier and ADC for regulation To comparator for emergency stop 30
  26. 26. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Requirements for a 3-phase AC Motor Control MCU PWM cycle PWM cycle 0 2 4 U 0 + U V W - 1 V 2 3 1 3 5 W 4 5 Mandatory min. Dead Time  Up to 6 Synchronous PWM channels (12 bit precision or more)  PWM Timer Min clock frequency = 64MHz for 12 bit precision, 12KHz  Minimum dead time controlled by hardware for all 6 channels  All PWM must be disabled by hardware (Input) when overcurrent  Capability to support Scalar Algorithm and Space Vector Algorithm  10 to 16 MIPS for 3 phase AC induction with Space Vector Algorithm 31
  27. 27. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensorless control of two-phase fan  AVR440 - sensorless control of two-phase BLDC fan  Patent filed – method can only be used with AVR microcontrollers  B-EMF voltage over passive winding used to time commutation.  Advantage  Hall-sensor can be eliminated to reduce fan cost  Disadvantage  Difficult to run the fan a very low speed  Requirements  Up-down PWM counter  PWM triggered ADC 33
  28. 28. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensor based control of two-phase fan  AVR441 - two-phase BLDC fan with two speed references  E.g. Host and temperature sensor  Autonomous fan speed  Temperature sensor in  AVR442 - two-phase BLDC fan with TWI     Also uses integrated temp sensor Autonomous fan speed TWI/SMBus control multiple fans Advanced fan feedback 34
  29. 29. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensor based control of 3-phase BLDC motor  AVR443, AVR448 – Three-phase BLDC motor  GPIO/PWM controls high side driver  PWM controls low side driver  Current sensing  Requirements  3/6 PWM channels and PWM triggered ADC 35
  30. 30. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensor based control of 3-phase BLDC motor  AVR492 – sensor based control of three-phase BLDC motor     PWM on both high and low side driver Current control: ADC Overcurrent detection via on-chip comparator Adaptive fault detection using DAC possible  Performance  CPU: 18% @ 8 MHz, 14K RPM  Code: 3175 bytes (38%)  RAM: 285 bytes (55%) 36
  31. 31. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensorless control of 3-phase BLDC motor  AVR444 – sensorless control of three-phase BLDC motor   PWM on both high and low side driver Current control  Advantage    Low cost microcontroller Low cost motor without sensors Automotive qualified (ATmega48 fam)  Disadvantage   Very low speed not possible Startup routine requires known load  Requirements   6 PWM channels PWM triggered ADC 37
  32. 32. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensorless control of 3-phase BLDC motor  AVR493 – sensorless control of three-phase BLDC motor  PWM on both high and low side driver  Current control using ADC  Zero Crossing Back-EMF using three on-chip comparators  Advantage  No ADC polling gives faster zero cross detection for Back-EMF  Hardware emergency shutdown  Communication: UART/SPI/LIN  Target devices  AT90PWM3 38
  33. 33. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sine wave driving of permanent magnet motor  AVR447 – Sine wave driving of permanent magnet motor  Uses three hall sensors for sine wave synchronization / speed control  No encoder / tacho needed  Advantages  Low torque ripple  Low cost microcontroller  Speed control  Full featured solution - Safe startup w/synchronisation - Turning - Reverse rotation detection  Disadvantages  More CPU intensive than block commutation 39
  34. 34. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Control of 3-phase AC Induction Motor  AVR494 / AVR495 – control of three-phase ACIM  V/f control  Space vector modulation  Complex algorithms  Speed PID control  Advantage  Hardware shutdown  Hardware deadband  Comm.: UART/SPI/LIN  Target devices  AT90PWM3 40
  35. 35. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AUTOMOTIVE AVR www.atmel.com October 13
  36. 36. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR für Automotive CMOS Process for Automotive µC  35K5 (AVR8)  0.35µm NVM CMOS  1.8V to 5V  Qualified up to 85°C, 105°C, 125°C and now 150°C  35K7 (AVR8)  0.35µm NVM CMOS  40V Breakdown voltage  18V operation  58K8/58K85 (ARM & AVR32)     0.18µm NVM CMOS Core at 1.8V - I/O at 3V – I/O 5V tolerant Qualification in progress up to 105°C 58K as ROM version 42
  37. 37. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Automotive versus Industrial  Main difference between Automotive parts and Industrial parts is the Quality Level (EFR in PPM and LFR in FIT) and traceability  Parts have to be designed for automotive  Specific libraries  Specific analog IPs  Specific NV Memories  Simulated on the full temperature range  Guaranteed margin by process corner simulation  Parts have to be characterized for automotive  To know the robustness of the design versus process variation  Parts have to be screened during manufacturing  To remove any outliers  To bring PPM level from 100 to Sub-1  PPAPs on request (Production Part Approval Process) 43
  38. 38. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Industrial versus Automotive Screening  Qualification Industrial Automotive Reference to Standard ATMEL CPQ-2001 AEC*-Q100 Grade 2 Electrical Distribution 1 Wafer Lot 3 Wafer Lots with Corner Lots 3 lots of 300 pieces 3 lots of 800 pieces 1 lot of 77 pieces 3 lots of 77 pieces at 3 Temperatures Wafer Level Data Retention No 168h at 250oC long term aging Post Thermal Cycle Wire Pull No Cpk** > 1.33 Industrial Automotive > 20PPM 1PPM 85PPM 1PPM 8 FIT 1 FIT*** ELFR: Early Life Failure Rate NVM Program/Erase Endurance test  Quality Targets AOQ: Average Outgoing Quality ELFR LFR: Latent Failure Rate (Long Term) *AEC = Automotive Electronics Council ** Cpk = Critical Parameter Index *** FIT = Failure In Time (10 -9/Oper. Hours) 44
  39. 39. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Automotive Quality Requirement  AEC-Q100    STRESS TEST QUALIFICATION FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Defined by the Automotive Electronics Council 5 grades - Grade 0: -40°C to +150°C Grade 1: -40°C to +125°C Grade 2: -40°C to +105°C Grade 3: -40°C to +85°C Grade 4: 0°C to +70°C ambient operating temperature range  0 PPM – Zero Defect  ISO TS16949 certification  FMEA (Failure Mechanism and Effect Analysis)  APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning)  PPAP/PSW (Production Part Approval Process / Part Submission Warrant ) Specific Methodology, Specific Products, Specific Production Flow (Screening), Specific Qualified plants and subcontractors 45
  40. 40. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Microcontroller - Overview  AVR-8  Subset of products qualified according to - AECQ100-Grade1 from –40°C up to 125°C - AECQ100-Grade0 from –40°C up to 150°C  AVR-32  Preliminary targets - Vision/Image processing for Safety Application - Flexray application (Backbone and XbyWire)  Secondary target: Multimedia & Infotainment 46
  41. 41. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller High Temperature operating AVRs  Up to 150°C ambient temperature  Unique on the Market  Thanks to very stable Non Volatile Memory cell (E2Prom)  Qualification according to AEC-Q100 Grade 0  Many applications in engine management and gear box  Interface to Sensors or Actuators  Throttle/Valve management, Torque sensor, Turbo Charger, Injectors, Fan control 47
