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Unit 3

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Unit 3

  1. 1. - 92 - UNIT 3  Ibrahim’s Memory: What is Ibrahim’s memory like? He has got a very good memory for some things for example; He is good at remembering names. This is very is very useful for him, because he is a teacher and he often needs to remember students’ names. So, if he had 40 students in a new class, he'd know all their names by the end of his second lesson with them. You may say “That’s very clever! How does he do that?” It’s quite easy. He asks each student to say their name while he looks at them. He repeats the name, then he closes his eyes and say the name three times to himself. After this he goes around the class and says all the names aloud the students are very surprised if he gets their names right. ------------------------------------------------------  Ali’s Memory : What is Ali’s memory like? He has photographic memory for numbers. If he looked at a list of people’s phone numbers, He could repeat them to you a few minutes later. That must be useful. How does he do that? He doesn’t know but he has always found it very easy. Ibrahim tested Ali, Ibrahim showed Ali a list of ten names and phone numbers, He looked at them then Ibrahim hid the numbers and read out the names on the list and immediately Ali said them back to him. Ibrahim was surprised and said, ”The human brain is really incredible, isn’t it” ------------------------------------------------------  The Human brain Brains compared with computers You have something that is more complex than the most powerful computer. With it you can see and smell flowers, remember holidays, feel pain, hear your favourite singer’s voice and think. This thing, which is in your head and weighs a kilo, is your brain. How the brain controls what we do Your brain has about a hundred billion (100,000.000.000) cells, and controls everything you do. It receives information from your senses, analyses it, then sends messages. For example, when you put your hand in hot water, you think. “That hurts” and you take your hand out of the water. Your brain receives the message,“Very hot" from your
  2. 2. - 03 - hand, then immediately sends a message back to your hand, Take your hand out of the water." The importance of all the senses Our senses often work together. For example, try the experiment. Cut a piece of apple, banana and orange. Close your eyes, hold your nose, then taste the fruit. Can you taste the difference between the fruits? Probably not. This is because when you eat something, your brain receives messages from your mouth, eyes and nose. Examples of what the brain can do Your brain also stores past, memories and this makes learning and remembering possible. At the same time, your brain controls your breathing, your heart, your body temperature and your digestion. It's important to guess When you hear a sound, your brain tries to guess where it is coming from. So, if you hear a ringing sound and see a telephone, your brain may guess that the telephone is ringing. But if someone picks up the phone and the ringing sound continues, your brain will guess again. Maybe it's a mobile phone or a film on TV. Holes and bails If you look at the picture, you will see an X made of balls. Around the X are holes. If you turn the picture the other way, you will see that the X is made of holes and around it there are balls. Why is this? Scientists say that our brains always think that light comes downwards, perhaps because sunlight comes down. Now look at the picture again where is the lightest part of each ball or hole? Definitions  1 1-- Cllass :: طلاب فصل دراسىىسارد لصف بلاط - A group of people who study together. 2-- IIncrediiblle ((adjj)) :: غير معقول لوقعم ريغ –– يصدققدصي لا - Difficult or impossible to believe. 3-- Password :: كلمة الســـررـــسلا ةملك - A special word you need before you enter something or use a computer.
