American CarnivalSideshow Banners:Exploring both sides of the canvasLawrence McElroyJohns Hopkins UniversityApril 24, 2013...
The Canvas Wall Between UsPete Kortes Side Show, circa 1948. Photo: The Circus Blog
The Canvas Wall Between UsThe carnival sideshows which criss-crossed the American continent during theirheyday, all utiliz...
Human Freaks. Photo: Defending Freak Shows.
Bannerline. Photo: Sideshow World.
Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus. Date: 1919.Photo: Sideshow WorldHagenbeck Wallace Circus Sideshow.Photo: Sidesho...
Animal Annex. Photo: Sideshow World.
The first section of “Exploring theOther Side of the Canvas” highlightsnotable sideshow banner artists andcontains biograp...
Photos: Sideshow World
Photos: Sideshow World
“Cavalcade World of Wonders”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Cult of WeirdThe Art of Sideshow Banner Painting
Some sideshow banner painters were remarkably talented, and their work often incorporatedelements associated with fine art...
“Monkeys”. Artist: Nieman EismanPhoto: Sideshow World
“Monkeys”. Artist: Nieman EismanPhoto: Sideshow World“Bright Picture 1913”. Artist: Wassily Kandinsky.Photo: Stavros Pavli...
“Snake Charmer”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Eric Reber
“Snake Charmer”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Eric Reber“Odalisque With Slave.Artist: Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.Date: 1839-1...
“Monkeys-Porcupines”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson. Size: 93 in x 116 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
“Exotic Moroccan Moments”. Artist: UnknownPhoto: Eric Reber
“Damascus Dancers” by Kimball & Sterling.Artist: Unknown. Size: 13’6” x 11’3”Photo: Live Auctioneers
“Yogy Ray”. Artist – Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World
“Electric Wonder”. Artist: Jack Cripe. Circa 1950. Size: 120 in x 120 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
“Tattooed Girl”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Wisconsin Historical Society.
“Champion Sword Swallower”. Artist: Nieman Eisman (attributed)Photo: Amusing the Zillion
“Barker at a sideshow at the Rutland Fair, Rutland, Vermont”.Photo: Library of CongressThe Magnetism of Sideshow Banners
Sideshow banners were not originally intended to be admired as works of art. Theywere designed to stop traffic on the carn...
“Human Paradox”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Size: 94 in x 120 in. Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Upside Down Family”. Artist: Unk...
“Strange Girls”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Side Show Banner Gallery“As Strange As It Seems”. Artist: Unknown.Size: 94 in x 12...
Sideshow Audience. Circa 1930’s.Photo: Sideshow WorldThe Other Side of the Canvas:What Will You See ?Two girls on the midw...
The imagery and messages contained in the banners exhibited in this section areshockingly insensitive and offensive. The a...
Racial discrimination and strife were unfortunate hallmarks of the past century inAmerica, and exaggerated images of racia...
“The Gorilla Men”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World
“Aztec Indian”. Artist: Snap Wyatt. Size: 90 in x 114 in.Photo: Sideshow World“Missing Link”. Artist : Fred G. Johnson. Ci...
Arthur Dove, Untitled from Sketch“Ubangi Savages Featured with the Al. G. Barnes CircusSeason, 1932”. Photo: Sideshow Worl...
“African Witch Doctor”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Sideshow Banner Gallery“Strange Little People”. Artist: T. Frank.Size: 1...
Lobster Boy, Fat Lady, Penguin Boy, Half-Girl,Pinhead & Other EpithetsPersons with physical or mental disabilities were eq...
“Lobster Boy”. Artist: Snap Wyatt. Date: 1950.Size: 117 in x 139 in. Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
“Father & Daughter”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Cult of WeirdGrady Stiles, Jr. was born with a congenitalabnormality k...
Arthur Dove, Untitled from Sketchbook “E”, ci“Marie Armless Girl”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Sideshow World.“Louise the Ar...
Jeannie Tomaini, billed as the “Half-Girl” was married to Al Tomaini “TheGiant”. The couple retired fromsuccessful careers...
“Bob Melvin”. Photo: Sideshow World.“Two-Faced Man”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: The Antique Circus.