  42. 42. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller A-NOTE FÜR A-TYPEN www.atmel.com October 13
  43. 43. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Why process migration?  Atmel used proprietary 35k5 process  New 35k4 process compatible to manufacturing at foundry  Improve manufacturing and product sourcing flexibility  Yield optimization and parameter tuning  Reduced Active and Idle mode current by optimized routing October 13 4
  44. 44. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Technology of the New Process  Metal shrink  Transistors identical to existing process  Standard cell library redesigned  Transistors placed closer in new process  Signal lines takes less space October 13 5
  45. 45. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Part name and ordering codes  Devices in new process has Suffix ”A” (if old process device in 35k5)  Migration Notes available  One speed and voltage range on A-devices Old:  ATmega128-16xU = 4.5 - 5.5V 0 - 16MHz  ATmega128L-8xU = 2.7 - 5.5V 0 - 8MHz New:  ATmega128A-xU= 2.7 - 5.5V 0 - 16MHz  Functionally compatible products has only one new device Old:  ATmega48-20xU = 4.5 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz  ATmega48P-20xU = 4.5 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz  ATmega48V-10xU = 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 10 MHz  ATmega48PV-10xU = 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 10 MHz New:  ATmega48PA-xU = 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz  ATmega48 A-xU = 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz October 13 5
  46. 46. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller RANDGEBIETE: DIE PERIPHERIE. www.atmel.com October 13
  47. 47. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR –Single Chip Solution TWI Temperature Sensor USART SPI Flash EEPROM CPU CORE SRAM A/D Converter Register File I/O pins Hardware Multiplier Analog Comparator Brown Out Detector Reset Circuitry Programmable Watchdog On-Chip Debug Analog Reference JTAG Boundary Scan AVR Integrates Much More! Pull-Ups On Demand High Current Outputs Calibrated Oscillator In System Programming LCD Interface Output Driver LCD driver 53
  48. 48. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller I/O Ports  Push-Pull Drivers with High Current Drive  Sinks/Sources up to 20 mA (40mA)  Pin-wise Controlled Data Direction and Pull-Up Resistors  Fully Synchronized Inputs  Three Control/Status Bits per Bit/Pin  Real Read-Modify-Write DDRx 0 Pull-Up PORTx 0 PINx ? Physical Pin ? 54
  49. 49. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Faster IO PORT toggling  PINx Register toggles PORTx Register  Writing a ”1” to bit in PINx Register will toggle that bit in the PORTx Register  Faster IO toggle access  Dual cycle toggling  Toggle multiple pins in one operation 55
  50. 50. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Timer/Counter  Wide range of 8- and 16-bit Timer/Counters  The AVR Timer/Counters can use various clock sources  Main CPU clock  Internal High speed PLL - High speed, 64MHz  By external clock source Relevant Application Notes AVR130 AVR133 - Max speed XTAL/2  External 32kHz asynchronous crystal  All clock sources can be pre-scaled before being fed to the Timer/Counters  AVR’s Timer/Counters are interrupt driven and controlled through the AVR IO registers  Special T/C versions on PLL/PWM AVR and Xmega  E.g. dead time generation 56
  51. 51. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Analog Comparator  Compares the input values on pins AIN0 and AIN1  Dedicated Analog Comparator interrupt  Selectable trigger on Rise, Fall or Toggle  Output connectable to Input Capture of Timer/Counter1  Pulse-width measurement of analog signals  Easy Implementation of dual slope ADC  Bandgap reference available  ADC inputs can be used as AIN1 57
  52. 52. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller ADC Features  Almost all AVRs have ADC  Accuracy:  10bits ±0.5LSB  65 us conversion time*.  8bits ± 0.5LSB down to 12 us conversion time.  Up to 11 single ended channels and up to 7 differential channels  Programmable Gain Stage (1x, 10x, 100x, 200x)  Free-run, single conversion and timed modes  Interrupt on conversion complete  Internal Voltage reference *conversion Relevant Application Notes AVR120 AVR400 time is 6.5µs on AT90PWM Family 58
  53. 53. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface  3 pin serial communication interface  Shift register type serial communication  Full duplex interface  AVR enables interrupt driven SPI communication  Master and Slave mode  Transmit at bit rates up to XTAL/2  Receive at bit rates up to XTAL/4  AVR supports industrial standard SPI interfaces  Memories  IO expanders  Other CPUs in system  SPI used for In System Programming (ISP) 59
  54. 54. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller TWI – Two Wire Interface  2 pin serial communicantion interface  Master and slave  Fully interrupt driven  Fast Mode support  Wake-up from power down mode on address recognition  Slave Address  General Call  Peripheral device interface  Philips I2C compatible 60
  55. 55. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller USI – Universal Serial Interface  Hardware support for software SPI and TWI drivers  Still a software driver but less resources required  Higher transfer rates than pure software interfaces - fkc/16 as TWI master and slave - fkc/4 as SPI master or slave  Polling and Interrupt support for  Data reception  Wakeup from sleep - In TWI mode also from PWD  TWI start condition detector 61
  56. 56. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Memory Overview and Interconnection  General purpose registers manage all data transfer  Direct Program memory access  Direct SRAM access  EEPROM access via IO registers  EEAR,EEDR,EECR  Secure Program memory and Register File EEPROM access  Timed sequence SRAM I/O Registers EEPROM Program Memory 62
  57. 57. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Flash Program Memory  All AVR uses Flash program memory  In-system (re-)programmable  Both by programmer and application  From 1.8 to 5.5V  More flexibility compared to ROM, PROM and EPROM  No external high voltage required  Internal charge pump  20 years retention time  Minimum 10K erase/write cycles, typical 100K 63
  58. 58. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Internal EEPROM Data Storage  All AVRs with internal EEPROM for data storage  Linear address space  Size from 64B to 8K  Byte accessible  3 – 8ms Write time  Including erase  Instant read  Interrupt controlled  Handled through dedicated IO registers  20 years retention time  Minimum 100K erase/write cycles, typical 1M 64
  59. 59. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Enhanced EEPROM Operation  Split erase & program cycle to save time  Traditionally erase and write one byte in one operation  Enables pre-erasing of locations  Faster interrupt handlers etc.  Available on ATtiny13 and all newer devices Exe. Time Operation 3.4 ms Erase and Write in one operation 1.8 ms Erase only 1.8 ms Write only 65
  60. 60. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller SRAM Data Memory 32 Registers IO Registers 64 to 224  Most AVR MCUs feature internal SRAM for data memory  Linear address space  Size from 64B to 16K (new!) Internal SRAM 64B to 8K  Program and parameter stack in SRAM  Five different addressing modes  Direct  Indirect  Indirect with Displacement, Pre-dec and Post-inc  Indirect addressing handled X,Y and Z pointer  Data memory map External SRAM up to 64K  SRAM  32x8 General Register File  IO registers  External SRAM through XRAM interface  up to 64K 66
