Anxiety disorders


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As i have a particular interest in anxiety disorders i had enjoyed making this presentations in all the different types of anxiety disorders.

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Anxiety disorders

  1. 1. Anxiety DisordersA brief look at the different types of Anxiety Disorderswhich may also be present in individuals with othermental health problems.This presentation will cover the well known anxietydisorders to ones which may not be so well known.
  2. 2. A Brief look at AD’s as a whole Anxiety disorders are severe and they should be taken seriously as well as a lot of mental distress caused by these illness’s (Depending on the individual sufferer) there is also physical symptoms which can occur.The viscious circle is usually consideredworse then the physical symptoms amongpatients.
  3. 3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD) All of us worry about things like health, money, or family problems. But people with GAD are extremely worried about theseand many other things, even when there is little or no reason to worry about them. They are very anxious about just getting throughthe day. They think things will always go badly. At times, worrying keeps people with GAD from doing everyday tasks. GAD develops slowly. It often starts during the teen years or young adulthood. Symptoms may get better or worse at differenttimes, and often are worse during times of stress. People with GAD may visit a doctor many times before they find out they have this disorder. They ask their doctors to helpthem with headaches or trouble falling asleep, which can be symptoms of GAD but they dont always get the help they need rightaway. It may take doctors some time to be sure that a person has GAD instead of something else. Symptoms - A person with GAD may: Worry very much about everyday things, Have trouble controlling their constant worries, Know that they worry much more than they should, Not be able to relax , Have a hard time concentrating, Be easily startled, Have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, Feel tired all the time, Have headaches, muscle aches, stomach aches, or unexplained pains , Have a hard time swallowing , Tremble or twitch, Be irritable, sweat a lot, and feel light-headed or out of breath and have to go to the bathroom a lot. Treatments – GAD is usually treated through medication or therapy or a combination of both. Therapy– A popular therapy for individuals with GAD is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) it is designed to help change the mind and the thoughts. Medications – There are two types of medications which doctors will usually prescribe for GAD these are Anti-anxiety medications and antidepressants. While it sounds more effective to use Anti-anxiety medications if the individual experiences depressive symptoms then antidepressants may be a better alternative as they also have anti-anxiety properties.
  4. 4. Panic DisorderPeople with panic disorder have sudden and repeated attacks of fear that last for several minutes. Sometimes symptoms maylast longer. These are called panic attacks. Panic attacks are characterized by a fear of disaster or of losing control even whenthere is no real danger. A person may also have a strong physical reaction during a panic attack. It may feel like having a heartattack. Panic attacks can occur at any time, and many people with panic disorder worry about and dread the possibility ofhaving another attack.A person with panic disorder may become discouraged and feel ashamed because he or she cannot carry out normal routineslike going to the grocery store or driving. Having panic disorder can also interfere with school or work.Panic disorder often begins in the late teens or early adulthood. More women than men have panic disorder. But not everyonewho experiences panic attacks will develop panic disorder. This disorder can be quite a frightful disorder due to the horribleeffects of panic attacks.Symptoms - Sudden and repeated attacks of fear , a feeling of being out of control during a panic attack, an intense worryabout when the next attack will happen, a fear or avoidance of places where panic attacks have occurred in the pastPhysical symptoms during an attack, such as a pounding or racing heart, sweating, breathing problems, weakness or dizziness,feeling hot or a cold chill, tingly or numb hands, chest pain, or stomach pain.Treatment – Again like GAD panic disorder can be treated through both a type of psychotherapy called CBT and mediciationssuch as anti-anxiety and antidepressants.NOTE:- There is also panic disorder with agoraphobia which is when a person experiences an unexpected panic attack,then has substantial anxiety over the possibility of having another attack. The person fears and avoids whatever situation mightinduce a panic attack. The person may never or rarely leave their home to prevent a panic attack they believe to be inescapable,extreme terror.