“Percilla – Monkey Girl”.Photo: Sideshow World“Brenda Beatty”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Cult of Weird.
“Milroy’s Disease”.Photo: Anatomy Box“Ralph the Elephant Boy”. Artist: Millard & Bulsterbaum.Photo: Sideshow World.
“Stanley Berent – Seal Boy”.Photo: Sideshow World.“Penguin Boy”. Artist: Jack Cripe. Size: 137 in x 114 in.Photo: Carl Ham...
“Frog Boy”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World. “They Are Married”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Date: circa 1950. Size: 115 in x...
“Alligator Skin Girl”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Sideshow World.Emmet Bejano suffered from a skincondition known as “Ichth...
“The Moon Man”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World“Multiple Neurofibromatosis”.Photo: Dermatlas.
“Circus Fat Lady”. Photo: FiveHundred Pound Peep.“World’s Fattest Man”. Artist: Snap Wyatt. Size: 238 in x 83 in.Photo: Ca...
“Teenie Weenie Comedians”. Artist: Unknown. Size: 94 in x 120 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Giant Ladies”.Photo: Sideshow ...
“Prince Arthur Midget”. Artist: Jack Sigler. Date: 1950.Size: 105 in x 113 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery.
“Pinhead”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Cult of Weird.Schlitzie Surtees was born Simon Metz, in theBronx, New York. Bill...
“Hoo La La”. Artist: P. Barnett. Size: 92 in x 113 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Hoo La La”: Sex, Sexism and the Exotic
The final section of the exhibition features sideshow banners which blatantlyexploited female sexuality. The female body h...
“Black Mask”. Artist: Snap Wyatt (attributed).Photo: First Dibs.“Dance of Death”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Date: circa 1950...
“Andrea”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World.
“Tanagra Live Mermaid”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Museum Syndicate.“The Mermaid”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson. Size: 94 i...
“Cleo Moon Girl”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Size: 138 in x 119 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Mona”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Size: 138 ...
“Alligator Girl”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Tattooed Girl 1037 Designs”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Date: 19...
“Eeka’s Native Haunts”. Artist: Al Renton.Size: 77 in x 112 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery.“Eeka Captured”. Artist: Al Rent...
“Zoma the Sadist”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Eric Reber.
IllustrationsCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Alligator Girl. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/v...
Carl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Jack Cripe. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_...
Carl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Strange Little People. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage...
Cult of Weird. (2013). Pinhead. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cultofweird.com/sideshow/fred-johnson-sideshow-ba...
Green, J. (1946, September 28). Rube Merrifield’s Studio at Dreamland, Coney Island.RubeMerrifield: Banner Artist, Scenery...
Holston, N. (1972). Paint Brushes. The Human Pincushion. Ah Yes I Knew Him Well.Florida Magazine. [Online image]. Retrieve...
Live Auctioneers. (n.d.). Snap Wyatt Girls Girls Girls Freak Show Banner. [Online image].Retrieved from http://www.liveauc...
Pescovitz, D. (2012). 2 Face Man. Sideshow Banner Art Show in Texas. [Online image].Retrieved from http://boingboing.net/2...
Sideshow Banner Gallery. (n.d.). Frog Boy. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.sideshowworld.com/73-Art-G1/SS-B-Galle...
Sideshow World. (n.d.). Aztecs, Missing Links, Pinheads. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.sideshowworld.com/81-SSP...
Sideshow World. (n.d.). Moon Man. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=ArpNXiLpODRTJ6Di8xCCoK...
Skinner, A. (2011). Human Freaks. Defending Freak Shows. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.divine.vic.gov.au/main-s...