  61. 61. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller External Memory Interface  Parallel Interface for external devices or peripherals  Memory map linear with the internal SRAM  Parallel bus with 8 data and 16 address lines  Up to 64K memory map  Dynamic pin allocation to release unused address pins  4 Wait-state settings D7:0  Flexible timing settings  Integrated Bus-keeper  Lower power consumption AD7:0 D ALE Q A7:0 G AVR A15:8 SRAM A15:8 /RD /RD /WR /WR 67
  62. 62. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Flexible Clock Options  Crystal Oscillator  Low Power Crystal Oscillator  Full Swing Crystal Oscillator  32kHz Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator  Internal RC Oscillator  Can be calibrated within ±1% for most devices  Internal 128 kHz RC Oscillator (WDT)  External Clock  System Clock Prescaler (1 to 256)  Lower system clock frequency while running  Controlled by application 68
  63. 63. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Internal EEPROM Data Storage  Most AVR MCUs feature internal EEPROM for data storage  Linear address space  Byte accessible  3 – 8ms write time  Including erase  Interrupt controlled  Handled through dedicated IO registers  20 years data retention time  Minimum 100K erase/write cycles, typical 1M Relevant Application Notes AVR335, AVR104 69
  64. 64. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller ISP - In-System Programming  FLASH, EEPROM, Fuses and Lock Bits programmed in-system  At all Frequencies  At all supply voltages 1.8V – 5.5V MISO VTG SCK GND SCK ISP6PIN GND RST GND VTG NC MOSI RST  SPI interface used for ISP MOSI GND MISO  Exc.: ATmega128 ! ISP10PIN  Only four pins + VCC and Ground required Relevant Application Note  RESET AVR109 AVR042  MISO  MOSI  SCK 70 GND
  65. 65. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Redefining ISP - Self-Programming  The CPU can read and write its own program memory  Enabling reprogramming while running an application  Critical functions are still operating  Any communication interface, including software-implemented interfaces  Parameters can be stored in program memory  In addition to EEPROM 71
  66. 66. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller LCD Controller/Driver  Integrated segment LCD controller/driver  For monochrome passive liquid crystal display  No external LCD driver required A F  100 and 160 segments  COM0  Interrupt driven Start Of Frame Interrupt  Internal contrast voltage generator  SEG1 Unused LCD pins can be used as general IO External capacitor as power reservoir  Own AVR LCD family  100Segment : ATmega169P, ATmega329, ATmega649  SEG2 G SEG0  B E C COM1 D COM2 Relevant Application Notes AVR064 AVR065 160Segment : ATmega3290, ATmega6490... 72
  67. 67. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 42: DIE ANTWORT AUF MEHR ALS EINE FRAGE. HARDWARE DESIGN. www.atmel.com October 13
  68. 68. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AppNote AVR042 AVR Hardware Design Considerations AppNote AVR4100 Selecting and testimg 32 kHz Xtal… www.atmel.com October 13
  69. 69. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 13 JAHRE FAE – UND EIN BISSCHEN WEISER. TIPPS UND STOLPERFALLEN. www.atmel.com October 13
  70. 70. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Ports  Doppelfunktionen bestimmter Pins beachten, zum Programmieren, zum Debuggen, Analogfunktionen, ext. Interrupts,..  Programmierung über SPI: MOSI MISO SCK Achtung: Beim ATmega128 und Pin-kompatiblen Bausteinen liegen die Programmierpins NICHT an der SPI, sondern an der UART-Schnittstelle ! www.atmel.com October 13
  71. 71. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Manche Ports sind nur teilweise ausgeführt: beim 2313 fehlt PortD.7, bei Ausführungen im PDIP (DIL) Gehäuse teilweise weniger IO-Pins. Konfiguration beim Einschalten ist INPUT. Ausgänge durch „1“ im DDRx einstellenRS232: RxD = PD0 TxD = PD1 JTAG-Debug-/Programmierschnittstelle www.atmel.com October 13
  72. 72. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Floating Inputs vermeiden: Ausgang oder Pullup (PORTx)  Ausgabe über PORTx  Pin Toggeln durch Schreiben einer „1“ nach PINx bei OUTPUT  RESET Pin nach Bedarf beschalten: HV-Programming? DebugWire? (siehe AVR042)  RESET Pin darf während Debugging über DebugWire oder bei Nutzung des PDI (Xmega) nicht mit Kondensator belastet sein  Große Streuung bei Pullups (bis 500KOhm) www.atmel.com October 13
  73. 73. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Höhere Eingangsspannung als Vcc möglich, wenn Vorwiderstand zur Begrenzung des Stroms durch die Schutzdioden (Beispiel Nullspannungsdetektor) vorhanden  Mehrere Ausgangspins innerhalb desselben Ports können zusammengeschaltet werden, um Treiberleistung zu erhöhen. Dabei Maximalbelastung von Port und Chip beachten!  Nicht alle AVRs haben die 20mA Belastbarkeit der Ausgänge. Ausnahmen sind einige ATtinys und die Xmegas. 20mA bei Einhaltung der Logikpegel, sonst 40mA  Maximalbelastbarkeit ist abhängig von Betriebsspannung www.atmel.com October 13
  74. 74. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Bei Verwendung desselben Pins als Eingang für Taste und LED Ausgang: Durchlass-Spannung der LED, Vcc und Logikpegel beachten!  LEDs haben verschiedene Durchlass-Spannungen je nach Farbe  Tasten in der Regel gegen Masse schalten und Pullups nutzen  Bei induktiven Lasten zusätzliche Schutzdiode direkt an der Induktivität (1N4148 besser als 1N4001, da schneller)  Externe Interrupts: Ältere AVRs (z.B. ATmega32) haben nur wenige INTx Pins, neuere (z.B. ATmega324P) haben externe Interrupts an allen IO-Pins. Unterschiedliche Handhabung beachten.  Ggf. Analogkomparator-Interrupt nutzen. www.atmel.com October 13
  75. 75. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  BOD und POR sind unterschiedlich robust, z.B. Mega88P(V) besser als ATmega88(V). Fußnoten im Datenblatt beachten - Table 28.3 Page 306 (M88) vs. Table 28.5 Page 318 (M88PA).  Interne RC-Oszillatoren haben unterschiedlich ausgeprägten Jitter.  Interne RC-Oszillatoren bei älteren Typen stärker temperaturabhängig.  RC-Kalibrierung gilt nur bei der jeweiligenTemperatur.  RC Oszillator angeblich durch Metall/Magnet von außen beeinflussbar  UART braucht 2% genauen Takt, USB noch deutlich genauer www.atmel.com October 13
  76. 76. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Keine (unbenutzten) Komponenten an Quarzanschlüssen  Full Swing nur bei 2.7 Volt und mehr  „Sägezahn-Effekt“ bei parasitärer Speisung über externe Komponenten und Schutzdioden.  Programmierkabel nicht zu lang! Ggf. 10-Pin statt 6-Pin Belegung  TWI-Kabel (I2C) nicht zu lang!  Port-Erweiterungen über spezielle I2C-Chips, Schieberegister, ATF15xx  Treiber für LEDs oder Induktive Lasten über I2C oder SPI mit Schutzfunktionen bei Unterbrechung Kurzschluss, Übertemperatur. www.atmel.com October 13
  77. 77. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Low Cost Alternative zu MAX232: siehe Butterfly  RC-Oszillator Kalibrierung bei UART Kommunikation: siehe Butterfly www.atmel.com October 13
  78. 78. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller GUT VERSTECKT IM DATENBLATT. ATMEGA48 ATMEGA48PA www.atmel.com October 13
