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Nom2

  1. 1. Lesson 1 Livestock in Mongolia About 80 percentage of the total Mongolian agriculture production is produced by the livestock sector. Generally, our livestock system is pasture grazing livestock husbandry. Lately, total number of livestock has been increased dramatically and reached more than 40 million heads which is the positive result for increasing total production of the sector, but on the other hand, it call challenges and pressure for pasture land, which is the major condition for running livestock husbandry. In addition to the dramatic increase of the livestock growth, there is desertification process has been taken in place so rapidly as never before caused by the global climate change and dryness. Under the influence of the globalization, we are facing high rocking fuel and wheat price increase, that hits hard the agricultural production itself. Our goals are: To increase the livestock sector’s production by successful breeding of local elite livestock breeds that are adapted to the country’s climatic conditions, along with using high quality breeds from abroad, especially nearby population concentrated urban areas while introducing modern biotechnological techniques. To increase pasture land, hay and fodder production and improve quality of feed .To protect pasture land pests and rodents, to use modern technologies to fight against pests such as locusts and uliin tsagaan ogotn. Issues regarding the preservation of our natural environment, rehabilitating damaged areas, combating against desertification, eradicating food shortages, and reducing poverty have become not only Mongolia’s problems, but also the world’s problems. We are working to prevent sudden changes and environmental disasters, while preparing to withstand unforeseen occurrences with less impact if and when they happen. Vocabulary: pasture grazing livestock husbandry бэлчээрийн мал аж ахуй dramatically гайхалтай head тоо толгой production үйлдвэрлэл growth хөгжил, өсөлт, бүтээгдхүүн desertification цөлжилт influence нөлөө fuel шатахуун wheat улаан буудай breed, n. угсаа, үүлдэр 1
  2. 2. pests and rodents хортон, мэрэгч fodder production малын тэжээлийн үйлдвэрлэл feed тэжээл abroad гадаад capacity багтаамж, хүчин чадал concentrate, төвлөрүүлэх preservation хамгаалалт disasters аюул, гамшиг unforeseen урьдаас мэдээгүй occurrences хэрэг явдал, тохиолдол Exercise 1. Pay attention to the following pair of words. It is necessary to learn. мал аж ахуй animal husbandry, cattle breeding таван хошуу мал five types of domestic animal бог мал sheep, goat бод мал cattle (cow), horse, camel төл мал newborn young animal малын бэлчээр pasture, grazing field амины мал private livestock бэлчээрийн мал pasture livestock нутгийн мал aboriginal stock, native breed бэлчээрийн маллагаа pasture breeding малын ашиг шим animal produce, output of livestock мал тооллого census of livestock 2
  3. 3. Exercise 2. Read and translate into English 1. Монголын малын тоо толгой 40 гаруй саяд хүрээд байна. ………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………. 2. Малын өсөлт нь цаг агаарын өөрчлөлт, хуурайшилт, цөлжилтийн шалтгаан болж байна. ................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................. 3. Цөлжилт , хүнсний хомсдол,ядуурал нь монголын төдийгүй дэлхий дахины тулгамдсан асуудал юм. ………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. Grammar Present simple Affirmative Interrogative I work Do I work ? You work Do you work? He works Does he work? She works Does she work? It works Does it work? We work Do we work? You work Do you work? they work Do they work? Negative Long from Short from I do not work I don’t work You do not work You don’t work He does not work He doesn’t work She does not work She doesn’t work It does not work It doesn’t work We do not work We don’t work You do not work You don’t work They do not work They don’t work 3
  4. 4. Use : We use the present simple for: • Daily, routines, repeated, action or habits. I get up at seven every days. • Permanent states. I live in London Time expressions used with present simple : every hour / day/week/ month/ summer/ year etc, usually, always, every, morning, afternoon, night, in the morning/afternoon/evening/night/ at night /etc Short answers: Yes , I do./ Yes, we do. Do you ….? No, I don’t./ No, we don’t. Yes ,he/she/it does. Does she/he/it ….? No ,he/she/it doesn’t. Yes ,they do. Do they ….? No, they don’t. In short answers we use Yes or No ,the subject pronoun and Do/Don’t or Does/Doesn’t. Exercise 1. Underline the correct verb form. 1. The earth goes/ doesn’t go/ go/ round the sun. 2. Mice catch/ don’t catch/ catches/ cats. 3. An atheist believe / believes/ doesn’t believe in God. 4. Vegetarians don’t eat/ eat/ eats meat. 5. What does /do/ the word mean/ means? Exercise 2. Put the words into the correct order. 1. fishing/ at/ weekends/ often/ Bold/goes ………………………………………………………… 2. dinner/cooks/ rarely/Dad 4
  5. 5. …………………………………………………. 3. on/ Naraa/up/ Sundays/ never/ gets/earl ………………………………………….. 4. his/always/ does/ Bat/ homework/ …………………………………….. 5. gym/ to/ she/ usually/go/the. ………………………………………………. Lesson 2 The native sheep The Mongolian native sheep is the short fat-tailed race of sheep. Under the strong continental climatic conditions of Central Asia, only very hardy sheep could survive. The original sheep reduces 23-25% in their body mass during the cold winter season. The Mongolia sheep is the back faced white type. The wool consists of heterotype fibers: widely, medium and kemps. The average wool clip of the ewe and the ram of the native breed of sheep is 1-1.4 kg and 1.6-2.0 kg correspondingly. The body weight of younger animal is in progress up to 4.5 years old. But the most intensive development of the younger animal is going on the first year of their life. The major product of the native sheep is meat. The ewe, body weight is 42.92-61.5 kg in autumn. The ram’s weight 67-75 kg. The yield of the meat is 52.7-55.28% of the body weight. Milk productivity is not high, the ewe gives 55.97 liter of milk in the period of lactation. Mongolian native sheep gives skin of high quality. The skin has the technical and commoditive property because of the well developed reticular layer. Vocabulary: sheep хонь to survive амьд үлдэх fiber судал, ширхэг ewe эм хонь ram эр хонь, ирэг yield бүтээмж, ашиг өгөх reticular торон commoditive өргөн хэрэглээний layer үе давхарга 5
  6. 6. to reduce хасах, буурах, турах heterotype олон төрлийн to clip хяргах, хяргасан ноос property хэв шинж major гол үндэс wool ноос short fat-tailed богино өөхөн сүүлт correspondingly таарах, зохих kemp хялгастай ноолуур Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. Which type is native sheep? ……………………………………………………………. 2. What do you say about fibers of sheep’s wool? ……………………………………………………………. 3. What is the major product of the sheep? ……………………………………………………………….. 4. What skin does native sheep give? …………………………………………………………………… Exercise 2. Pay attention to the meaning of the following words and phrases. хонин сүрэг herd of sheep хонины ноос sheep’s wool хонины мах mutton, camp хонины бэлчээр sheep range, sheep walk нэхийний чанар quality of skin боловсруулсан хонины нэхий tanned sheepskin сүүний гарц yield of milk цэвэр ноос pure wool 6
  7. 7. Exercise 3. Translate into English Хонин сүргээс төрөл бүрийн бүтээгдэхүүн /ноос, мах, сүү, хурганы арьс, нэхий/ авдаг. …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………….. Монгол үүлдрийн хонь богино өөхөн сүүлтэй. …………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………. Монгол хонь ихэвчлэн хар толгойтой цагаан зүстэй. ……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… Exercise 4. Translate into Mongolian Sheep an animal raised for wool, meat or skin. Sheep are cub-chewing mammals related to goats and cattle and sometimes have horns. The various kinds comprise a genus of animals. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. ................................................................................................................................... Grammar Present Continuous (to be + verb -ing) affirmative interrogative Negative I’m playing Am I playing I’m not playing You’re playing Are you playing You aren’t playing He’s playing Is he playing He isn’t playing She’s playing Is she playing She isn’t playing It’s playing Is it playing It isn’t playing We’re playing Are we playing We aren’t playing You’re playing Are you playing You aren’t playing They’re playing Are they playing They aren’t playing 7