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American Carnival Sideshow Banners

  1. 1. American CarnivalSideshow Banners:Exploring both sides of the canvasLawrence McElroyJohns Hopkins UniversityApril 24, 2013Hosted by the American Museum of Folk Art
  2. 2. The Canvas Wall Between UsPete Kortes Side Show, circa 1948. Photo: The Circus Blog
  3. 3. The Canvas Wall Between UsThe carnival sideshows which criss-crossed the American continent during theirheyday, all utilized walls of blazingly colorful canvas banners to attract theiraudience. These banner lines, displaying exaggerated imagery and irresistibleenticements, became the sideshow’s recognizable trademark. Countless slack-jawed audience members gladly traded their money for a ticket to see forthemselves. Arguing for the artistic merits of these sideshow banners is the recentresurgence in interest in vintage sideshow banners as collectible objects of art.Unfortunately, the genre has a darker side due to the shocking and insensitivenature of the imagery used in many banners. This imagery provides a uniqueglimpse into the conscience of the American heartland during this period ofhistory, and allows us to reflect on the progress our society has made since then,and how far we have yet to travel.
  4. 4. Human Freaks. Photo: Defending Freak Shows.
  5. 5. Bannerline. Photo: Sideshow World.
  6. 6. Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus. Date: 1919.Photo: Sideshow WorldHagenbeck Wallace Circus Sideshow.Photo: Sideshow World.James. M. Cole Circus, circa 1930’s.Photo: Sideshow WorldAl G. Barnes Circus Sideshow.Photo: Sideshow World.
  7. 7. Animal Annex. Photo: Sideshow World.
  8. 8. The first section of “Exploring theOther Side of the Canvas” highlightsnotable sideshow banner artists andcontains biographical sketches.Visitors will also find historicalphotographs of their studios, alongwith personal notes from the artistsabout the process of creatingbanners. An unfinished canvas byartist Snap Wyatt provides a look at awork in progress.What colors would you choose?The Artists and the Process
  9. 9. Photos: Sideshow World
  10. 10. Photos: Sideshow World
  11. 11. “Cavalcade World of Wonders”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Cult of WeirdThe Art of Sideshow Banner Painting
  12. 12. Some sideshow banner painters were remarkably talented, and their work often incorporatedelements associated with fine art. The paintings featured in this section of the exhibition blur the linebetween “sign painter” and “artist”. One example of this phenomenon is a banner titled “Monkeys”produced by Nieman Eisman. The composition of the work incorporates a dynamism that directs theviewer’s eyes around the canvas. The simian figures in the background are diminutive and muted,enhancing the drama of the brightly colored figures in the foreground. The splashes of color acrossthe painting’s background are reminiscent in effect and technique to that of early abstract artists. Thispainting, produced by an artist with no formal training, exhibits a remarkable understanding of design,color and composition. The background of “Monkeys” is strikingly similar to Wassily Kandinsky’scanvas “Bright Picture 1913”, and it could be argued that the groundbreaking visual concepts detailedin Kandinsky’s 1926 treatise, “Point and Line to Plane” can be found in “Monkeys”. Here, the tonalsplashes are gaily linked to darting figures through the linear monkey tails and curving vines. Eisman’spainterly treatment of the surface and effective use of imagery creates a visual excitement for theviewer, and exemplifies the high caliber of work which was often produced by the best of thesideshow banner painters. Other works in this section, likewise share interesting affinities with fineart.The Art of Sideshow Banner Painting
  13. 13. “Monkeys”. Artist: Nieman EismanPhoto: Sideshow World
  14. 14. “Monkeys”. Artist: Nieman EismanPhoto: Sideshow World“Bright Picture 1913”. Artist: Wassily Kandinsky.Photo: Stavros Pavlides
  15. 15. “Snake Charmer”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Eric Reber
  16. 16. “Snake Charmer”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Eric Reber“Odalisque With Slave.Artist: Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.Date: 1839-1840.Photo: Harvard Art Museums.
  17. 17. “Monkeys-Porcupines”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson. Size: 93 in x 116 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  18. 18. “Exotic Moroccan Moments”. Artist: UnknownPhoto: Eric Reber
  19. 19. “Damascus Dancers” by Kimball & Sterling.Artist: Unknown. Size: 13’6” x 11’3”Photo: Live Auctioneers
  20. 20. “Yogy Ray”. Artist – Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World
  21. 21. “Electric Wonder”. Artist: Jack Cripe. Circa 1950. Size: 120 in x 120 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  22. 22. “Tattooed Girl”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Wisconsin Historical Society.