  79. 79. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller RECHENLEISTUNG STATT ELEKTRISCHE LEISTUNG. www.atmel.com October 13
  80. 80. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Oscillator Types Cost External high frequency crystal External low frequency (32kHz) crystal External ceramic resonator External R/C oscillator Calibrated Internal R/C oscillator External clock Accuracy Startup time High High (10-50 ppm) High (10-50 ppm) Long (16k cycles) Long (16k-32k cycles) Medium (0.5-1%) Depending on R and C Medium (2001k cycles) Short (6 cycles) Medium Medium Low ±1% after calibration Depending on other circuits in the system NONE Short (6 cycles) Short (6 cycles) Notes Additional timer oscillator on some devices May be re-calibrated by application at any time Use the internal RC for fast startup time and low power consumption 86
  81. 81. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  82. 82. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Sleep Modes  Idle mode  CPU Stopped, but oscillators and most I/O modules active  Allows fast wakeup (immediate) from sleep  ADC Noise Reduction mode  Like Idle mode, but fewer I/O modules active  Power Down mode  Power Save mode  Like Power-down mode, but 32kHz timer oscillator running  Standby mode  Like Power-down mode, but main crystal/resonator oscillator running  Allows fast wakeup (6 cycles) from sleep  Extended Standby  Oscillator stopped, CPU stopped, most functions inactive  Both main crystal/resonator oscillator and 32kHz timer oscillator running  Slow wakeup from sleep, oscillator must be restarted  Allows fast wakeup (6 cycles) from sleep 88
  83. 83. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Sleep Modes - Example  By using sleep modes, power consumption can be reduced by a factor 100  Ideal for periods of inactivity – waiting for interrupts!  Power Saving Example: Using the ATmega48  Use sleep modes and wait for wake-up condition  Internal RC @ 1MHz, 1.8 volt @ 25°C mega48 Internal RC 1Mhz @ 1,8V 25'C 1000 250 ICC (uA) 100 10 Active 40 Idle 7,2 Power Save WDT 4,2 3 Power Save no WDT Power Down WDT 1 Power Down no WDT 0,1 0,1 89
  84. 84. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller PicoPowerTM Technology Key elements:  (Almost) Zero current 32kHz oscillator  Sleeping BOD  Power Reduction Register (PRR)  Digital Input Disable Register (DIDR)  Flash sampling  Low leakage process  1.8V operation  Power Save mode now 0.6 uA vs 10uA  PicoPower AVR is #1 in Power Consumption & Performance 90
  85. 85. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Low Current 32kHz Oscillator  Power Save is the most highlighted ultra low power number  Time in active is insignificant compared to time in PS for ULP  The new 32kHz oscillator brings Power Save current almost to Power Down.....  0.6uA Power Save mode @ 2.2V  ATmega165P: Typical 0.6uA  32kHz running  PicoPower Power Save mode is industry leading  Less current consumption than MSP430F2 in PowerSave 91
  86. 86. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sleeping BOD (SBOD)  SBOD enter sleep together with the AVR  No need for BOD in sleep  Wakeup from sleep first starts the SBOD, then the AVR  Enabled by application  Secure two step operation  Automated operation when enabled  No SBOD power consumption penalty while in sleep, full protection while in active mode 92
  87. 87. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Power Reduction Register - PRR  Stop clock to individual peripherals  Peripheral is in PWD sleep while rest of device is running  Reduces overall power consumption  PRR accessible by application while running  When stopping the clock to a peripheral...  The current state of the peripheral is frozen  All I/O registers are inaccessible  When re-starting a module...  It continues in the same state as before shutdown 93
  88. 88. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Digital Input Disable Registers - DIDR  DIDR decreases overall power consumption  Shut off digital input buffers on individual pins  Enable DIDR on all ADC pins  Not required in Power-save, Power-Down and Standby 94
  89. 89. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller PicoPowerTM AVRs  Existing high volume megaAVRs will be upgraded to PicoPower megaAVRs  Special naming by the use of the letter ‘P’  Example: ATmega169P 95
  90. 90. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller ATtiny23V/43V  Operate from a single cell battery (1.4 V)  Integrated Boost Regulator  Autonomous analog block that is NOT controlled by the MCU  Fixed 3.0V Vcc for the MCU from an external supply of 0.9V to 1.7V  Starts up automatically when the voltage at the BATS pin is greater than 0.6V (± 0.15V).  Output voltage rises above POR and BOR levels (if enabled), the MCU will start up  Shuts down automatically when the voltage drops below 0.6V avoiding battery drainage  Alternatively the device can be operated directly from supply of 1.8 to 5.5 volts (LSW and BATS grounded) 96
  91. 91. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller DOPPELTE SICHERHEIT SECURITY UND SAFETY www.atmel.com October 13
  92. 92. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Internal Brown-Out Detection  Reset when voltage level is below specification  Preventing CPU run-away and EEPROM corruption.  Flexible BOD levels  Extremely fast detection (7 µs)  BOD status bit set after reset  MCUSR IO register  BOD is optional  BODEN fuse 98
  93. 93. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WDT - WatchDog Timer  Free running timer used to generate a System Reset allowed to time out  Time-out period between 16ms and 8s set by prescaler  Timer is reset by WDR instruction  Prevents device from being trapped in dead loops  WDT runs from it’s own clock source (RC Oscillator)  WDT enabling through IO bits or Fuses  Timed IO sequence for enabling and changes  Safe WDT enabling through WDTON fuse  Watchdog reset detectable by reading the WDRF flag  Enganced WDT with WDT interrupt  Interrupt instead of or prior to System Reset  Suited for timing sequences, wake up from sleep etc. Relevant Application Note AVR132 99
  94. 94. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Fuses and Lock Bits  Fuses  Programmable bits not accessible by application software for device settings - Clock settings, BOD settings, Boot-Loader settings, etc.  Not affected by chip erase  Lock Bits  Programmable security bits to secure IP stored in Flash and EEPROM  Disables read and write access to Flash and EEPROM  Only removed by chip erase - Chip erase will also clear Flash and EEPROM  Flexible settings for level of security and area to secure - Own set of lock bits for self-programming 100
  95. 95. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller TOUCH ME – KAPAZITIV. www.atmel.com October 13
  96. 96. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel Touch Solutions Buttons, Sliders, Wheels Touch Software Touchscreens Application Specific (“ready-to-use”) Add touch functionality to your general purpose Atmel MCU Revolutionary Unlimited Touchscreen Technology 1 – 48 Channels Buttons, Proximity & Sliders Self- & Mutual- Capacitance No programming required Limited Flexibility 1 – 64 Channels Buttons, Proximity & Sliders Self- & Mutual- Capacitance Fully programmable Excellent Flexibility Excellent Integration Single-Touch & Dual-Touch devices also offered