  3. 3. - 03 - 4-- Phottographiic memory :: ذاكرة فوتوغرافية ةيفارغوتوف ةركاذ - Being able to remember something by looking at it. 5-- Repeatt :: يردد ددري –– يكرررركي - Say again. 6-- Anallyse ((v)) :: يُحللللحُي - Examine or think about something carefully to understand it. 7-- Breatthe ((v)) :: يتنفس سفنتي - Take air into your lungs and let it out again. 8-- Cellll ((n)) :: زنزانة ةنازنز - A small room in a police station or prison where people are kept. 9-- Cellll ((n)) :: خليةةيلخ - The smallest part of an animal or plant that can exist on its own. 1 10-- Paiin ((n)) :: ألم ملأ - The feeling you have when part of your body hurts. 1 111-- Powerffull ((adjj)) :: قوى ىوق - Having a lot of physical power, strength or force. 1 12-- Temperatture ((n)) :: درجة الحرارةةرارحلا ةجرد - How hot or cold something is. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Vocabulary : * power (n) : طاقة قوة – * powerful (adj) : قوى * date (n) : تاريخ * free time = spare time: وقت الفراغ * immediately (adv) : فى الحال * sunlight (n) : ضؤ الشمس * list (n) : قائمة * credible (adj) : معقول ≠ incredible : غير معقول * together : معا * mind : العقل * distance (n) : مسافة عن بعد – * pen-friend : صديق مراسلة * senses (n) : حواس * heart (n) : القلب * phrase(n) : عبارة شبه جملة – * memories (n) : ذكريات * badly (adv) : بشكل سئ ≠ well : بشكل جيد * calculator : ألة حاسبة * brain : المخ * surprised (adj) : مندهش * complex=complicated: معقد * gas (n) : غاز * suggestion (n) : إقتراح * digestion (n) : هضم ≠ indigestion : عسر هضم * remember : يتذكر ≠ forget : ينسى * eyesight : نظر * ambulance : عربة إسعاف
  4. 4. - 09 - * (digest(v)– ed– ed): يهضم * digestion (n) : هضم * digestible (adj) : يمكن هضمه * digestive (adj) : هضمى * aloud (adj) : صوت عالى * ( attach (v)– ed – ed ) : يوصل * (believe (v)– d – d) : يعتقد * glasses (n) : نظارة * gym (n) : صالة ألعاب رياضية * (hide(v)– hid– hidden): يختفى يخبئ – * holes (n) : حفر * idea (n) : فكرة * ( imagine (v) – d – d ) : يتخيل * message (n) : رسالة * modest (adj) = humble: متواضع * conceited (adj) : مغرور * possible : ممكن * receptacle (n) : وعاء حامل – * store (n) : مخزن * (store (v) – d – d) : يخزن * control (v) : يتحكم * (disappoint(v)–ed– ed): يخيب أمل * disappointment (n) : خيبة الأمل * disappointed (adj) : خائب الأمل * boastful : تباهى * ( continue (v) – d – d ) : يستمر * easy (adj) : سهل * (receive(v) – d – d): يستلم * recent (adj) = modern : حديث * recently (adv) : حديثا * holiday (n) : أجازة * information : معلومات * maths (n) : رياضيات * memories (n) : ذكريات * memory (n) : ذاكرة * partner (n) : شريك * pain (n) : ألم * painful (adj) : مؤلم * pick up (v) : يلتقط * downwards (adv) : لأسفل * terrible (adj) : فظيع * (touch(v)– ed– ed): يلمس * useless (adj) : بلا فائدة * title (n): عنوان مقال أو كتاب * (concentrate(v)– d – d): يركز * concentration (n) : تركيز * concentrated(adj) : مُركز * address (n) : عنوان * around (adv) : حول * e-mail : بريد إلكترونى * ( guess (v) – ed – ed ) : يخمن * keep fit : يظل لائقا * (pronounce(v) – d – d): ينطق * pronunciation (n) : نطق * (hold (v) – held – held): يمسك * learning (n) : التعلم * light (n) : ضؤ * light (adj) : خفيف * reply to : يرد على * second (n) : ثانية * (send (v) – sent – sent) : يرسل * special : خاص ≠ public : عام * specific (adj) : محدد * (delete (v) – d – d): يحذف * sure (adj) : متأكد * come from : تأتى من ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Note The Following * easy to remember : يمكن تذكره بسهولة * make sure (v) : يتأكد * by the end of : قبيل نهاية * key to : مفتاح لــ * concentrate on : يركز على * get ( hot / cold ) : يزداد حرارة برودة – * take out of : يخرج * taste the difference : تذوق الفرق * do experiment : يقوم بتجربة عملية * do well : يؤدى جيدا * learn + ) شئ ( + for a test : يتعلم شئ من أجل الإختبار * good at : جيد فى * bad at : سئ فى * terrible at : فظيع فى * turn + )شئ( + the other way : يقلب الشئ رأسا على عقب * memory for : ذاكرة لـــ * answer to : ردا على * help me with : ساعد فى -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  5. 5. - 00 - What is the difference Between ….. ? * Sound (n) :صوت ) الأشياء ( * Voice (n) : صوت الإنسان Exs: - The sound of the engine is terrible. - Amr Diab has a sweet voice. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- * ( remember (v) – ed – ed ) :يتذكر شئ بنفسه * ( remind (v) – ed – ed ) :يتذكر شئ بواشطة شخص * ( mention (v) – ed – ed ) :يذكر Exs: - I remembered to close the door. - Mum reminded me to do my homework. - Can you mention some European countries ? ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Verbs & Nouns Verbs Nouns Close a door & a window & a shop & your eyes & an e-mail Guess someone’s age & the answer to a question & the result & the place Receive a letter & an e-mail & a phone call & a message & a guest & a present & a visit Send a letter & an e-mail & a message & greetings & an invitation & a postcard & a cable & a telegram Have a shower & a bath & a meal & a drink & a discussion & an accident & lunch & a rest & a headache ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Language Functions ( 1 ) Offering Help : عرض المساعدة * I will + المصدر * I will do what I can to + المصدر * I can + المصدر Exs: - I will lend you my dictionary. - I will do what I can to help you learn the new vocabulary. - I can show you how to make a list of the new words.