  8. 8. Use : • We use the present continuous for : actions happening now ,at the moment of speaking. I am doing homework now. • Actions happening around the time of speaking. We’re looking for a flat at the moment. • Fixed arrangements in the near future. I’m seeing John tomorrow Time expressions used with the present continuous: now, at the moment, at present Short answers : Yes, I am. /Yes, we are. Are you…? No, I am not. /No, we aren’t. Yes, he/she/it is. Is he/she/it…? No, he/she/ it isn’t. Yes, they are. Are they…? No, they aren’t. Exercise 1. Use the words in the list to complete the dialogue below. Am, is, are, do A: Hello? B: Hello, Tulgaa. This…. Bat. What …..you doing? A: Hi, Bat I………… studying for an exam. How …… you? B: Oh, I……. fine. I want to ask you a question. A: Sure. B: ……. you know anyone who repairs cars ? A: Of course I……..! My cousin Bold ……a mechanic. He loves repairing cars-especially old ones like your Exercise 2. Underline the correct verb form 8
  9. 9. 1. I watch/ am watching/ watches TV every weekend. 2. Mum cook/ cooks/ is cooking dinner at the moment. 3. He phones/ phone/ is phoning his friend right now. 4. She paint/ is painting/ paints pictures in her free time. 5. My brother drive/ drives/ is driving his son to school every day. Lesson 3 The native goat The native goats are bred primarily for meat and milk. The native goat well built and reduces 25-27% in their body mass during winter and spring seasons. But they gain 25- 35% of their weight during summer and autumn and by the end of autumn the female’s weight is 35.66 and male’s 55 kg. Besides this, the aboriginal goat produces a valuable down of high quality. The mean of down fiber diameter is 13-16 mkm. The she –goat produces 224g down an average and male 230-360g. The native goat has a thin and dense skin which is of a valuable raw material for tanning industry. The she-goat gives 60-70L of milk is the period of lactation, which is used as a dietetic nutrition of children and elderly people. “The Gobi Gurvan saihan” is a new breed of goat which has been raised in the South Gobi zone by selective breeding of the better hybrids from crossing of the native goat with the pridone breed of goat. Vocabulary: goat ямаа primarily гол үндсэн чухал dense skin нягт арьс tanning арьс ширний dietetic хоолны нарийн дэглэм, тусгай дэглэм nutrition хүнс тэжээл pridone бахархал down cashmere ноолуур to gain олж авах fiber ноосны урт thin skin нимгэн арьс, нэхий 9
  10. 10. raw material түүхий эд Exercise 1. Pay attention to the following pair of words. ямаан сүрэг herd of goat ямааны мах goat flesh ноолуурын чиглэлийн ямаа cashmere goat ямааны арьс goat skin сүргийн чанар quality of herd сүргийн чанарыг дээшлүүлэх to improve herd quality сүргийн ерөнхий чанарыг дээшлүүлэх to improve over all herd quality ямаа самнах улирал combing season бэлчээр хамгаалах preserve pastureland ямаачин goat herder чанар муутай мал low quality livestock Exercise 2. Translate into English Монгол ямааны мах, сүү, ноолуур, хялгас, арьс болон бусад бүтээгдэхүүнийг өргөн ашигладаг. …………………………………………………………………………………… Монгол ямаа нь мах, сүү, ноолуурын хосолмол чиглэлтэй байдаг. ……………………………………………………………………………………. Ямаа нь намар сэрүү орохоор тарга хүчээ сайн авдаг. …………………………………………………………………………………… Ямааны сүү гарц ямааны бэлчээрийн нөхцөл, өсөлт, хувийн онцлогоос хамаардаг байна. ........................................................................................................................... …………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
  11. 11. Exercise 3. Read the text and translate Goat cub- chewing mammals with hollow horns and usually a beard. Goat are closely related to sheep but are stronger, less timid, and more active than sheep. They are raised in all parts of the world for their milk, flesh, hair and hides. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Grammar Past simple affirmative Negative interrogative I worked Did I work? I didn’t work You worked Did you You didn’t He worked work? work He She worked Did he didn’t work It worked work? She didn’t We worked Did she work You worked work? It didn’t they worked Did it work? work We Did we didn’t work work? You didn’t Did you work They work? didn’t work Did they work? Use : • We use the past simple for actions which happened in the past and won’t happen again. He graduated from high school in 2008. (When did he graduate? In 2008) 11
  12. 12. • We also use the past simple for the action which happened at a specific time in the past. He visited his grandparents last Sunday . (When? Last Sunday) Time expressions used with the past simple yesterday ,last night/morning/evening etc, two weeks/a month etc ago, in 1964 etc. Short answers : Yes, I /he/you etc did. Did /I/you/he/ etc work….? No, I /he/you etc didn’t. Exercise 1. Match the present simple forms to the past simple forms. appear was travel sang be went live appeared sing lived go traveled learn started receive had start learnt change enjoyed have received enjoy changed 12
  13. 13. Exercise 2. Choose the correct verb form 1. Dulmaa wrote/ write/ has written her test yesterday. 2. He has been/ were/ was in London in 2000. 3. I meet/ met/ have met her 2 days ago. 4. Od went/gone/ has gone to Khovsgol last summer. 5. Tenges seen/saw/ has seen this play before. Exercise 3. Put in the most suitable tense. A: Where …. /be/ you last night? B: I…./be/ at the party A: What ….you…/do/ there? B: We …../dance/ a lot at the party. A: …/be/ he at the party? B: No, he …/be/ . Lesson 4 The cattle and yak The native cattle is the main contingent of cattle in Mongolia and 20% of the total number of them are the yaks /Sarlag / and the hybrids /Khainag/.The aboriginal Mongolian cattle belong to meat type of cattle and relatively short, broad body with short legs is peculiar to their constitution, the adult cow weight 280-300 kg, the bull’s 360-450 kg. Female and male yaks weight 280 kg and 450 kg accordingly in autumn. While the native cattle and the yak which had been mated together gave progeny of increased size. The hybrids weigh 660 kg, but the male animals resulting from this cross are sterile. The East-Mongolian type of cattle is the best one among others by their productivity. The body weight of young animals of the native breed of cattle is in the progress up to 7-8 years old. Yield of milk native cow is 600-800L in the period of the lactation. The cow yak gives 500-700L of milk and the hybrid cow 800-1000 L .The native cattle gives meat of high nutritive quality and good to the taste. Dominating colors of the aboriginal cattle are red, reddish –brown, black and gray. The coat color of the yak has the ecological significance. The yak well adapted to the high mountainous condition. The native cattle and the yak have a well expressed herd instinct in their behavior. Vocabulary: cattle мал, үхэр progeny үр удам 13
  14. 14. to increase өсөх нэмэгдэх relatively харьцуулбал sterile үргүй, сувай dominating зонхилох голлох significance ач холбогдол pasture бэлчээр to breed үржүүлэх peculiar хувийн шинж чанар онцлог instinct зан байдал behavior авир байдал Exercise 1. Comprehension questions. 1. What constitution do the native cattle have? ………………………………………………………… 2. What yield of milk do native cow have in the period of the lactation? ……………………………………………………………. 3. What are the dominating colors of the cattle? …………………………………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian. 1. The cattle are on the pasture now. ………………………………………………… 2. The grass stand is very good this year. ……………………………………………….. 3. This cow produces the milk of high quality. ………………………………………………………….. 4. We shall need 20 more workers during the hay time. ………………………………………………………………….. 14