  5. 5. Some individuals may even experience anxiety by viewing an image of something that they may be scared of.Phobias incl. Agoraphobia Phobias are a condition which many people who don’t suffer from mental health problems have. It affects a lot of the population usually being a phobia or heights, spiders, going underground, going on lifts etc. A phobia is when anxiety is triggered through a specific stimulus or situation. Phobias are very interesting as it depends on the individual some phobias can be considered very abnormal. The sufferer usually knows that the fear is irrational but still receives an overwhelming amount of anxiety. While phobias are not as severe as other anxiety disorders they can actually be treated through certain therapies.Agoraphobia is the specific anxiety about being in a place or situation where escape is difficult or embarrassing or wherehelp may be unavailable. Agoraphobia is strongly linked with panic disorder and is often precipitated by the fear of havinga panic attack. A common manifestation involves needing to be in constant view of a door or other escape route. Inaddition to the fears themselves, the term agoraphobia is often used to refer to avoidance behaviors that sufferers oftendevelop. For example, following a panic attack while driving, someone suffering from agoraphobia may develop anxietyover driving and will therefore avoid driving. These avoidance behaviors can often have serious consequences; in severecases, one can be confined to ones home.Symptoms – Are that of standard anxiety feelings which are an intense feeling of panic and worry as well as physicalsymptomsTreatment – Treatment may be in the form of medications and/or therapy. Although Cognitive based therapies are moreeffective in the treatment of phobias/agoraphobia sometimes SSRI antidepressants may be used.
  6. 6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Everyone double checks things sometimes. For example, you might double check to make sure the stove or iron is turned off before leaving the house. But people with OCD feel the need to check things repeatedly, or have certain thoughts or perform routines and rituals over and over. The thoughts and rituals associated with OCD cause distress and get in the way of daily life. The frequent upsetting thoughts are called obsessions. To try to control them, a person will feel an overwhelming urge to repeat certain rituals or behaviors called compulsions. People with OCD cant control these obsessions and compulsions. For many people, OCD starts during childhood or the teen years. Most people are diagnosed by about age 19. Symptoms of OCD may come and go and be better or worse at different times. Symptoms - Have repeated thoughts or images about many different things, such as fear of germs, dirt, or intruders; acts of violence; hurting loved ones; sexual acts; conflicts with religious beliefs; or being overly tidy, Do the same rituals over and over such as washing hands, locking and unlocking doors, counting, keeping unneeded items, or repeating the same steps again and again , Cant control the unwanted thoughts and behaviors, Dont get pleasure when performing the behaviors or rituals, but get brief relief from the anxiety the thoughts cause, Spend at least 1 hour a day on the thoughts and rituals, which cause distress and get in the way of daily life. Causes - OCD sometimes runs in families, but no one knows for sure why some people have it, while others dont. Researchers have found that several parts of the brain are involved in fear and anxiety. By learning more about fear and anxiety in the brain, scientists may be able to create better treatments. Researchers are also looking for ways in which stress and environmental factors may play a role. Treatment – OCD is usually treated through both a mix of medication and therapy although for some just one or the other may be enough. Anti-anxiety medications may be prescribed as well as antidepressants.
  7. 7. Social Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety is when an individual fears social situations such as public speaking, attending parties, anywhere where there is a large crowd. This psychological symptom is actually more common then you may think. Social Anxiety Disorder is a more severe form where the sufferer not only feels the same as the above but also has social anxiety in nearly any social situation from even being into a one-to-one conversation, walking down the street, entering shops or sometimes even speaking to friends. They may get so paranoid that they feel they are centre stage just simply walking down the street thinking everyone is watching them, the anxiety disorder also appears to have a lot of paranoid traits. While the sufferer usually understands the fear is irrational the overwhelming amount of panic and anxiety is enough to make them housebound. Symptoms - Be very anxious about being with other people and have a hard time talking to them, even though they wish they could, Be very self-conscious in front of other people and feel embarrassed, Be very afraid that other people will judge them, Worry for days or weeks before an event where other people will be , Stay away from places where there are other people, Have a hard time making friends and keeping friends , Blush, sweat, or tremble around other people and feel nauseous or sick to their stomach when with other people. Causes – The actual cause of SAD is unknown although it is believed to run through families. Treatment – Social Anxiety Disorder needs to be treated as soon as possible (even if it involves the daunting effortof entering a doctors practice) because the condition can worsen over time. Treatment through therapy and medications.In psychotherapy through CBT the therapist will try and battle the thoughts and encourage the sufferer to do small tasks inorder to build up the tolerance level compared to going down and being housebound. Medications are in the form ofantidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs.