  97. 97. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller QTouch QMatrix  Self-Capacitance  Mutual-Capacitance  Robust and simple electrode design  Well defined key area for detection  Ideal for low node count  Ideal for high note count (>10 nodes)  Good proximity, providing better sensing distance  Very resilient to moisture & environment  Passive tracking – longer tracks possible  Very resilient to noise and ground loading  Virtually any electrode shape possible  Easy to tune sensitivity - Flooded X design Vdd SENSE ELECTRODE MCU Xn Cx Ykn Cs Yn GND
  98. 98. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Evaluation and Development Kit Ordering Code: ATQT600 3 Sensor boards • 8 channel QTouch board • 16 channel QTouch board • 64 channel QMatrix board 3 MCU boards • ATtiny88 (QTouch) • ATmega324PA (QMatrix) • ATxmega128A1 (QTouch) Interface board • 2-way debug data • ISP Programmer • Supports AVR / AVR32
  99. 99. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WERKZEUGKASTEN: WAS BRAUCHE ICH FÜR DEN START? www.atmel.com October 13
  100. 100. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WAS JETZT – ASSEMBLER ODER C? www.atmel.com October 13
  101. 101. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WIR FANGEN AN: EIN ERSTES PROJEKT MIT STUDIO6 www.atmel.com October 13
  102. 102. Atmel Studio 6 Integrating ARM and AVR Design Copyright 2012 Atmel Corporation Atmel Studio 6/SAM3 Press Presentation 2/28/12
  103. 103. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel Studio 6 – IDE  Intelligent editor  New Project Wizard with over 1,000 project examples  Integrated GNU C/C++ Compiler  Seamless connection to all in-system debuggers  Cycle accurate chip and peripheral simulator
  104. 104. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel Studio 6 – Atmel Software Framework  Software Library  Peripheral drivers  Hardware abstraction  Communication  Graphics  Standard APIs  Easy code migration  Support for ARM + AVR MCUs  Common 8/32-bit platform  ASF Explorer  Manage ASF components  Trace driver dependencies  Easy access to documentation
  105. 105. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel Studio 6 – QTouch Composer  QTouch Project Wizard  Configure QTouch project  Optimized QTouch library code  Automatic power management  Touch Wizard  Automatic performance tests  Optimal design recommendations  Power Analyzer  Real-time monitoring of MCU power consumption  Profiling and visualization
  106. 106. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller JTAGICE3 www.atmel.com October 13
  107. 107. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Dragon  Low cost development tool  High performance  Easy to use  USB Connection  USB Powered  Combination of  JTAGICE mkII ( $299)  AVRISP mkII ($34)  STK500 ($79)  Programs all devices  Debug support for devices <=32K  Price: €49! 115
  108. 108. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XPLAINED KIT www.atmel.com October 13
  109. 109. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller STK600 117
  110. 110. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WIESO „ENTWANZEN“? www.atmel.com October 13
  111. 111. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR JTAG interface  The AVR JTAG interface is a integrated hardware module for:    In-System Programming On-Chip Debugging PCB test through Boundary-Scan  Dedicated hardware module  All AVR resources present while debugging - Except 4 pins for JTAG communication  Supports all Vcc levels and Frequencies  Complies to IEEE std 1149.1 (JTAG)  Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)  JTAG interface in all AVRs with 16K program memory or more 119
  112. 112. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR debugWIRE interface  On-Chip Debugging via single wire interface  Program flow control  EEPROM and Flash memory access  Peripheral access  debugWIRE is a hardware module 1.8 - 5.5V Vcc JTAGICE MKII dW(/RESET)  Not a ROM monitor!  All AVR resources present while debugging AVR  Supports all Vcc levels and Frequencies GND 120
  113. 113. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Enabling debugWIRE  debugWIRE functionality is enabled by DWEN fuse  Set by ISP or HV programming  Cleared by debugWIRE or HV programming  debugWIRE is disabled by default from Atmel  debugWIRE require system clock in all sleep modes  No PowerSave/PowerDown mode current consumption possible as long as the DWEN fuse is set 121
  114. 114. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WIE GEHT´S WEITER? www.atmel.com October 13
  115. 115. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA Technical Walk-Through http://www.atmel.com
  116. 116. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA  Extraordinary Low Power  2nd generation picoPower ®  True 1.6 V operation  Exceptional Performance  Up to 32 MIPS  DMA Controller  Event System  Extreme Peripherals  Leading Analog Integration  Fast Crypto engine  Rich feature set http://www.atmel.com
  117. 117. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA AVR core  Code compatible with existing tinyAVR and megaAVR  True RISC architecture  True single cycle execution  32 MIPS at 32 MHz - 32 MHz 2.7V – 3.6V - 12 MHz 1.8V – 2.7V  32 GPR  Harvard architecture  DMA Controller  Flexible Event System  Programmable Multi level Interrupt Controller – PMIC 125
  118. 118. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller EBI- External Bus Interface  2-port, 3-port or 4-port interface selectable in SW  All external memories are directly mapped in AVR  No banking  Stack and variables anywhere  Simultaneous support of SRAM and SDRAM possible  Ex: memory mapped devices  Up to 128 Mbit SDRAM 126
  119. 119. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Interrupt Controller  4 interrupt levels  NMI - Non Maskable Interrupts  High, Medium and Low level  Round robin priority possible for low level interrupts  Ensures all interrupts are serviced  All peripherals can also be controlled by polling http://www.atmel.com
  120. 120. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Event system  CPU and DMA independent Inter-peripheral communication www.atmel.com October 13
  121. 121. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Event System AVR CPU http://www.atmel.com
  122. 122. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Event System  8 Event Routing Channels  Peripherals specify how to generate events  Everything that can generate an interrupt  Ex: Pin change, Timer overflow, ADC complete, Comparator toggle  Peripherals specify how to use events  Ex: Increment Timer, Output signal, Start ADC conversion  Reduce the use of interrupts  Event system ensures control of critical function  Predictable reaction time of 2 chip clock cycles  Safe fault protection  Reduces power consumption – no CPU needed  Works in Active and Idle mode http://www.atmel.com
  123. 123. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA DMA Controller  Allows high-speed data transfer  From memory to peripheral  From memory to memory  From peripheral to memory  From peripheral to peripheral  Main features  4 channels  From 1 byte to 16 Mbyte transfers  Optional interrupt at end of transaction  Multiple addressing modes - Static, Increment, Decrement  1, 2, 4 or 8 byte bursts  Programmable priority between channels http://www.atmel.com CPU Load, SPI Communication Data rate With DMA No DMA 250 kbps 0% 8% 500 kbps 0% 16 % 1 Mbps 1% 30 % 2 Mbps 1% 57 % 4 Mbps 2% 98 %