  15. 15. 5. Milk is unavailable at present. ………………………………………………………………….. Exercise 3. Read these sentence. Translate into your language. 1. We water vegetable every day. ……………………………………………………………………….. 2. Dairy cows must be provided with much water every day. …………………………………………………………………………. 3. They milk cows with special milking machine. ………………………………………………………………………. 4. These milk cows are high-productive. ………………………………………………………………………… 5. Silage and hay are water feeds. …………………………………………………………………………… 6. They pasture their cattle all the year round in this part of the country. …………………………………………………………………………………. Exercise 4. Complete the sentences. Use the words in B to match sentences In A. A Grass silage and hay …. Dairy cattle need …. Many up-to-date machines …. To improve pasture … High milk yields …. This breed of dairy cattle ….. The amount of feed to be given to each cow B are obtained this farm. 15
  16. 16. farmers use fertilizers. is not very productive. are winter feeds. depends on her size and productivity. do different farm work. Exercise 5 . Complete the sentences. Use the words below. pasture, yield, hay, quality, to, obtain, clover, breed Cattle grow and develop well when high ………. feeds are fed in winter and when they are on ………. in summer. Vitamin A is supplied when cattle are fed good grass and ……. It is very difficult ……. high quality hay. The milk ……. per cow per year is about 800 gallons. Legume ……… is the best winter feed. They do not ……… dairy cattle. Exercise 6. Translate into English Монгол үүлдрийн үхэр эрс тэс цаг уурын байдалд сайн зохилдсон байдаг. ……………………………………………………………………………………. Манай оронд үхэр сүргийг сүүний чиглэл, махны чиглэлээр үржүүлдэг. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Монгол үхрээс сүү, махнаас гадна арьс шир, хөөвөр, хялгас, эвэр, өлөн гэдэс зэрэг бүтээгдэхүүн ашигладаг. …………………………………………………………………………………………… Нутгийн монгол үхэр уулын болон тал хээр нутгийн экологид сайн зохицсон. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Сарлаг бол манай орны Хангай, Хөвсгөлийн уулархаг нутагт бэлчээрээр маллахад тохиромжтой …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
  17. 17. Grammar Used to Use : • We use the used to + infinitive to refer to past habits or states which don’t exist any more. He used to smoke. I didn’t use to wear glasses. Did you use to have long hair? Exercise 1. Complete the sentence with used to. 1. She ……..my best friend but we aren’t friends any longer. 2. We live in UB now but we ………. live in Erdenet. 3. Now there’s only one shop in the village but there …… three. 4. When I was a child I…….. ice cream , but I don’t like it now. 5. Tom has got a car. He …….a motorcycle. Exercise 2. Brain changed his lifestyle. Write sentence about Brain with used to and didn’t use to. He stopped: studying hard, going to bed early, running 3 miles every morning. He started: smoking, going out in the evening, spending a lot of money. 1. He used to study hard. He didn’t use to smoke. 2. ………………………………………………………………………….. 3……………………………………………………………………………….. 4. ………………………………………………………………………………… ….. 5. ……………………………………………………………………………… 6. …………………………………………………………………………………… 17
  18. 18. Lesson 5 The native horse The native horses are bred not only for transport but for meat and milk. The aboriginal horse is typical pastureable animal. Mongolian horse is small /300-350kg/ but very hardy and vigorous animal. The Mongolian native horse is capable of great endurance and they can run over a long period of time. Dominating coat colors are gray, bay and light bay etc. The Mongolian horse is late ripenesly and their body development is in progress up to 7.5 year. The horse gives milk, meat and other products. Meat contains much protein, albumin, globuinand fractions of miogen. The high content of glutamine acid causes the high quality of meat. The mare’s milk contains much amino acids, vitamins, immunoglobulin, betalactolobulin and unsaturated fat acids. From the ancient time the Mongolian people make airag, fermented mare’s milk which contains much free amino acids. Vocabulary: vigorous хүч тэнхээтэй bay хээр endurance тэсвэр хатуужил to ripen боловсрох saturated шингэсэн, шингээсэн ancient эртний acid хүчил capable чадвартай Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What are horses bred for? …………………………………………….. 2. What is physical structure of horse? 18
  19. 19. ………………………………………………. 3. Which distinction does mare’s milk have? ………………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Pay attention to the following pair of words. адуун сүрэг herd of horses адууны мах horse meat, horse flesh адууны хялгас хөөвөр horse hair алуу мал horses адуучин horse herder Exercise 3. Put the following words into three groups. Noun, verb and adjective develop, development ……………………………………. vigor, vigorous ………………………………………… ripe, ripen, ripeness …………………………………………….. Exercise 4. Translate into English Адууны зүтгэх хүчийг уналга, тэвэрт ашиглахын зэрэгцээгээр түүний мах, сүү /айраг/ зэрэг бүтээгдэхүүнийг ашигладаг. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Адууны мах төгс чанартай уураг, тос мөн витамин элбэг байдаг учраас түүнийг сувилгааны чанартай хоол хүнсний зүйлд хэрэглэдэг. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Монгол адууны махны чанар, найрлага нь бусад малынхаас ялгаатай. 19
  20. 20. …………………………………………………………………………………….. Монгол адуу бэлчээрийн мал учраас мах нь амт чанар сайтай. …………………………………………………………………………….. Адуун сүргээс их хэмжээний хөөвөр, хялгас, арьс ширийг ашигладаг. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Адууны нэг чухал ашиг шим бол сүү, түүгээр бэлтгэсэн айраг болно. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Grammar Past Continuous Use : We use the past continuous for: Two or more actions happening at the same time in the past John was cutting the grass while Jenny was painting flowers. • An action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action that interrupted it. (shorter action) She was having a bath when the phone rang. • An action in progress at a stated time in the past . James was sleeping at 9 o’clock last night. • Background information in a story The wind was blowing when Jane left work last Friday. Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous. 1. The letter ………/lie/ on the table when she got home. 2. They ………… /watch/ a film when the pizza arrived. 20
  21. 21. 3. “I don’t know where she is,” he …………../reply/. 4. As I…………../get/ on the bus yesterday, I fell and hurt my foot. Exercise 2. Underline the correct verb form. 1. I / looked/ was looking/ out of the window and /saw/was seeing/ an unusual bird. 2. The plane was late and we /waited/were waiting/ at the airport all morning. 3. She /were playing/ played/ was playing/ tennis at 5 o’clock yesterday. 4. I /talked/ were talking/ was talking/ with my friend when suddenly he /was crying/ cried/. Lesson 6 Two humped camel The native two humped camels have excellent potential as providers of drought power for transport, wool, fat and meat. The Mongolian bacterial camels have the following exterior date, elongated and roundest muzzle, large forehead hare lip, short ears, well developed muscles, mobile body, lumbar-sacral bones, long ribs, short tail and straight legs. The most valuable quality of the Mongolian camel is the wool productivity. The adult native camel gives 5.2kg of wool at the average. The male camel gives more than 8 kg of wool and the maximum 16-18 kg of wool. Lactation period of the female camel is 12-18 months and gives 174-574L of milk which is rich in vitamin C. The body weight of the native camel is in progress up to 7 years old. But the most intensive development of the younger animals is going on the 3.5-4 years of their life and depends on the natural and climatic factors. The Mongolian bacterial well adapted to severe continental climate of Gobi one and they have a high ecology –physiological plasticity to stand out the external condition, hot summer and cold winter during which they reduce 20-25% in their body mass. The high stability of the camel organism to the hot desert climate in summer is bound up with economic expenditure of water by the organism. Vocabulary: potential чадамж, боломж provider нийлүүлэгч draught power үлэмж, их хүч чадал exterior өнгөн тал, гадна байдал 21