  6. 6. - 03 - ( 2 ) Giving Advice : إعطاء النصيحة * You should + ) المصدر ( * You shouldn’t + ) المصدر ( * You mustn’t + ) المصدر ( * If I were you, I would + ) المصدر ( * If I were you, I wouldn’t + ) المصدر ( Exs: - You should learn vocabulary for the test. - You mustn’t neglect the new words. - If I were you, I would study hard. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Accepting & Not Accepting Advice قبول أو رفض النصيحة Accepting Advice قبول النصيحة Not Accepting Advice رفض النصيحة - OK. I will. - I think you’re right. - Certainly, I will do. - That’s right. - Yes, I should. - I don’t think so - No, I won’t. - Certainly, not. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ( 3 ) Suggestions : الإقتراحات * Why don’t ( you / we ) + ) التصريف الأول ( + …. ? * You could + ) المصدر ( + …. * ( What about / How about ) + ( v + ing ) + …. ? Exs: - Why don’t you make a list of the new words ? - You could repeat the words to learn them. - What about making a vocabulary book ? ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ( 4 ) Expressing opinion : التعبير عن الرأى * I think + ……………………… * I think you should + ) المصدر ( + …………… * In my opinion + ……………………… Exs: - I think Ali plays the guitar well. - I think you should study for the test. - In my opinion, students should learn new vocabulary. -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  7. 7. - 03 - Writing e-mail Layout To : …………………………………… إسم المرسل إليه و عنوان البريد الإليكترونى From : …………………………………… إسم كاتب الرسالة و عنوان البريد الإليكترونى subject : ………………………………… موضوع الرسالة Dear ………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..… Sendername إسم الراسل …………………………………………………………………… To : ahmedfadel20002002@hotmail.com From : Ali_Salem@yahoo.com subject : My news Dear ahmed I did very badly in my last English test because I didn't know enough words and phrases. My parents were very disappointed. The problem is I'm terrible at learning and remembering vocabulary. Do you have any suggestions? I hope you can help me. Best wishes Ali ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Language Functions Talking about our own abilities in English, we should sound modest rather than boastful about what we can do. عند التحدث عن قدراتنا من الأفضل أن نبدو متواضعين بدلاً من التباهى بما نستطيع فعله  To sound modest, say: - I’m quite good at ......... - I’m not bad at ..............  Don’t say ................... : - I’m very good at .............. - I’m fantastic at ................