  23. 23. “Champion Sword Swallower”. Artist: Nieman Eisman (attributed)Photo: Amusing the Zillion
  24. 24. “Barker at a sideshow at the Rutland Fair, Rutland, Vermont”.Photo: Library of CongressThe Magnetism of Sideshow Banners
  25. 25. Sideshow banners were not originally intended to be admired as works of art. Theywere designed to stop traffic on the carnival midway so the carnival “barkers” couldgather a crowd and persuade as many as possible to buy a ticket. In this capacity, thebanners functioned extremely well. Images were designed to be so outrageous,passersby were compelled to stop and contemplate. Could an actual mermaid really beinside? The long-running financial success of the sideshow business is evidence of theeffectiveness of sideshow banner art to mesmerize an audience. Banner art in thissection highlights the advertising tools and techniques which banner artists used so well.The Magnetism of Sideshow Banners
  26. 26. “Human Paradox”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Size: 94 in x 120 in. Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Upside Down Family”. Artist: Unknown.Size: 119 in x 139 in. Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  27. 27. “Strange Girls”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Side Show Banner Gallery“As Strange As It Seems”. Artist: Unknown.Size: 94 in x 120 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  28. 28. Sideshow Audience. Circa 1930’s.Photo: Sideshow WorldThe Other Side of the Canvas:What Will You See ?Two girls on the midway, circa 1930’s.Photo: Sideshow World
  29. 29. The imagery and messages contained in the banners exhibited in this section areshockingly insensitive and offensive. The artwork is creative but the message isdistressing and appalling. These sideshow banners were originally displayed for ageneral public of all ages, but “Exploring the Other Side of the Canvas” audiencemembers are cautioned to consider the implications before proceeding. Much like thesideshow ticket holders of the past, audience members entering this exhibition sectionwill step through an invisible canvas curtain and emerge in “their” world. On this side ofthe canvas, you will see the faces of the real people put on exhibit as a result of theirphysical abnormalities, gender, skin color or mental disabilities. On this side of thecanvas you will confront the issue of what it means to be “normal”, and you will becompelled to confront the moral and ethical dilemma of exhibiting humans for profit.You will see the graphic images which made this practice so successful.The Other Side of the Canvas:
  30. 30. Racial discrimination and strife were unfortunate hallmarks of the past century inAmerica, and exaggerated images of racially-based stereotypes were common in sideshowbanners. The banners advertised sideshow attractions which featured minority individuals,particularly of African American descent, as savages, wild-men and inferior sub-humans. Thisexploitive treatment received shockingly little public outcry and persisted even into the latterhalf of the 20th century.Insensitivity to Race and Condition“Monkey People”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Museum Syndicate
  31. 31. “The Gorilla Men”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World
  32. 32. “Aztec Indian”. Artist: Snap Wyatt. Size: 90 in x 114 in.Photo: Sideshow World“Missing Link”. Artist : Fred G. Johnson. Circa 1950’s.Size: 92 in x 112 in.Photo: Liveauctioneers
  33. 33. Arthur Dove, Untitled from Sketch“Ubangi Savages Featured with the Al. G. Barnes CircusSeason, 1932”. Photo: Sideshow World“Ubangi”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Sideshow World
  34. 34. “African Witch Doctor”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Sideshow Banner Gallery“Strange Little People”. Artist: T. Frank.Size: 116 in x 94 in. Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  35. 35. Lobster Boy, Fat Lady, Penguin Boy, Half-Girl,Pinhead & Other EpithetsPersons with physical or mental disabilities were equally exploited bysideshows and sideshow banner artists. Sideshow banners in this section illustratethe cruel creativity used to change an ordinary disease process into an attraction.The use of inventive character names which stretch the imagination reached theirzenith in this category of banners; “Penguin Boy”, “Alligator Girl”, “What-Is-It?”.Visual associations with royalty, prestige, or uncommon abilities were alsocommon ploys.