  22. 22. to elongate сунах, сунгах roundest дугариг, дугуйвтар muzzle хошуу, хоншоор lumber sacral ууц зоо- нуруу to bound up хязгаарлах expenditure үрлэг зарлага Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. Which potential do camels have? ……………………………………………………………. 2. What is the most valuable quality of the camel? ………………………………………………………………… 3. How long is the body weight in progress up? ………………………………………………………….. 4. Where do camel adapt well? ………………………………………………………………… 5. How long does lactation on period last? ……………………………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Pay attention to the meaning of the following words тэмээн сүрэг camel herd ганц бөхт тэмээ dormedory тэмээчин camel herder ноос wool down цэвэр ноос pure wool adapt v. тааруулах тохируулах adaptability n. тааруулж хэрэглэж сурах adaptable adj. хялбар тохируулж болохуйц 22
  23. 23. locate v. байрлуулах, суурьшуулах location n. байрлал, байршил, суурьшил mobile adj. хөдөлгөөнтэй өөрчлагддаг mobility n. хөдөлгөөн, өөрчлөмтгий чанар Exercise 3. Choose the necessary word and put in the sentence The adult native camel gives 5.2 kg of …… the average. Milk is … in vitamin C. Intensive development of the …… animals ……. the natural and climatic factors. rich younger to depend on, wool Exercise 4. Translate into English Монголын таван хошуу мал сүргийн нэг нь тэмээ юм. ……………………………………………………………………………….. Монгол тэмээний биеийн өсөлт хөгжил нь 5-6 настайдаа үндсэндээ гүйцдэг байна. …………………………………………………………………………………… Тэмээний ноосыг чанараар нь зөөлөн буюу ширүүн гэж ангилдаг. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Тэмээний ноосон эдлэл дулаан хадгалдаг, хөнгөн, бөх байдаг. ……………………………………………………………………………. Монгол тэмээ нь хүч тэнхээтэй, тэсвэр хатуужилтай мал. ……………………………………………………………………………. 23
  24. 24. Grammar Present perfect Affirmative interrogative Long form short form Have I worked? I have worked I’ve worked Have you worked? You have you’ve worked Has he worked? worked he’s worked Has she worked? He has worked she’s worked Has it worked? She has it’s worked Have we worked? worked we’ve worked Have you worked? It has worked you’ve worked Have they We have they’ve worked worked? worked You have worked They have worked Negative : Long form Short form I, we, you, they have not I, we, you, they haven’t He, she, it has not He, she, it hasn’t Use: We use the present perfect : • To talk about an action which started in the past and continues up to the present. She has lived in UB for the last two months. • To talk about a resent action whose result is visible in the present I have broken my leg, so I can’t walk. • To talk about an experience. 24
  25. 25. Have you ever worked as teacher? • To talk about an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. The action is more important than the time. He’s been to the dentist’s four times. Exercise 1. Put the verbs into the present perfect or the past simple. A: What’s the matter, Bill? B: I……./hurt/ my arm. A: Oh, when …………./you /do/ that ? B: I …/do/ it yesterday when I was playing football A: Is it still painful? B: Well It …../hurt/ a lot when it ………../happen/ A: ………………./you/see/ a doctor yet? B: Yes……………./never/injure/ myself playing football before. Exercise 2. Underline the correct verb form. 1. The party /has finished/ finished/ at the midnight. 2. We /never had/ have never had/ a car. 3. Sam /have come in / came in / a moment ago. 4. It’s ages since Tim /visited/ has visited/. 5. She /started/ has started/ her job two days ago Lesson 7 Meat Meat means the whole or part of a carcass of: any buffalo, camel, cattle, deer, goat, hare, pig, poultry, rabbit or sheep that is slaughtered other than in the wild state. The definition 25
  26. 26. of meat does not include eggs or fish because these foods are regulated elsewhere in the new Code. Meat flesh Meat flesh is defined as skeletal muscle to distinguish it from other parts of a carcass of meat such as offal, bone and bone marrow. Meat flesh includes any attached fat, connective tissue, rind, nerves, blood vessels and blood, and skin (if poultry). Offal Offal is defined to distinguish it from meat flesh and to assist with provisions relating to offal such as labelling requirements. Offal means parts of a carcass such as blood, brain, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, thymus, tongue and tripe, but excludes meat flesh, bone and bone marrow. The use of offal in meat products is restricted subject to specific labelling requirements Manufactured meat Manufactured meats are a category of processed meats. They are products made from meat and are usually processed with other foods. They must contain at least 660 g/kg meat. Manufactured meat also includes any cured and/or dried meat flesh products in whole cuts or pieces that have had other foods added to them. Sausages Sausages are a category of processed meat. They are minced processed meat and/or comminuted meat, which may be combined with other foods, and are encased or formed into discrete units. They do not include meat formed or joined into the semblance of cuts of meat. Meat pies A meat pie must contain at least 250 g/kg of meat based on the total weight of the pie including pastry. This is a major change from the New Zealand regulations, which specify that the meat content be based on the filling only, i.e. minus the pastry. Vocabulary: Offal гэдэс дотор bone marrow ясны чөмөг tissue эд rind хальс blood vessels судас slaughtered нядлагдсан 26
  27. 27. distinguish ялгарах,ялгагдах labeling тодорхойлох process боловсруулах pancreas нойр булчирхай Buffalo одос үхэр semblance төстэй байдал Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What does meat mean? …………………………………. 2. What is meat flesh? ……………………………………….. 3. What does offal mean? …………………………………………. 4. What does manufactured meat include ? ………………………………………………… 5. What other kind of meat do you know ? ……………………………………………………. 6. What does meat flesh include? ………………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ”Meat”. Grammar EVER / NEVER • We use ever in questions and statements. Have you ever visited Russia? Cairo is the best city I’ve ever visited. • We use never in statements. I have never visited America 27
  28. 28. Exercise 1. Сomplete the following sentences with “ever’”or “never”. 1. Has she ….. been to Paris? 2. I ‘ve …… been to USA. 3. He has …..been to London. 4. Have you …..ridden a horse? Lesson 8 Meat composition The three major components of meat are water, protein and fat. Water Water is, by far, the largest component, comprising about 70% of lean tissue. Generally, water content is about 3.5 to 7.7 times the amount of protein present. In living tissue, for every kilogram of protein the body synthesizes, 3.5 to 3.7 kilogram of water is needed to surround the proteins. Fat tissue commonly contains 5 to 8% water. Meat with high fat content will have lower amounts of protein and water. Protein Protein is categorized in three groups: myofibrillar (salt soluble), sarcoplasmic (water soluble) and connective tissue (salt insoluble). These protein groups have different basic properties that affect processed meats differently. The myofibrillar proteins, also called contractile proteins, form the largest structure and bulk of muscle. These proteins are responsible for the contraction ability of living muscle and are found inside the muscle cell. They form the structure called myofibrils. Myoglobin is one protein in this group that has significant importance in processed meats. Myoglobin gives meat its color. Collagen is the major connective tissue protein in meat and it is similar to the collagen found in skin, ligaments and tendons. Fat Fat is the most variable component in processed meat. Fat cells are almost completely filled with lipid. Animal lipids are generally triglycerides, which are glycerol molecules with three fatty acids attached. There are many different fatty acids. Fatty acids differ due to the differing number of carbon atoms and number of unsaturated bonds in the carbon chain. A single bond between carbons is called a saturated bond and a double bond between carbons is called an unsaturated bond. Unsaturated bonds have the greatest influence on melting point because they are more susceptible to breakage by heat than are saturated bonds. Pork fat has more unsaturated fatty acids than beef or lamb fat, it is more susceptible to oxidation. 28