  8. 8. - 03 - Senses : الحواس Sight الرؤية [ beautiful / ugly / blunt / rotten ] Smell الشم [ delicious / fishy / rotten / sour ] Feeling الإحساس [ blunt / cold / hot / sharp / smooth ] Hearing السمع [ beautiful / noisy / quiet ] Taste التذوق [hot / salty / smoky/ fishy/ delicious] --------------------------------------------------------------------- sQuestions & Answer 1- What is the thing that you have in your head that is more powerful than the most powerful computer? ----» It is my brain that is more powerful than the most powerful computer. 2- What can you do with your brain? ----» You can see, smell flowers, remember holidays, feel pain, hear your favourite singer's voice and think. 3- How much does the brain weigh? ----» It weighs a kilo. 4- How many cells does your brain have? ----» It has about a hundred billion cells. 5- What does your brain control? ----» It controls everything you do. It receives information from your senses, analyses it, then sends messages back. 6- What happens when you put your hand in hot water? ----» My brain receives the message "very hot" from my hand, then immediately sends a message back to my hand ' Take your hand out of the water". 7- Why is it difficult to taste different fruits if you hold your nose and close your eyes? ----» Because our senses often work together. 8- What happens when you eat something? ----» When I eat something, my brain receives messages from my mouth, eyes and nose. 9- How does your brain help you learn and remember? ----» My brain stores past memories and this makes learning and remembering possible. 10- What does the brain control? ----» It controls one's breathing, heart, body temperature and digestion.
  9. 9. - 03 - Creative Questions 11- What five senses does the brain receive information from? ----» The ears, the eyes, the skin, the mouth and the nose. 12- Do we all like the same things that we see, hear and taste? Why? ----» No, we don't like the same things that we see, hear and taste because of individual differences. 13- Which of the five senses, do you think, is the most important? ----» I think "sight", is the most important of the five senses. 14- How would life be different without the sense of sight? ----» Life would be very difficult. We wouldn't be able to read books, watch TV, enjoy nature or cross the street. 15- How can we help people who have lost one of their senses? ----» By having specially trained teachers who are able to deal with them and develop their knowledge and skills. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Creative Questions 1- Why do brains think that light comes downwards ? ----» Because the natural light from the sun always comes from above. 2- Do we all have the same things that we see; hear and taste ? ----» No, each one of us has his own opinion. 3- How can we help people who have lost one of the senses ? ----» By inventing devices that will help them to make up for what they have lost. 4- How does the brain help us to learn and remember ? ----» It acts as a store for past memories. 5- What happens when you put your hand in hot water ? ----» The brain receives a message saying the water is very hot and sends a message back to the person saying “take your hand out of the water”. 6- Why is it difficult to taste different fruits if you hold your nose and close your eyes ? ----» Because the brain won’t receive any messages. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  10. 10. - 03 - Grammar If : إذا لو – If ( Zero ) If ( Zero ) Present Simple Present Simple مضارع بسيط مضارع بسيط Ex: - If we heat a bar of metal, it expands. - If water is frozen, it turns into ice. - If I feel tired, I go to bed. - تستخدم الحالة الصفرية للتعبير عن أحداث واقعية أو حقائق علمية . --------------------------------------------------------------------------- If ( 1 ) If ( 1 ) Present Simple (will / can / may) + ) المصدر ( مضارع بسيط Exs: - تستخدم الحالة الأولى للتعبير عن حدث مستقبلى . - If Ali trains hard, he will win the match. - تعبر عن عمل توقعات ووعود فى المستقبل . - If I find his phone number, I’ll ring you. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- If ( 2 ) If ( 2 ) Past Simple (would / could / might) + ) المصدر ( ماضى بسيط Exs: - تستخدم الحالة الثانية للتعبير عن موقف خيالى أو غير حقيقى . - If you fell, you would hurt yourself. - تعبر عن شئ غير محتمل حدوثه . - If I had a lot of money, I’d buy a new car. - تعبر عن إعطاء النصيحة . - If I were you, I’d give up smoking. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- If ( 3 ) If ( 3 ) Past Perfect (would / could / might) + have + P.P ماضى تام