  36. 36. “Lobster Boy”. Artist: Snap Wyatt. Date: 1950.Size: 117 in x 139 in. Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  37. 37. “Father & Daughter”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Cult of WeirdGrady Stiles, Jr. was born with a congenitalabnormality known as ectrodactyly. Stiles, billed as“Lobster Boy” was reportedly an abusive alcoholic.He was murdered by a contract killer hired by his wifeand stepson, who were later imprisoned for the crime(Dougherty, 1996).Photo: flickr
  38. 38. Arthur Dove, Untitled from Sketchbook “E”, ci“Marie Armless Girl”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Sideshow World.“Louise the Armless Marvel”. Artist: Johnny Meah.Size: 132 in x 109 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  39. 39. Jeannie Tomaini, billed as the “Half-Girl” was married to Al Tomaini “TheGiant”. The couple retired fromsuccessful careers in the sideshowbusiness and opened a tourist camp inGibsontown, Florida which became apopular retirement spot for manysideshow performers (Dougherty, 1996).“Jeanie Living Half Girl”. Artist: Nieman Eisman. Date: Circa 1930’s.Photo: Ken Harck
  40. 40. “Bob Melvin”. Photo: Sideshow World.“Two-Faced Man”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: The Antique Circus.
  41. 41. “Percilla – Monkey Girl”.Photo: Sideshow World“Brenda Beatty”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Cult of Weird.
  42. 42. “Milroy’s Disease”.Photo: Anatomy Box“Ralph the Elephant Boy”. Artist: Millard & Bulsterbaum.Photo: Sideshow World.
  43. 43. “Stanley Berent – Seal Boy”.Photo: Sideshow World.“Penguin Boy”. Artist: Jack Cripe. Size: 137 in x 114 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  44. 44. “Frog Boy”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World. “They Are Married”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Date: circa 1950. Size: 115 in x 102 in.Photo: Live auctioneers.
  45. 45. “Alligator Skin Girl”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Photo: Sideshow World.Emmet Bejano suffered from a skincondition known as “Ichthyosis”.Bejano was married to “Percilla theMonkey Girl” who sufferred fromhirsutism . The couple retired to Floridawhere Percilla was fond of flowergardening.Emmett and Percilla were avid dancers,perferring the Cha Cha and Rhumba(Dougherty, 1996).Photo: Sideshow World
  46. 46. “The Moon Man”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World“Multiple Neurofibromatosis”.Photo: Dermatlas.
  47. 47. “Circus Fat Lady”. Photo: FiveHundred Pound Peep.“World’s Fattest Man”. Artist: Snap Wyatt. Size: 238 in x 83 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  48. 48. “Teenie Weenie Comedians”. Artist: Unknown. Size: 94 in x 120 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Giant Ladies”.Photo: Sideshow World.
  49. 49. “Prince Arthur Midget”. Artist: Jack Sigler. Date: 1950.Size: 105 in x 113 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery.
  50. 50. “Pinhead”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Cult of Weird.Schlitzie Surtees was born Simon Metz, in theBronx, New York. Billed as a “Pinhead” , Schlitziewas portrayed as a female. Surtees suffered fromprofound mental disability but reportedly had azest for live and was adored by everyone whoknew him. After retirement from the sideshow,Surtees spent his final years in a nursing home(Dougherty, 1996).Photo: Mentalfloss.
  51. 51. “Hoo La La”. Artist: P. Barnett. Size: 92 in x 113 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Hoo La La”: Sex, Sexism and the Exotic
  52. 52. The final section of the exhibition features sideshow banners which blatantlyexploited female sexuality. The female body has been a standard subject of artiststhroughout history and was a favorite of sideshow banner artists as well. Typicalof sideshow banners were images of females in alluring poses, usually wearingbikinis or even less. The artistic approach ranged from quite realistic to cartoon-like, but the same formula seemed to apply to all; little clothing and an alluringpose that promised more on the inside. Add palm trees and sand to the mix andsuddenly you’re not in Kansas any more.“Hoo La La”: Sex, Sexism and the Exotic
  53. 53. “Black Mask”. Artist: Snap Wyatt (attributed).Photo: First Dibs.“Dance of Death”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Date: circa 1950. Size: 117 in x 92 in.Photo : Sideshow World.
  54. 54. “Andrea”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Sideshow World.
  55. 55. “Tanagra Live Mermaid”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Photo: Museum Syndicate.“The Mermaid”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson. Size: 94 in x 120 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  56. 56. “Cleo Moon Girl”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Size: 138 in x 119 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Mona”. Artist: Snap Wyatt.Size: 138 in x 118 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  57. 57. “Alligator Girl”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery“Tattooed Girl 1037 Designs”. Artist: Fred G. Johnson.Date: 1940-1950. Size: 141 in x 116 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery.