  8. 8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD) PTSD is an anxiety disorder that some people get after seeing or living through a dangerous event. When in danger, it’s natural to feel afraid. This fear triggers many split-second changes in the body to prepare to defend against the danger or to avoid it. This “fight-or-flight” response is a healthy reaction meant to protect a person from harm. But in PTSD, this reaction is changed or damaged. People who have PTSD may feel stressed or frightened even when they’re no longer in danger. Symptoms – Three types; Avoidance, Re-experiencing and Hyperarousal symptoms Re-experiencing Symptoms - Flashbacks—reliving the trauma over and over, including physical symptoms like a racing heart or sweating, Bad dreams and Frightening thoughts. Avoidance Symptoms - Staying away from places, events, or objects that are reminders of the experience, Feeling emotionally numb, Feeling strong guilt, depression, or worry. Losing interest in activities that were enjoyable in the past andHaving trouble remembering the dangerous event. Hyperarousal Symptoms - Being easily startled,Feeling tense or “on edge” andHaving difficulty sleeping, and/or having angry outbursts. Treatment - The main treatments for people with PTSD are psychotherapy, medications, or both. Each individual is different, so a treatment that works for one person may not work for another. It is important for anyone with PTSD to be treated by a mental health care provider who is experienced with PTSD. Some people with PTSD need to try different treatments to find what works for their symptoms. If someone with PTSD is going through an ongoing trauma, such as being in an abusive relationship, both of the problems need to be treated. Other ongoing problems can include panic disorder, depression, substance abuse, and feeling suicidal.
  9. 9. Seperation Anxiety Disorder Separation anxiety disorder refers typically to younger children who are extremely unwilling to separate from major attachment figures (e.g., parents grandparents, older siblings) or from home. The threat of having to separate from a caregiver often results in anxiety as well, such as when parents plan to go out for the evening and leave the child with a sitter. It is also important to note that sufferers of this disorder can also be adults who have excessive worries about leaving people or places to which they feel attached too. A more stronger form of not liking change. Symptoms - Excessive worry about potential harm toward oneself (e.g., getting sick at school) or one’s primary caregivers (e.g., being in a car accident). The child may also avoid activities that may result in separation from parents. Nightmares and somatic complaints are common, inducing trembling, headaches, stomachaches, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain and sweating. In adults the symptoms will be similar towards places such as not wanting to change jobs even if they don’t like it as they feel attached too it as well as with other people. Treatment – Cognitive based treatments are usually a successful option and if in conjunction with other symptoms/disorders then possible anti-anxiety drugs (especially in adults)
  10. 10. Child Anxiety Disorders Child anxiety disorders can be a form of any of the past illness’s described with additional anxiety problems such as selective mutism where the child is unable to speak in certain circumstances. Symptoms are usually the same as with adult anxieties only a lot more crying and discomfort may be evident. Treatments – Usually in the form of psychotherapy, child and adolescent counselling etc. Medications are usually avoided with children but in some severe circumstances such as the condition showing no change after psychological treatments then small dosages of medications can be used. However, in a lot of the conditions such as selective mutism the child usually tends to “grow out” of them and the symptoms seem to fade away by early adolescence to late adolescence.
  11. 11. OtherFacts on Anxiety Disorders According to research, anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the United States which unlikely affect 40 million adult Americans normally aging 18 and up. What’s more frustrating to discover is, that 40 million is actually already 18.1% of the U.S. total population. The use of health care services for people with anxiety disorders actually costs more than $22.84 billion. Studies show that individuals with an anxiety disorder are more likely to go to the doctor three to five times and six times more likely to go to the hospital for check up or therapy, specifically when compared to normal healthy individuals.Further reading More presentations, articles and writings are produced on slideshare, issuu and my personal website at As a mental health professional I have a particular interest in anxiety disorders. If there is any questions or if you want to contact me then you can at or