  11. 11. - 02 - - تعبر عن مواقف مستحيلة لأنها لم تحدث فى الماضى . Exs: - If he had run quickly, he’d have won the race. - If he had played well, he wouldn’t have lost the match. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- * عند إستخدام ( If ) لربط جملتين .... نتبع الخطوات التالية : 3 نحدد الرابط بين الجملتين . - إذا كان الرابط بين الجملتين - ( so & therefore & thus & consequently ) ... يحذف الرابط ولا نعكس الجملتين . إذا كان الرابط بين الجملتين - ( because & since & as ) ... يحذف الرابط ونعكس الجملتين . 9 تحديد الحالة لــ - ( If ) . إذا كان زمن الجملة الأولى مستقبل أو أمر ..... نستخدم الحالة الأولى . - إذا كان زمن الجملة الأولى مضارع ..... نستخدم الحالة الثانية . - إذا كان زمن الجملة الأولى ماضى ..... نستخدم الحالة الثالثة . - 0 ننفى المثبت ونثبت المنفى . - ) من الممكن الإستغناء عن هذه الخطوة إذا كانت الحالة المستخدمة لــ ( If ) هى الحالة الأولى ( Exs: * Perhaps he will come tomorrow. If so, I’ll meet him. ( If ) ----» If he comes tomorrow, I will meet him. * Hurry up or you won’t catch the train. ( If ) ----» If you hurry up, you will catch the train. لاحظ  إذا كان الرابط بين الجملتين ( or ) ... نحذف الرابط ... تتغير جملة واحدة من الجملتين من حيث النفى والإثبات . * He doesn’t take any exercise, so he is fat. ( If ) ----» If he took some exercise, he wouldn’t be fat. * She didn’t study hard, so she failed the exam. ( If ) ----» If she had studied hard, she wouldn’t have failed the exam. * He isn’t rich, so he won’t buy the car. ( If ) ----» If he were rich, he would buy the car. لاحظ  إذا كان فعل الجملة الأولى ( am / is / are ) .... تحول إلى ( were ) مع جميع الضمائر . --------------------------------------------------------------------------- If In case of Without = But for + + ( v + ing ) & ( Noun ) ( v + ing ) & ( Noun ) Exs: * If he studied hard, he would join the faculty of medicine. ( In case of ) ----» In case of studying hard, he would join the faculty of medicine. حالة الإستحالة تحل محل ( If ) فى النفى تحل محل ( If ) فى الإثبات
  12. 12. - 33 - * If she doesn’t attend the party, she won’t see the movie star. ( Without ) ----» Without attending the party, she won’t see the movie star. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Without = But for If it weren’t for If it hadn’t been for Exs: * Without his apology, I wouldn’t forgive him. ( If it ) ----» If it weren’t for his apology, I wouldn’t forgive him. * But for playing well, El-Ahly wouldn’t have won the cup. ( If it ) ----» If it hadn’t been for playing well, El-Ahly wouldn’t have won the cup. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Unless = If not  عند إستخدام ( Unless ) بدلا من ( If ) ... نعكس حالة إحدى الجملتين ) سواء كانت فعل الشرط أو جواب الشرط ( من حيث النفى والاثبات ... مع ملاحظة الحفاظ على الجملة التى تلى ( Unless ) ) أى فعل الشرط ( مثبتا . Exs: * If you didn’t read the book carefully, you wouldn’t understand it. ( Unless ) ----» Unless you read the book carefully, you wouldn’t understand it. * If Ali studied hard, he would join the faculty of medicine. ( Unless ) ----» Unless Ali studied hard, he wouldn’t join the faculty of medicine. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Note The Following If ( 1 ) Should : من الممكن أن تحل - ( Should ) بدلا من ( If ) وتصبح القاعدة كالآتى : Should + ) الفاعل ( + ) المصدر ( Ex: * If she studies hard, she will get high marks. ( Should ) ----» Should she study hard, she will get high marks. فى الحالة الثانية فى الحالة الثالثة Should Were Had فى الحالتين الأولى والثانية
  13. 13. - 33 - 2- Were : من الممكن أن تحل - ( Were ) بدلا من ( If ) بطريقتين : 3 إذا كانت - ( Were ) موجودة فى الجملة تحول الجملة بالطريقة التالية : Were + ) الفاعل ( + ………….. Ex: * If she were a doctor, she would help us. ( Were ) ----» Were she a doctor, she would help us. 9 إذا كانت - ( Were ) غير موجودة فى الجملة تحول الجملة بالطريقة التالية : Were + ) الفاعل ( + to + ) المصدر ( Ex: * If he trained well, he would win the cup. ( Were ) ----» Were he to train well, he would win the cup. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3- Had : من الممكن أن تحل - ) Had( بدلا من ( If ) وتصبح القاعدة كالآتى : Had + ) الفاعل ( + ………… Ex: * If he had played the match well, he would have won the cup. ( Had ) ----» Had he played the match well, he would have won the cup. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- فى الحالة الثانية فى الحالتين الثانية والثالثة