  58. 58. “Eeka’s Native Haunts”. Artist: Al Renton.Size: 77 in x 112 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery.“Eeka Captured”. Artist: Al Renton.Size: 93 in x 115 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery.“Eeka Is Here And Alive”.Artist: Al Renton.Size: 91 in x 114 in.Photo: Carl Hammer Gallery
  59. 59. “Zoma the Sadist”. Artist: Unknown.Photo: Eric Reber.
  60. 60. IllustrationsCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Alligator Girl. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). As Strange As It Seems. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Aztec Indians. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Cleo Moon Girl. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Eeka Captured. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Eeka Is Here And Alive. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Eeka’s Native Haunts. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Hoo La La. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htm
  61. 61. Carl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Jack Cripe. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Lobster Boy. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Louise the Armless Marvel. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Mermaid. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Mona. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Monkeys-Porcupines. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Penguin Boy. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Prince Arthur Midget. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htm
  62. 62. Carl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Strange Little People. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Tattooed Girl. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Tattoed Girl With 1037 Designs. [Online image]. Retrievedfrom http://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Teenie Weenie Comedians. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Untitled (King-Kong). [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). Upside Down Family. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCarl Hammer Gallery. (2013). World’s Fattest Man In Person. [Online image]. Retrievedfrom http://hammergallery.com/Banners/vintage_side_show_banners_1.htmCult of Weird. (2013). Father and Daughter. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cultofweird.com/sideshow/fred-johnson-sideshow-banners/
  63. 63. Cult of Weird. (2013). Pinhead. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cultofweird.com/sideshow/fred-johnson-sideshow-banners/Delano, J. (1941). Barker at at Sideshow at the Rutland Fair, Rutland, Vermont. Library ofCongress. [Online image} retrieved fromhttp://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1998009064/PP/Dermatlas. (2012). Neurofibromatosis. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu/image/neurofibromatosis_4_080424Dougherty, L. (Producer/Director), & Trams, P. (Editor). (1996). Sideshow: Alive on the inside[Motion Picture]. United States Big Chief Films.First Dibs. (n.d.). Black Mask. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://shard3.1stdibs.us.com/archivesC/upload/1stdibsB/073109_sb/UrbanCountryLA/13/x.jpgFive Hundred Pound Peep. (2010). Circus Fat Lady [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://fivehundredpoundpeeps.blogspot.com/2010/07/your-future-as-circus-fat-lady.htmlFlickr. (2010, July). Grady Stiles. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/tikiville43/4793935094/
  64. 64. Green, J. (1946, September 28). Rube Merrifield’s Studio at Dreamland, Coney Island.RubeMerrifield: Banner Artist, Scenery Painter. The Tampa Daily Times. [Onlineimage]. Retrieved from http://www.sideshowworld.com/73-Art-G1/SS-B-Gallery/Rube/Merrifield.htmlGreen, J. (1946, September 28). Rube at Work for Ringling Bros. Merrifield’s Studio atDreamland, Coney Island. Rube Merrifield: Banner Artist, Scenery Painter. The Tampa DailyTimes. [Online image]. Retrieved from http://www.sideshowworld.com/73-Art-G1/SS-B-Gallery/Rube/Merrifield.htmlHarvard Art Museums. (n.d.). Odalisque with Slave. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/299806Hepcat Restorations. (n.d.). Mermaid. [Online image]. Retrieved fromhttp://hepcatrestorations.com/2012/01/25/fred-g-johnson-a-one-man-circus/Hintz, C. (2012). Brenda Beatty. In The Sideshow Banner Art of Fred G. Johnson. [Onlineimage]. Retrieved from http://www.cultofweird.com/sideshow/fred-johnson-sideshow-banners/Hintz, C. (2012). Half Girl. In The Sideshow Banner Art of Fred G. Johnson. [Onlineimage]. Retrieved from http://www.cultofweird.com/sideshow/fred-johnson-sideshow-banners/
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