  124. 124. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Memories  Flash  Memory setup  Application area for main program Flash 16K + 4K 32K + 4K 64K + 4K 128K + 8K 256K + 8K  Boot area for bootloader  Application Table area for fail safe EEPROM emulation  EEPROM SRAM 2K 4K 4K 8K 16K EEPROM 1K 1K 1K 2K 4K  EEPROM on all devices  Byte and page accessible  Optional memory mapped  SDRAM  SRAM  Internal on all devices  Optional external on some devices - Up to 16 MB directly addressable - Optional multiplexed address and data http://www.atmel.com  Optional external on some devices - Up to 128 Mbit directly addressable - 4-bit and 8-bit supported
  125. 125. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Analog to Digital Converter  Features  12 bit resolution  2 MSPS ADC in XMEGA A  200 kSPS ADC in XMEGA D  Single or continuous conversion modes  Connected to Event System  Connected to DMA Controller  Internal and External reference voltages  Interrupt/event on compare result  Interrupt if lower or equal  Interrupt if higher or equal  Interrupt/event on conversion complete http://www.atmel.com
  126. 126. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA ADC – Pipelined Conversion Channels     4 ADC conversion channels 8 – 16 external single-ended inputs per ADC 8 x 4 external differential inputs per ADC 4 internal inputs  VCC, Bandgap, Temperature, DAC output  1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 16x, 32x or 64x gain  Synchronous sampling in dual ADC devices http://www.atmel.com
  127. 127. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Digital to Analog Converter  Features:  12 bit resolution  Up to 1 MSPS conversion rate, 1 µs settling time  Connected to Event System  Connected to DMA Controller  Two independent output channels per DAC http://www.atmel.com
  128. 128. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Analog Comparators  Selectable hysteresis  0, 20mV, 50mV selectable  Flexible input selections  Any analog input pin  Output from DAC  Bandgap voltage reference  64-level VCC scaler  Flexible interrupts and events generation  Window compare function by combining 2 comparators  Possible to have comparator output on a pin http://www.atmel.com
  129. 129. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Timer/Counter  Multiple 16-bit Timer/Counters in each device        Counts chip clock (Timer) or events (Counter) 4 or 2 Output Compare on each Timer/Counter 4 or 2 Input Capture on each Timer/Counter Programmable Top Value Direction control Flexible interrupts and events generation Split option: 2 x 8 instead of 1 x 16 Bit  High-Resolution Extension  4x of chip clock = up to 128 MHz (256 MHz) operation  Advanced Waveform Extension     Inverted and Non-inverted PWM Outputs Dead Time Insertion Fault protection mechanism Available in all devices, but on 1-2 timer/counters only http://www.atmel.com
  130. 130. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Real Time Counter  Separate Timer for Asynchronous Clock  Independent of other Timer/Counters  Works in Power Save, Idle and Active mode  16-bit timer with Programmable Prescaler  Prescaler provides 1 Hz – 32 kHz input  Programmable top value  Compare register  Max timeout 65 536 seconds (= more than 18 hours)  Can generate Events and Interrupts  Both overflow and compare match http://www.atmel.com
  131. 131. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Clock Options  32- and 2 MHz internal RC osc.  +/- 1% accuracy over temp and voltage with automatic run-time calibration  32.768 kHz internal RC osc.  +/- 2% accuracy over temp and voltage  400 kHz – 16 MHz Crystal osc.  For accurate timing in application  32.768 kHz Crystal oscillator  for 32 kHz watch crystal  500 nA current consumption  32 kHz ULP RC oscillator  For WDT and BOD  1A power consumption  Internal PLL for high-freq clock generation  400 kHz – 32 MHz input  8 – 128 MHz output  Max 32 MHz output to main system clock http://www.atmel.com
  132. 132. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Serial Communication Modules  USART  Full duplex asynchronous or synchronous operation  Can also be SPI master  Baud Rate Generator with fractional divider - UART frequency crystals not needed  SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface  Full duplex, three-wire synchronous data transfer  TWI – Two Wire Interface  I2C compatible  SMbus compatible  Fast data rate on slow chip clock - Clock / 10 for master operation - Asynchronous slave operation http://www.atmel.com
  133. 133. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA A USB Device  USB added to all XMEGA A products  New ordering codes for all XMEGA A with USB  ATxmega128A1-AU -> ATxmega128A1U-AU  USB 2.0 Compliant Device  Low and Full speed operation  32 configurable endpoints  High throughput with minimim CPU load  Support DMA and large transactions without interrupt  Free device class software library  CDC, DFU, HID, Mass Storage, Audio, ... 141
  134. 134. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Crypto engine  AES  128-bit key length  Encryption of 16 bytes in 375 clock cycles  Decryption of 16 bytes in 375 clock cycles  DES  56-bit key length  Encryption of 8 bytes in 16 clock cycles  Decryption of 8 bytes in 16 clock cycles  Supports up to 4 Mbps AES encrypted communication  Supports up to 3.2 Mbps Tripple-DES encrypted communication http://www.atmel.com
  135. 135. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Crypto Performance  AES an DES crypto for high speed encrypted communication  Offload CPU and reduce power Max encrypted communication rate UART SPI Vs. Software 128-bit AES 4 Mbps 3.2 Mbps 10x faster Tripple-DES 3.2 Mbps 2.3 Mbps 100x faster  XMEGA with crypto is authorized for export to all contries  ECCN 5A002A.1  XMEGA enables crypto communication for low power applications http://www.atmel.com
  136. 136. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA I/O Pins  IN, OUT and DIR registers for safe read modify write operations  Virtual registers for easy pin manipulation   Move IN, OUT and DIR control to bit addressable memory area Port Toggle, Clear and Set registers for easy and glitch free pin manipulation  Advanced pin configurations Push-pull Push-pull w/ buskeeper http://www.atmel.com Push-pull w/pull-up Wired AND w/ optional pull-up Push-pull w/pull-down Wired OR w/ optional pull-down October 13
  137. 137. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 2nd generation picoPower  All picoPower features included  New sampled BOD  New low power Watchdog Timer  New Event system controls peripherals in Idle mode  New DMA moves data in Idle mode  Lowest power consumption  100 nA Power Down (RAM retention)  550 nA Power Save (Real Time Counter)  5 µs wake-up from sleep http://www.atmel.com
  138. 138. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 2nd generation picoPower  Industry leading in low power applications  True 1.6V operation  Flash, Analog, EEPROM, Oscillators down to 1.6V  Enable 1.8V +/-10% power supply  Lowest power 32 kHz Crystal Oscillator  550nA RTC  Low leakage Process Technology  100nA for all devices  1 µA Watchdog and Brown-Out 146 146 http://www.atmel.com