  14. 14. - 39 - Review A Interviewer : Mike, can you tell us something about yourself? Champion : Yes, sure. Interviewer : Where are you from? Champion : Well, I was born in Texas and lived there until I was 17. Now I live in New York. Interviewer : And do you work there? Champion : Yes, I do, but I also work in many other places. Interviewer : And is it true that you earn all your money from your memory? Champion : Yes, that's right. I do shows all over America and in other parts of the world. Interviewer : So, what do you do in your shows? Champion : Well, I answer people's questions. But before I begin, I introduce myself to everyone who conies to the show. They tell me their names and where they're from. Interviewer : How many people come to your shows? Champion : Oh, five or six hundred - sometimes more. Last night there were more than a thousand people. Interviewer : Really? Champion : Then / make a promise, I tell people that if they ask me a question and tell me their name, I'll remember their name and use it when I answer their question. If I forget, I'll give the person 1,00 dollars. Interviewer : And how much do you have to pay at the end of a show? Champion : Nothing. I've never had to give any money. At a show two weeks ago, I forgot someone's name for a few seconds, but then I remembered it. Interviewer : Mike Champion, thank you very much for talking to me. ----------------------------------------------------- Friends Abdullah and Ibrahim have been friends for a long time. They are the same age. Their families are good friends. They go to the same school. They both want to go to university and become teachers. They both enjoy athletics and swimming. Ibrahim is good at science and Abdullah is better at English. This is useful because they can help each other. Their families go on holidays together. They spend a lot of free time together. Last year, they went on a fantastic sailing holiday. They have very different characters. Ibrahim is a calm and relaxed person while Abdullah gets excited and worries about everything.
  15. 15. - 30 - They hope they will always be best friends and when they become parents and grandparents one day, their children and grandchildren will play together and be best friends, too. ----------------------------------------------------- Questions and answers 1- How long have Abdullah and Ibrahim been friends? ----» They have been friends for a long time. 2- Do they have different or similar characters? ----» They have different characters. 3- What did Ibrahim and Abdullah use to do when they were children? ----» They used to play together. 4- How do you explain the fact that Abdullah and Ibrahim are such good friends? ----» They like doing the same things. For example, they both enjoy athletics and swimming. 6- How are the characters of Abdullah and Ibrahim different? ----» They are different as Ibrahim is a calm, relaxed person while Abdullah gets excited very easily and worries about everything. 7- How do their families meet? ----» They sometimes go on holiday together, so they spend a lot of free time together. 8- What is Ibrahim's hope? ----» He hopes they will be best friends and their children and grandchildren will play together and be best friends, too. 9- What is your idea of a friend? ----» A Mend should be helpful, sincere and thoughtful. 10- Do you have a best friend? How is he / she special? ----» Yes, he is helpful and always gives me useful advice. 11- Do you agree that we are often best friends with people who are very different from ourselves? ----» I agree because if a friend is good at one subject and the other is good at another subject, they can help each other. If their characters are different, they don't always agree with each other but they are best friends because they integrate. 12- What is your definition of a good friend? ----» A friend is someone I know well and enjoy spending time with. He cares for my problems and helps me to solve them.
  16. 16. - 33 - 13- Do you think it is good to sometimes disagree with your friends? Why / Why not? ----» I think it is good to sometimes disagree with my friends so that everyone knows the best to do. 14- Do you have a friend? How long have you known bun / her? ----» Yes, I have a sincere friend. I have known him for a long time since we were at primary school together. 15- What is your friend good at? Are you good at the same things? ----» We are not good at the same things at school. My friend is good at science and I am better at English, so we can help each other. 16- What is your friend like? Is this the same as you? ----» He is funny and optimistic. He is not the same as me because I'm nervous and worry about everything. 17- What are your hopes for the future? Will you be friends in the future? ----» We hope we'll always be best friends and our children and grandchildren will play together and be best friends, too. -----------------------------------------------------

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