  29. 29. Vocabulary: to surround хүрээлэх bond хэлхээ, холбоо saturated ханасан unsaturated ханаагүй carbon chain нүүрстөрөгчийн холбоо Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What does give meat’s color ? …………………………………… 2. Where did collagen find ? ……………………………………….. 3. What is saturated bond ? ………………………………………………… 4. What is unsaturated bond ? ………………………………………………… 5. What are the major components of meat ? …………………………………………………… Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Meat composition”. Grammar YET / ALREADY • We use already in positive statements and questions. Have you done the washing up already? Yes, I have. I’ve already done it. • We use yet in question and negative. Have you done homework yet? No, I haven’t . I haven’t done homework yet. Lesson 9 WHAT ARE THE FLAVORS IN MEAT PRODUCTS? 29
  30. 30. Hot Dogs The flavor of most hot dogs is black pepper and nutmeg. Other hot dogs have a garlic flavor as a secondary flavor. Many chicken hot dogs have onion as a secondary flavor. Smoke is another important flavor of hot dogs. It is not a spice, but it can confuse people tasting two products for flavor comparison. Heavy mustard usage is common. Hot dogs are eaten warm and therefore require less flavor (spices) than bologna. Bologna Most bologna has the same flavor as hot dogs. The most consistent difference is bologna usually has garlic to give more flavor to the cold product. Bologna is not smoked, and again, smoke is not a spice, but is a major flavor in processed meat products. Heavy mustard usage is common. Smoked Sausage Smoked sausage is a simple seasoned product. Black pepper is the major spice flavor in smoked sausage. Red Pepper is used at very low levels. Coriander is sometimes used. Smoke and the sweet burnt flavor of dextrose are the major flavors of smoked sausage. Polish Sausage (kielbasa) The same rules as smoked sausage, except garlic is added for typical flavor. Fresh Pork Sausage Black pepper and sage are dominate flavors with red pepper used for "hot" varieties. Dextrose is added for browning characteristics. Italian Sausage Black pepper and fennel (licorice flavor) are the flavors in Italian sausage. Red pepper is added for hot Italian sausage. Liverwurst (braunschweiger) Onion and nutmeg provide spice flavor for this product. Smoked bacon provides additional flavor, particularly to braunschweiger. This is one product where the sweet flavor of nonfat dry milk helps product flavor. Salami Black pepper, particularly in the form of whole pepper corns, creates flavor of cotto (cooked) salami. Nutmeg is used at low levels. Heavy mustard usage is common. Pepperoni 30
  31. 31. Paprika, red pepper, black pepper, garlic, and fennel are spices used for pepperoni or sausage for pizza. Summer Sausage (beef stick) Black pepper is usually only spice used for flavor. Heavy mustard usage is common. Dry Sausage Most other dry sausages use black pepper for major flavor, and may include garlic, coriander, and nutmeg for other spice flavors. Vocabulary: Flavor амтлагч fennel ногоон гоньд mustard гич nutmeg задь spice халуун ногоо Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What are the flavor of hot dogs ? ………………………………………… …………………………………………. 2. What kind of meat products do you know ? ………………………………………….. ……………………………………………… 3. What is a simple seasoned product ? ……………………………………………. ……………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” WHAT ARE THE FLAVORS IN MEAT PRODUCTS? “. 31
  32. 32. Grammar jUST • We use just in statements to show that an action finished only a few minutes earlier. A: Have you finished your housework yet? B: Yes, I’ve just finished it. Exercise 1. Read the short dialogues and fill in yet, already, or just. 1. A: I’ve been feeling ill all week. B: Have you seen a doctor ………..? A: I’ve ………got back from the doctor’s. He says I’ve got the flu. 2. A: Has Janet returned to work ………? B: No. She’s still in hospital. 3. .A: I’ve still got a terrible headache. B: Would you like an aspirin ? A: I’ve …….taken one, but it hasn’t worked …… Lesson 10 Beef Beef is the meat of cattle, such as this Glan Cattle cow. Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle (cows). Beef muscle meat can be cut into steaks, roasts or specialty cuts, such as short ribs. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. The lungs and the udder are considered unfit for human consumption in the US. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies. Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime .The United States, Brazil, Japan and the People's Republic of China are the world's four largest consumers of beef. The world's largest exporters of beef are Australia, Brazil, Argentina and Canada. Beef production is also important to the economies of Uruguay, Nicaragua, Russia and Mexico. A study released in 2007 by the World Cancer Research Fund reported strong evidence that red meat and processed meats are causes of bowel cancer and recommends that 32
  33. 33. people eat less than 500 grams (18 oz) of cooked red meat weekly, and as little processed meat as possible. The report also recommends that average consumption in populations should not exceed 300 grams (11 oz) per week, stating that this goal "corresponds to the level of consumption of red meat at which the risk of colorectal cancer can clearly be seen to rise." Lean beef, with its high selenium and B12 content, may actually lower the risk of colon cancer. The Harvard School of Public Health recommends that consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable saturated fat. Like some other animal products (such as whole milk), red meat provides a rich source of the heart-healthy fat conjugated linoleic acid along with the saturated fat. Beef's high content of B6 and B12 may help lower homocysteine Vocabulary: Beef үхрийн мах bovine .adj. бухын cancer хавдар consumption хэрэглээ beef stock. үхрийн ясний шөл Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is beef ? ………………………………………… 2. What is used in some varieties of blood sausage.? …………………………………………………………. 3. What countries are the world's largest consumers of beef? ………………………………………………………………… 4. What countries are the world's largest exporters of beef ? ………………………………………………………………. 33
  34. 34. 5. What are causes of bowel cancer”? ……………………………………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Beef”. Grammar FOR / SINCE • We use for to express duration. I’ve worked here for seven years. • We use since to state a starting point. I’ve worked here since 1996. Exercise 1. Fill in since or for. 1. ….the last two years 2. ……yesterday 3. ……six months 4. ……breakfast time 5. ……2008 6. ……I was six 7. ……last Monday 8. …..we moved house 9. …..two o’clock 10. ….four hour Exercise 2. Make up sentences using the present perfect simple and five of the phrases above. Lesson 11 Pork Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig. The pig is one of the oldest forms of livestock, having been domesticated as early as 5000 BC. Pork is eaten in various forms, including cooked (as roast pork), cured or smoked (ham, including the Italian prosciutto) or a combination of these methods (gammon, bacon or Pancetta). Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 38 percent of meat 34