  139. 139. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Special Features  Calibration memory  Oscillator failure detection  Readable from application  Memory lock bits  Factory calibration  Brown-Out Detector  User calibration - Can be modified by customer  Not affected by Chip Erase or SPM  Serial numbers  Unique identifier  Random number seed  Dynamic Clock Switching  Very fast  Low power  Off, 1 kHz sampled or On  Watchdog Timer  Separate oscillator  Clock generation  Clock output  CRC checksums  Available on locked devices http://www.atmel.com
  140. 140. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  141. 141. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA B Family Overview  Adds LCD to XMEGA family  Reuse modules from XMEGA A and XMEGA D  XMEGA B family:      64 – 100 pins 64 – 256 KB Flash 6 – 32 KB SRAM LCD driver 1.6 – 3.6V operation - 12 MHz from 1.6V - 32 MHz from 2.7V  XMEGA B Features         Segment LCD driver USB Device + Host Up to 3 16-bit Timer/Counter Up to 2 USART, 1 SPI, 1 TWI 12-bit 200 ksps ADC w/gain 2 Analog Comparators Event System CRC-16/32 support 150 150 Mar 2009 1
  142. 142. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  143. 143. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  144. 144. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA C Family Overview  Adds USB Host to XMEGA family  Compatible to XMEGA D, but adds USB Device and Host  XMEGA C family:  XMEGA C Features  64 pins  USB Device + Host  64 – 256 KB Flash  5 16-bit Timer/Counter  4 – 16 KB SRAM  3 USART, 2 SPI, 1 TWI  1.6 – 3.6V operation  12-bit 200 ksps ADC w/gain - 12 MHz from 1.6V  2 Analog Comparators - 32 MHz from 2.7V  Event System - USB from 2.7 to 3.3V  CRC-16/32 support 153 153 Mar 2009 1
  145. 145. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA C USB Module  USB 2.0 Compliant Device and Host  Low and Full speed operation, up to 12 Mbps  32 Endpoints - maximum number in USB specification  Easy to use  High throughput  Ping-pong mode to increase bandwidth  Multi-packet feature to reduce number of interrupts  Data buffers and endpoint configuration in SRAM  Low cost with maximum flexibility  Only the amount of SRAM needed will be allocated  USB pins multiplexed with I/O pins, no dedicated pins  3.0 to 3.6V VCC during USB communication Mar 2009 1
  146. 146. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA D Family Overview  Lowest cost XMEGA family  Compatible to XMEGA A with reduced feature set  XMEGA D family:  XMEGA D Features  44 – 64 pins  Up to 5 16-bit Timer/Counter  16 – 256 KB Flash  Up to 3 USART, 2 SPI, 1 TWI  2 – 16 KB SRAM  12-bit 200 ksps ADC w/gain  1.6 – 3.6V operation  2 Analog Comparators - 12 MHz from 1.6V  Event System - 32 MHz from 2.7V 155 155 Mar 2009 1
  147. 147. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E target specification      Sixteen-channel 12-bit 300 ksps ADC Two-channel 12-bit 300ksps DAC Two Analog Comparators Two standard 16-bit Timer/Counters One high-end 16-bit Timer/Counter        Optimized for ballast, LED, induction control, DC/DC supply/converter, motors, buck/boost converter, wireless charger, battery charger RTC with digital calibration and correction for XTAL error Two USARTs with master SPI I2C master and slave, up to 1MHz support One SPI 4-channel peripheral DMA controller Device Flash 8-channel event system  Asynchronius event routing RAM EEPOM  26 I/O pins 32KB 4KB 1KB ATxmega16E5  32-pin packages ATxmega32E5 16KB 2KB 1KB ATxmega8E5 8KB 1KB 512b
  148. 148. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Analog to Digital Converter  300 ksps  12 bit resolution  Single or continuous conversion modes  Connected to Event System  Connected to DMA Controller  Internal and External voltage references
  149. 149. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Digital to Analog Converter  12 bit resolution  Up to 300 ksps conversion rate  Connected to Event System  Connected to DMA Controller  Two independent output channels
  150. 150. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Analog Comparators  Selectable hysteresis  0, ~20mV, ~50mV selectable  Flexible input selections  Any analog input pin  Bandgap voltage reference  64-level VCC scaler  Interrupts and events generation  Window compare function by combining 2 comparators  Detect level inside or outside window  Possible to have comparator output on a pin
  151. 151. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Timer/Counter  One 16-bit timer/counter type 4 (high end)  4 Output Compare Channels with 8 outputs - 4 non-inverted output (High Side) - 4 inverted output (Low Side)  Dead-time insertion between high- and low-side  Fault protection with asynchronous PWM shut-down - Multiple and selectable triggers and restart conditions  High-resolution extension - Increase PWM resolution up to eight times (4 nS period)  Two 16-bit timer/counters type 5 (standard)  2 Output Compare or Input Capture Channels  High-resolution extension
  152. 152. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Serial Communication Modules  USART  Full duplex asynchronous or synchronous operation  SPI master mode  Baud Rate Generator with fractional divider - UART frequency crystals not needed  SPI – Slave Serial Peripheral Interface  Full duplex, three-wire synchronous data transfer  Double buffered receive and transmit  TWI – Two Wire Interface  One master operation interface  One slave operation interface  100kHz, 400Khz and 1MHz operation  I2C and SMbus compatible
  153. 153. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Real Time Counter  Separate Timer for Asynchronous Clock  Independent of other Timer/Counters  Works in Power Save, Idle and Active mode  16-bit timer with Programmable Prescaler     Prescaler provides 1 Hz – 32 kHz input Programmable top value Compare register Max timeout 65 536 seconds (= more than 18 hours)  Can generate Events and Interrupts  Overflow and compare match  Digital calibration and correction for 32-768kHz XTAL error  Correction of mount error down to +/- 1 ppm accuracy
  154. 154. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Custom Logic Overview (XCL)  Two independent units including:  8-bit timer/counter  Glue logic with programmable look up table (LUT) - Defines a truth table of logical condition between inputs - Delay elements for filter and synchronistaion  Can be cascaded for more powerful features  16-bit timer/counter, larger LUT CPLD CPLD0 Timer/Counter Control Logic Timer Period Counter Delay Glue Logic I N T E R C O N N E C T CPLD1 Timer/Counter Control Logic Timer Period Counter Delay Glue Logic Prescaler I/O Pins Event System USARTs Interrupts Events CLKPER
  155. 155. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E XCL - 8-bit Timer/Counters  Two 8-bit timer/counter, with 16-bit cascade otion     Normal operation Single-slope PWM Input capture and frequency capture LUT input  Peripheral configuration:  Receive events from selectable USART - For count and restart actions,  Provide event to USART  Applications:  UART, USART, master SPI with variable data length in - 1 – 256-bit data lenght wthout software and I/O pin overhead  Enables LIN and DALI communication  Sensor applications: no IO pin need to signalize slot where data is valid
  156. 156. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR® XMEGATM – Basics XMEGA Training: Basics
  157. 157. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Introduction (1/2)  AVR XMEGA datasheet information is divided in two parts: Family Manual Device datasheets ATxmega A manual ATxmega64A1 / 128A1 / ...
