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Developing models for online guidance


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Presentation of a project dealing with developing a netsite for online guidance for teachers, and doing research on online guindance and counselling for primary school teachers. Presenting a text analysis study, with attempts to develop a model for online guidance and counselling.

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Developing models for online guidance

  1. 1. Analyzing problem explication, and a model for developing categories for understanding the counselling process. Jarle Sjoevoll Professor Øystein Lund Research Fellow Bodö University College
  2. 2. The purposes of our project: <ul><li>To develop a system for online guidance for Teachers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>german teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>norwegian teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. To obtain knowlege on online guidance and counselling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations to an online counselling service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The actual use of the site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing models for online guidance and counselling </li></ul></ul>
  3. 7. Other professional aspects <ul><li>Developing school as a learning organization </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen competence in obtaining – and giving help </li></ul><ul><li>Using principles from ”Blended learning” </li></ul><ul><li>Face to face and online – similarities and differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on some spesific aspects; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The teachers using “Teacher Forum” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The counsellers and the counselling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From being student teacher to being teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online professional guidance for developing inclusive education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional collaboration between small district schools </li></ul></ul>
  4. 8. The paper: <ul><li>Analyzing problem statements passed from teachers to ”Teachers Forum”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What issues are brought forward? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do the users of the forum express their questions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the users of ”Teachers forum” expect, and request? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Developing a model... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To help us understand the postings better? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a help to give better guidance and counselling? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 9. Theoretical aspects <ul><li>An phenomenological approach and understanding (Husserl...) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>” We know the world through experience” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberation from the understanding of an ”objective world” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Intention” – individuals seek to give all experience a meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Essence” – there is a core of meaning that is collectively shared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. A social constructivist approach to learning (Vygotskij...) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>” Learning happens when the culture is incorporated within the person” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Knowledge is constructed in the meeting between people” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” ....with language as bearer of the collective understanding” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 10. Methodology <ul><li>A phenomenological approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>” A living methodology and a dynamic inquiry” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” How a phenomenon is percieved for us from a first person perspective.....” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem statement is also a ”phenomenon” – percieved by the counseller... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Grounded theory: Empirical level -> Theory building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open coding - cathegorizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axial coding – seeing relations between cathegories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective coding – ”discovering” the core ”storyline” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 11. The nature of online communication... <ul><ul><li>Habermas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action as companion or successor of of linguistic expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expression through the body, mimicry and gestures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Bateson: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogue coding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic coding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital coding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Korsgaard Sorensen: ”Virtuality promotes reflection” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. Design and method <ul><li>18 randomly chosen postings from teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into ”meaning-units” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a sentence... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a part of a sentence... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two or more sentences... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyzed with a ”Grounded Theory”- based - ”Inductive” approach, adapted for this spesific purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul>
  9. 13. Design and method... <ul><li>Example.... (”open coding”) </li></ul><ul><li>I`m a female teacher, at 3. grade (code-ps) </li></ul><ul><li>In my class there is one student with aggressive behaviour(code-dp) </li></ul><ul><li>His family moved here threee months ago (code-ip) </li></ul><ul><li>He is shouting and throwing books when he fails to solve the problems in mathemathics. (code-ip) </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps I expect too much from him? (code-or) </li></ul><ul><li>His parents keep telling me he`s just lazy, (code-ip) </li></ul><ul><li>but I think he is struggeling with some difficulties. (code-rr) </li></ul><ul><li>What should I do? (code-ra) </li></ul>
  10. 14. What we ”found...” 8 13 Describing emotional reactions to the problem 4 8 Request for information on prof. issues 14 19 Recuest for (normative) advice 5 8 Critical perspective on own practice 6 9 Invitation to reflection on issues 5 7 Presenting own opinions on the situation 11 23 Description of own role in probl. situation 11 18 Presentation of own position 17 67 Description of problem situation 18 90 Present background information In number of postings Number of statem Cathegory
  11. 15. Approaching a model? Seeking personal support 13/8 Describing emotional reactions to the problem 8/4 Request for information on prof. issues Seeking professional support 19/14 Recuest for (normative) advice 8/5 Critical perspective on own practice Reflective statements 9/6 Invitation to reflection on issues 7/5 Presenting own opinions on the situation 23/11 Description of own role in probl. situation 18/11 Presentation of own position 67/17 Description of problem situation Problem description 90/18 Present background information ” Axial coding” Number* Cathegory
  12. 16. Reflecting on what we ”discovered”... (”Selective coding”.....) <ul><ul><li>Where are we – on these axes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue - monologue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection - instrumentalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual perspective – system perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal support – knowledge building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we use our knowledge? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. And what could come next? <ul><ul><li>Taking a similar look at the responses given to the same 18 postings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can they tell us? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing all responds given to the same 18 postings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from the team of counsellers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from peer teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let`s take a look... </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. 3 Statements presupposing one spesific action 4 Questions - with one single option 47 Normative, concrete advice Normative, concrete advice 70 Pointing to possible options of action 13 General information related to problem description 51 Opinions towards issues in problem description Knowledge dissemination 105 Generalized professional statements 18 Pointing to ways of understanding problem 6 Alternative perspectives Reflective feedback 22 Reflective questions 16 Re-formulation og problem description 19 Supplementary questions to problem description Problem – exploration 24 Reference to problem description 1 Acknowledging consultees judgement 16 Acknowledging consultees actions Acknowledgement 15 Giving emotional support 12 Encouraging to further dialogue 6 Commenting the problem statement as such Meta – communication 11 Commenting his/her own guidance Main Cathegory Number** Cathegory
  15. 19. Other ways to obtain information... <ul><li>Questionnnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use (Behaviour) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>It is possible to build models based on systematical elaboration on, and analysis of postings to the “Teachers Forum” </li></ul><ul><li>We think that such models can contribute to a greater extent of reflection on the process counselling and guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to reflect that online counselling has some basic differences compared to face-to-face counselling </li></ul><ul><li>Like in face-to-face counselling, we find a great variety of expectation and approaches to the field of counselling and guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary to use complementary methods to obtain information, for instance research interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>A phenomenological approach to this field, and a social constructivist understandling of learing has proved to be fruitful in our research so far. </li></ul>
  17. 23. Summer landscape just outside the city
  18. 25. Thank you