  35. 35. production worldwide, although consumption varies widely from place to place According to the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006 (preliminary data). In gastronomy, pork is traditionally considered a white meat, but in nutritional studies, it is usually grouped with beef as red meat, and public perceptions have been changing Its myoglobin content is lower than beef, but much higher than chicken white meat. Pork is very high in thiamin. Pork products: Smoked pork ribs Pork may be cooked from fresh meat or cured over time. Cured meat products include ham and bacon. The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh meat cuts, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide. Fresh meat Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a suckling pig the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Processed pork Pork is particularly common as an ingredient of sausages. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including chorizo, fuet, Cumberland sausage and salami. Most brands of American hot dogs and breakfast sausage are made from pork. Ham and bacon are made from fresh pork by curing with salt (pickling) and/or smoking. Shoulders and legs are most commonly cured in this manner for Picnic shoulder and ham, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side (round from the loin and streaky from the belly). Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, and their consumption has increased with industrialisation. Non-western cuisines also use preserved meat products. For example, salted preserved pork or red roasted pork is used in Chinese and Asian cuisine. Bacon is defined as any of certain cuts of meat taken from the sides, belly or back that have been cured and/or smoked. In continental Europe, it is used primarily in cubes (lardons) as a cooking ingredient valued both as a source of fat and for its flavour Vocabulary: Branch салбар devoted зориулсан ingredient орц nutritional тэжээллэг Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is Pork? 35
  36. 36. ……………………………………………… …………………………………………….. 2. What is a common ingredient of sausages. ……………………………………………….. ………………………………………………. 3. What is Charcuterie ? ………………………………………………… ………………………………………………. 4. What are made from pork? ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Pork”. Grammar Present Perfect Continuous ( Have / has been + verb- ing ) Use: • We use the present perfect continuous to talk about an action which started in the past and continues to the present to give emphasis to duration She has been living here for 20 years. • We also use to talk about a completed past action which has visible results in the present. I ‘m dirty because I’ve been working in the garden. Exercise 1. Complete the sentences below about yourself. 1. I’ve been living here for………………………. 2. I’ve been studying English since…………….. 36
  37. 37. 3. I’ve been ………………..for/since…………….. Lesson 12 Lamb and mutton Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep. The meat of an animal in its first year is lamb; that of an older sheep is hogget and later mutton. The strict definitions for lamb, hogget and mutton vary considerably between countries. In New Zealand for example, they are defined as follows: Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear Hogget — a young male sheep or maiden ewe having no more than two permanent incisors in wear Mutton — a female (ewe) or castrated male sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear. In Australia the definitions are extended to include ewes and rams, as well as being stricter on the definition for lamb which is: Lamb — 0 permanent incisors; female or castrate entire male ovine 0-12 months (note that the Australian definition requires 0 permanent incisors, whereas the New Zealand definition allows 0 incisors 'in wear. The younger the lamb is, the smaller the lamb will be, however, the meat will be more tender. Sheep mutton is meat from a sheep over two years old, and has a less tender flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal. Baby lamb meat will be pale pink, while regular lamb is pinkish-red. The meat of a lamb is taken from the animal between one month and one year old, with a carcase weight of between 5.5 and 30 kilograms (12 and 65 lbs). This meat generally is more tender than that from older sheep and appears more often on tables in some Western countries. Hogget and mutton have a stronger flavour than lamb because they contain a higher concentration of species-characteristic fatty acids and are preferred by some. Mutton and hogget also tend to be tougher than lamb (because of connective tissue maturation) and are therefore better suited to casserole-style cooking. Vocabulary: Definition тодорхойлол incisor үүдэн шүд 37
  38. 38. pale pink бүдэг ягаан tender зөөлөн concentration төвлөрүүлэл,өтгөүүлэлт бөөгнөрөл Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What are lamb and mutton ? ……………………………………… …………………………………………. 2. How are they defined in New Zealand ? …………………………………………….. …………………………………………… 3. How are they defined in Australia ? ……………………………………………….. ……………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Lamb and mutton” Grammar Past Perfect Simple ( had+ past participle ) Use: • To talk about a past action which happened before another past action He called Jane after he had finished dinner. (First he finished dinner, then he called Jane) • The past perfect simple is the past equivalent of the present perfect simple. He has never travelled abroad .(present perfect simple) He had never travelled abroad .(past perfect simple) 38
  39. 39. Time expressions : already, by the time, never, as soon as, just, after, when, before etc. Exercise 1. Join the sentences using the words in brackets. Example: Ann called for a taxi. She packed her suitcase. (after) Ann called for a taxi after she had packed her suitcase. 1. We played card. We finished dinner. (after) ……………………………………………………… 2. I didn’t go to sleep . I finished the book.(until) ……………………………………………………….. 3. Tom spoke to Ann several times. He asked her out to lunch.(before) …………………………………………………………… 4. Paula went to bed. Her guests left. (as soon as). ……………………………………………………………. 5. The train left. We arrived at the station. (already, by the time). ………………………………………………………………… Lesson 13 Chicken Chickens may live for five to eleven years, depending on the breed. In commercial intensive farming, a meat chicken generally lives only six weeks before slaughter. A free 39
  40. 40. range or organic meat chicken will usually be slaughtered at about 14 weeks. Hens of special laying breeds may produce as many as 300 eggs a year. After 12 months, the hen's egg-laying ability starts to decline, and commercial laying hens are then slaughtered and used in baby foods, pet foods, pies and other processed foods. The world's oldest chicken, according to the Guinness Book of World Records, died of heart failure when she was 16 years old. The male can be differentiated from the female by its comb. WWChicken eggs vary in color depending on the hen, typically ranging from bright white to shades of brown and even blue, green, and recently reported purple (found in South Asia) (Araucana varieties). Chicken is the meat derived from chicken. It is the most common type of poultry in the world, and is frequently prepared as food in a large number of ways. Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. It was one of the basic ingredients in the so-called white dish, a stew usually consisting of chicken and fried onions cooked in milk and seasoned with spices and sugar . The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the US are Cornish and White Rock. Chickens raised specifically for meat are called broilers. In the United States, broilers are typically butchered at a young age. Modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds. Typically, the muscle tissue (breast, legs, thigh, etc), livers, hearts, and gizzard are processed for food. Chicken feet are commonly eaten, especially in French and Chinese cuisine. Vocabulary: derived үүсэх, гаргах, авах stew жигнэсэн мах emphasis онцгой ratio харьцаа Exotic сонин gizzard хоолой, багалзуур Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. How long does a meat chicken live ………………………………………….. ………………………………………….. 2. How many eggs do Hens produce a year? …………………………………………….. ……………………………………………… 3. What is chicken ? 40
  41. 41. …………………………………………….. …………………………………………….. 4. What are called broilers ? …………………………………………. …………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Chicken”. Grammar Will Affirmative Interrogative Long form short form I will I’ll leave will I leave? leave you’ll leave will you leave? You will he’ll leave will he leave? leave she’ll leave will she leave/ He will leave it’ll leave will It leave? She will we’ll leave will we leave? leave you’ll leave will you leave? It will they’ll leave will they leave? leave We will leave You will leave They will 41