  158. 158. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Introduction (2/2)  AVR XMEGA has more advanced header files for C programming than previous AVRs.  Slightly different syntax  More advanced, not more complicated  Better use of the features in the C language
  159. 159. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller The header file differences  What is different?  structs are used for registers of a peripheral  Bit masks, bit positions, group masks, group configurations for configuring bits in each register  Why the change?  Easier to configure registers correctly  Much easier to write generic drivers
  160. 160. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Register Names  Longer descriptive names preferred over complex short forms  DDRA is now PORTA.DIR  PINA is now PORTA.IN  UCSR0A is now USARTC0.CTRLA (This is USART 0 on port C)  Try to avoid control-and-status registers  Easier to read, write, and remember  Application Note AVR1000
  161. 161. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Register configuration  Bit position  PORT_SLREN_bp = 7  Bit mask  PORT_SLREN_bm = 0b1000 0000 = 0x80  Group mask  PORT_OPC_gm = 0b0011 1000 = 0x38  Group configuration  PORT_OPC_PULLUP_gc = 0b0001 0000 = ( 0x02 << 3)
  162. 162. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Bit mask/bit position  Use bit mask directly for setting a bit:  PORTD.PIN0CTRL |= PORT_SRLEN_bm  Or alternatively use bit position (like Mega/Tiny AVR):  PORTD.PIN0CTRL |= ( 1 << PORT_SRLEN_bp )  XMEGA header file definition: #define PORT_SRLEN_bm 0x80 // Slew Rate Enable bit mask #define PORT_SRLEN_bp 7 // Slew Rate Enable bit position
  163. 163. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Register Bits usage  Single control and status bits  Mask PORT_INVEN_bm and position PORT_INVEN_bp  Set bit: - PORTA.PIN0CTRL |= PORT_INVEN_bm; PORTA.PIN0CTRL |= (1 << PORT_INVEN_bp);  Clear bit: - PORTA.PIN0CTRL &= ~PORT_INVEN_bm; PORTA.PIN0CTRL &= ~(1 << PORT_INVEN_bp);
  164. 164. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Group mask  Useful for clearing all bits of a specific configuration in a register  Example:  PORT_OPC_gm  XMEGA header file definition:  #define PORT_OPC_gm 0x38 // Output/Pull Configuration group mask  #define PORT_OPC_bp 3 // Output/Pull Configuration group position
  165. 165. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Group configuration  Group configuration  One specific configuration of a group of bits  Group configurations defined as enum in header file  typedef enum PORT_OPC_enum { … } PORT_OPC_t;  Value something defined as PORT_OPC_something_gc  Enumerator types useful as function parameters – automatic checking
  166. 166. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Group configuration  Example:  PORT_OPC_PULLDOWN_gc  All available configurations are shown in the XMEGA manual
  167. 167. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Group mask and group configuration usage  Changing configuration – compact and efficient  Clear all bits of previous configuration and set new configuration:  PORTA.PIN0CTRL = ( PORTA.PIN0CTRL & ~PORT_OPC_gm ) | PORT_OPC_PULLDOWN_gc;
  168. 168. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA header files  If the definitions on the previous slides do not make sence to you:  Don’t need to know how the peripherals are defined, but how to use it:  PORTA.OUT = 0xff  unsigned char value = PORTB.IN
  169. 169. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA I/O Ports  Direction control  PORTx.DIR  Input and output  PORTx.IN and PORTx.OUT  Manipulation of direction register bits  PORTx.DIRSET, PORTx.DIRCLR, and PORTx.DIRTGL  Manipulation of output register bits  PORTx.OUTSET, PORTx.OUTCLR, and PORTx.OUTTGL  Application Note AVR1313
  170. 170. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA I/O Ports
  171. 171. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Output and Pull Configuration  Individual pin control  Pull-up or pull-down  PORT_OPC_PULLUP_gc or PORT_OPC_PULLDOWN_gc  Wired-AND or wired-OR  PORT_OPC_WIREDAND_gc or PORT_OPC_WIREDOR_gc  Bus keeper support  PORT_OPC_BUSKEEPER  Application Note AVR1313
  172. 172. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Configuring multiple pins  Several pins can be configured at the same time  MPCMASK register sets which pins are affected  The following configuration of a pin is applied to all pins set in MPCMASK  Example:  PORTA.MPCMASK = 0x0F;  PORTA.PIN0CTRL = ( PORTA.PIN0CTRL & ~PORT_OPC_gm ) | PORT_OPC_PULLUP_gc ; → All pins configured as pullup
  173. 173. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Pointers to Peripheral Modules  Allows for generic code and drivers  Access modules through pointers  Some overhead when dereferencing pointers  Great flexibility, saves code space  Module struct allows for pointer referencing  PORT_t * ledPort = &PORTD;  void SetLEDs( PORT_t * port, unsigned char value );
  174. 174. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Timer/Counter  Wide range of 8- and 16-bit Timer/Counters (TCNT)  The AVR Timer/Counters can use various clock sources  Main CPU clock  Internal High speed PLL - High speed, 64MHz  By external clock source - Max speed XTAL/2  External 32kHz asynchronous crystal  All clock sources can be pre-scaled before being fed to the Timer/Counters  T/C are interrupt driven and controlled through the AVR IO memory 184
  175. 175. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Timer/Counter Features  Overflow detection with interrupt  Compare match detection with Interrupt    Own compare value registers Pin change on compare match TCNT clear on compare match  Input Capture with Interrupt and Noise Canceller   Own capture counter value register Input capture by the Analog comparator  Real Time Counter with 32 kHz oscillator  Asynchronous to the main clock; separate 32kHz Crystal  Pulse width Modulation (PWM) functionality     Selectable 2-Bit to 16-Bit Resolution on devices with 16-Bit Timer High speed, up to 250kHz Phase and Frequency Correct PWM mode Variable TOP value Relevant Application Notes AVR134 AVR304 185
  176. 176. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller ERGÄNZUNGEN ZU UC3A3 (AUDIO) & UC3L www.atmel.com October 13
  177. 177. AVR and AVR32 TMM Call 4. May 2009 EVK1105 Digital Audio Gateway
  178. 178. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller EVK1105 Digital Audio Gateway Reference Design  EVK1105 demonstrates the full potential of AVR32 AT32UC3A0512 in digital audio applications  Software audio decoders  Be prepared for changes in digital audio formats  Complete HW and SW Reference Design      Play MP3 and WMA from a USB Mass Storage device Control your iPod Prepared for Internet radio Prepared for Bluetooth® Prepared for IEEE 802.15.4 / Zigbee PRO Mar 2009 1
  179. 179. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller EVK1105 Digital Audio Gateway Target Applications  USB Docking Station  MP3 Player / iPod  Mobile Phone / PDA  Camera  SD Card Player  Car Radio  Home Stereo  Internet Radio  Speaking appliances Mar 2009 1
  180. 180. AVR and AVR32 TMM Call 4. May 2009 AT32UC3A3
  181. 181. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Introducing the new AVR32 AT32U3A3  Audio playback  Single chip solution  Software audio decoding  High quality playback  iPod docking  High speed communication  Hi-Speed USB  Dual SD card  NAND w/MLC ECC  Distributed SRAM  Target Markets  Audio Playback  USB to SD Card Bridges  USB Dongles  USB Tokens Mar 2009 1
  182. 182. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR32 UC3A3 – It is all about true performance Instr. MemIF SRAM 64 KB Data  Improved DMA transfer speed  Peripheral DMA 6-layer High Speed Bus Matrix  Memory to Memory DMA Peripheral Bridge Peripheral DMA Controller: 18 channels USB On-The-Go  Eliminate on-chip communication bottleneck  Avoid DMA collision  Remove delay and latency PDC PDC PDC PDC USART SPI x2 TWI x2 SSC x1 x4 PDC Timer PWM 3 ch 3 ch PDC ADC 8 ch Audio DAC User Peripherals Mar 2009 1 EBI / ECC MPU SRAM 32 KB  2 x 32 KB BUS SRAM AVR32 CPU 66 MHz Flash  64 KB dual port CPU RAM JTAG/ Nexus OCD SRAM 32 KB  128 KB SRAM on-chip SRAM split into 3 regions
  183. 183. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller EVK1104 – AVR32 UC3A3 Evaluation Kit Mar 2009 1
  184. 184. AVR and AVR32 TMM Call 4. May 2009 AT32UC3L - picoPower
  185. 185. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller UC3L  picoPower™ Technology  Industry’s lowest power consumption  Down to 0.5 mW/MHz  1.6µA with RTC running  100nA in Shutdown mode  SleepWalking™  1.62 – 3.6V operation  Integrated Hardware QTouch  Use QTouch as any other peripheral  Wake up from sleep with a touch button  FlashVault™ code protection  Partially program and lock the flash  Protect your software IP Mar 2009 1
  186. 186. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller UC3L – Further Cutting Edge Innovations Improved Reliability and Reduced Cost  Peripheral Event System  PWM on all GPIO pins  High precision clock system        Digital frequency lock loop Crystal osc. precision tuner Clock failure protection Ultra low power oscillators Frequency meter RTC with calendar mode Windowed watchdog timer  9 channel 12 bits ADC  8 channel Analog Comparator  Advanced Debug Functionality  Advanced Trace Mar 2009 1
  187. 187. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller QUIZ MIT PREISVERLEIHUNG www.atmel.com October 13
  188. 188. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13

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