  42. 42. leave 42
  43. 43. Negative Long form short form I will not leave I won’t leave You will not You won’t leave leave He won’t leave He will not leave She won’t leave She will not leave It won’t leave It will not leave We won’t leave We will not leave You won’t leave You will not leave They won’t leave They will not leave Use : • To make predictions based on what we believe or think . We usually use will with I think , I believe , I expect, probably. There will be rain in UB tomorrow. • To make on the-spot decisions . A: The phone or ringing. B: I’ll answer it. Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps with will or won’t . A: Make sure you go to the bank before you go to the supermarket. B: I know, I ……. A: Don’t forget to buy all the vegetables on the shopping list. B: Don’t worry, I…. A: Oh, and don’t forget to get a newspaper on your way home. B: Okay, I …….. 43
  44. 44. A: Make sure you call me if you need any help. B: I…………. Lesson 14 Pasteurization Pasteurization is a process which slows microbial growth in food. The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur. The first pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April 20, 1862. The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring. Unlike sterilization, inventor Nicolas Appert, pasteurization is not intended to kill all pathogenic micro-organisms in the food or liquid. Instead, pasteurization aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the pasteurization product is refrigerated and consumed before its expiration date). Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the taste and quality of the product. Certain food products are processed to achieve the state of commercial sterility. There are two main types of pasteurization used today: High Temperature/Short Time (HTST) and Extended Shelf Life (ESL) treatment. Ultra-high temperature (UHT or ultra- heat treated) is also used for milk treatment. In the HTST process, milk is forced between metal plates or through pipes heated on the outside by hot water, and is heated to 71.7 °C (161 °F) for 15–20 seconds. UHT processing holds the milk at a temperature of 138 °C (280 °F) for a fraction of a second. ESL milk has a microbial filtration step and lower temperatures than HTST. Milk simply labeled "pasteurized" is usually treated with the HTST method, whereas milk labeled "ultra-pasteurized" or simply "UHT" has been treated with the UHT method. There are different standards for different dairy products, depending on the fat content and the intended usage. For example, the pasteurization standards for cream differ from the standards for fluid milk, and the standards for pasteurizing cheese are designed to preserve the phosphatase enzyme, which aids in cutting. The HTST pasteurization standard was designed to achieve a 5-log reduction, killing 99.999% of the number of viable micro-organisms in milk Vocabulary: sterilization ариутгал preserve хадгалах, дарах,нөөшлөх filtration шүүх, тунгаах a fraction хувь, ноогдол reduction бууралт 44
  45. 45. Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is pasteurization ? …………………………………………… …………………………………………… 2. When was completed the first pasteurization test? ……………………………………………….. 3. Who did create pasteurization process? …………………………………………… ……………………………………………. 4. What does pasteurization aim? …………………………………………. ………………………………………… 5. How many types are there of pasteurization used today? ………………………………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Pasteurization”. Grammar Be going to Talking about plans and intentions Affirmative : I am /you are /he is etc going to buy a car? Negative : I’m not/you aren’t/he isn’t/etc going to buy a car? Interrogative: Am I /are you/is he etc going to buy a car? Short answer : Yes , I am/you are/he is etc. No, I’m not//you aren’t / he isn’t etc Use : We use be going to: 45
  46. 46. • For plans and intentions. I’m going to join a gym next week • For predictions based on what we see or we know. Look at the dark clouds! It’s going to rain Exercise 1. Complete the short dialogues below with will, won’t, is going to, or am going to 1. A: Your appointment is at nine tomorrow morning . B: Don’t worry. I……………………. be late 2. A: I’m hungry. B: I ……………………… I make on omelet for you. 3. A: Your shirt is dirty. B: I know. I…………………………wash it later. 4. A: Why is Steve wearing his short. B: He ……………………play football with Bill. 5. A: Did you post those letter his morning? B: Oh, I forgot.! I ………………. post them tomorrow. Lesson 15 Milk Dairy milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals . The exact components of raw milk varies by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Cow's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic .There are two distinct types of milk consumption: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals, and a food product for humans of all ages derived from other animals. In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. Some cultures, historically or currently, continue to use breast milk to feed their children until they are 7 years old. In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (in particular, cows) as a food product. For millennia, cow milk has been processed into dairy products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and especially the more durable and easily transportable product, cheese. The term milk is also used for whitish non- animal substitutes such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk. Animal milk is first known to have been used as human food at the beginning of animal domestication. Cow milk was first used as human food in the Middle East. Goats and sheep were domesticated in the Middle East between 9000 and 8000 BC. Milk was first delivered in 46
  47. 47. bottles on January 11, 1878. The day is now remembered as Milk Day and is celebrated annually. Goat milk can be used for other applications such as cheese and other dairy products. In addition to cows, the following animals provide milk used by humans for dairy products: • Buffalo • Camels • Donkeys • Goats • Horses • Reindeer • Sheep • Water buffalo • Yaks In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist. The largest producers of dairy products and milk today are India followed by the United States and China. Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butter fat globules within a water-based fluid .The fat- soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are found within the milk fat portion of the milk. Human milk contains, on average, 1.1% protein, 4.2% fat, 7.0% lactose (a sugar), and supplies 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams. • Cow milk contains, on average, 3.4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, 0.7% minerals and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. See also Nutritional value further on. Donkey and horse milk have the lowest fat content, while the milk of seals and whales can contain more than 50% fat. High fat content is not unique to aquatic animals, as guinea pig milk has an average fat content of 46%. Vocabulary: Liquid шингэн mammary glands сүүний булчирхай mammals сүүн тэжээлтэн to digest шингэх, боловсрох to consume хэрэглэх, зарцуулах soy milk шар буурцагны сүү infant нярай хүүхдийн breast хөх, мээм 47
  48. 48. dairy products цагаан идээ Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is dairy milk? ---------------------------------- 2. What does milk contain ? ----------------------------------- 3. How many types are there of milk consumption ? -------------------------------------- 4. What are the major products of milk? ------------------------------------------------ 5. When was Cow milk used as human food ? ----------------------------------------- 6. When was milk delivered in bottles? ------------------------------------------- Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Milk”. Grammar Conditional 1 We use the first conditional to talk about real or very probable situations in the present or future If +present simple, will +bare infinitive. If you don’t eat , you will be hungry. If I study hard , I‘ll do well in the test When-If We use when to show that something will certainly happen. When Tom comes, I’ll cook dinner. We use If when we are not certain that something will happen. If Tom comes, I’ll cook dinner. Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 48
  49. 49. 1. If he…………………………. (miss) his flight, he won’t be able to go to Madrid. 2. If you……………………….. (not/be) careful, you’ll hurt yourself. 3. If she gets a job, she ………….. (buy) a car. 4. If you drink some tea, you………………. (feel) better. 5. If he ………………………… (not/set) his alarm clock, he’ll be late for work. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences . 1. If Jackie studies hard,…………………………………….. 2. If you don’t hurry,…………………………………. 3. If I win Ђ 10,000,……………………………………….. 4. If they go to Paris, ……………………………………… 5. If Bat eats the all chocolate, .……………………………………. 6. If it stops raining, …………………………………………….. 7. If I work late tonight, …………………………………… 8. If you do the shopping ,…………………………….. Lesson 16 Cream Cream (including light whipping cream) is a dairy product that is composed of the higher- butter fat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. Cream produced by cows grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white colour, cream. Cream from cows fed indoors, on grain or grain-based pellets, is white. Minimum Additional Name Main uses milk fat definition Served as it is with scones, jam, stargazy Clotted cream 55% and heat treated pie, etc. Whips the easiest and thickest for puddings Double cream 48% and desserts, can be piped Whipping cream 35% Whips well but lighter, can be piped - just Whipped cream 35% and has been Decorations on cakes and gвteaux. whipped Sterilized cream 23% is sterilized 49
  50. 50. Cream or single 18% is not sterilized Poured over puddings, used in coffee cream Sterilized half 12% is sterilized cream Half cream 12% is not sterilized Used in coffee, some cocktails Thickened cream: 35–36.5% fat, with added gelatine and/or other thickeners to give the cream a creamier texture, also possibly with stabilisers to aid the consistency of whipped cream (this would be the cream to use for whipped cream, not necessarily for cooking Single cream: Recipes calling for ‘single cream’ are referring to pure or thickened cream with about 35% fat. Double cream: 48–60% fat. Chart of 50 types of milk products and relationships, including cream (right-click image to enlarge). Butter is made by churning cream to separate the butterfat and buttermilk. This can be done by hand or by machine. Whipped cream is made by whisking or mixing air into cream with more than 30% fat, to turn the liquid cream into a soft solid. Nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide may also be used to make whipped cream. Sour cream, common in many countries including the U.S. and Australia, is cream (12 to 16% or more milk fat) that has been subjected to a bacterial culture that produces lactic acid (0.5%+), which sours and thickens it. Crиme fraоche (28% milk fat) slightly soured with bacterial culture, but not as sour or as thick as sour cream. Mexican crema (or cream espesa) is similar to crиme fraоche. Smetana is a heavy cream product (35-40% milk fat) Central and Eastern European sour cream. Clotted cream, common in the United Kingdom, is cream that has been slowly heated to dry and thicken it, producing a very high-fat (55%) product. This is similar to Indian malai. Cream is used as an ingredient in many foods, including ice cream, many sauces, soups, stews, puddings, and some custard bases, and is also used for cakes. Irish cream is an alcoholic liqueur which blends cream with whiskey and coffee. Cream is also used in curries such as masala dishes. Cream (usually light/single cream or half and half) is often added to coffee. Vocabulary: grain үр тариа ,hence энэ үеэс, эндээс, ийм учраас blend v. холих, хутгах stew v. жигнэх whip v. ороох decoration чимэглэл 50
  51. 51. Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is cream ? ---------------------------------- 2. How many kind of cream do you know? ---------------------------------------- 3. How is cream used? -------------------------------------- 4. What colors does cream have ? ------------------------------------------- Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Cream”. Grammar Conditionals type 2 If…. + past simple + …would/could/might + bare infinitive • We use conditional type 2 to talk about unreal or highly unlikely situations in the present or future NOTE: We can use were in all person (after I /he/she/it). If I were the leader of my country , I would not allow hunters to kill endangered species. Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1. If he lived in the countryside, he ……….(be) happier. 2. If we ……….. (ask) her, I’m sure she would stop doing that. 3. If people ………(not /drop) litter in city, our city would be much cleaner. 4. If she ………(walk) to work, she wouldn’t be so unfit. 5. If you ……..(take) your bicycle, you would get there faster. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences . 1. If I had enough money, ………………………… 2. If I worked fever hours,…………………………… 3. If I were the president of my country,…………….. 51
  52. 52. 4. If I met my favourite film star,……………………….. 5. If I got lost in the mountains,…………………………. Lesson 17 Butter Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and frying. Butter consists of butterfat, water and milk proteins. Most frequently made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt, flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat. Butter is an emulsion which remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its color is dependent on the animal's feed and is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene. In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors. Commercial butter-making is a carefully-controlled operation. Commercial butter is about 80% butterfat and 15% water; traditionally-made butter may have as little as 65% fat and 30% water. Dairy products are often pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other microbes. Butter made from pasteurized fresh cream is called sweet cream butter. Production of sweet cream butter first became common in the 19th century, with the development of refrigeration and the mechanical cream separator. Butter made from fresh or cultured unpasteurized cream is called raw cream butter. Raw cream butter has a "cleaner" cream flavor, without the cooked-milk notes that pasteurization introduces. A French chemist claimed the prize with the invention of margarine in 1869. The first margarine was beef tallow flavored with milk and worked like butter; vegetable margarine followed after the development of hydrogenated oils around 1900. Vocabulary: spread. v. тарах, тархах,түрхэх, raw .adj. боловсруулаагүй claim .v. шаардах,нэхэмжлэх churn v. тос бүлэх, цохих hydrogen устөрөгч 52
  53. 53. Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is butter ? --------------------------- 2. What does butter consist of? --------------------------------- 3. How can be butter manufactured? ---------------------------------------- 4. What colors does butter have ? ---------------------------------------- 5. How is butter used ? -------------------------- 6. When did margarine invent ? ----------------------------------- 7. What is dependent on the animal's feed? -------------------------------------------------- Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Butter”. Grammar The Passive ( To be + past participle ) Active Passive Present simple She cleans the house The house is cleaned. Past simple She cleaned the house The house was cleaned Present perfect simple She has cleaned the house The house has been cleaned Future simple She will clean the house The house will be cleaned Modal She must clean the house The house must be cleaned. Exercise 1. Rewrite these sentences in the passive. 1. Did a French chemist invent the margarine in 1869. …………………………………………………….. 2. The company will offer guided tours. …………………………………………………… 3. They are holding a festival next month. …………………………………………………… 4. He has washed the car. 53

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