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Task 2 PPM - Group 6 - Thinking about Content


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Task 2 PPM - Group 6 - Thinking about Content

  1. 1. MATHEMATIC TEACHING PLANING THINKING ABOUT CONTENT Group : 6 Member’s names of Group: Deti Fitri /A1C010003 /The 5th Semester Yeni Astria /A1C010034 /The 5th Semester Ari Nugraha /A1C010035 /The 5th Semester Herlita Fitria /A1C010039 /The 5th Semester Mustaqim Billah /A1C009029 /The 6th Semester Lecture: Dewi Rahimah, S.Pd, M.Ed PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIKAJURUSAN MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN UNIVERSITAS BENGKULU 2012
  2. 2. THINKING ABOUT CONTENTANSWER OF OUR GROUP: 1. Two examples for each type of knowledge: a. Declarative Knowledge Facts in mathematics is symbol. Example: 1. 6 is symbol of number six. 2. 5 + 3, is symbol of adding five plus three Concepts Example: 1. Cube is a concepts, it has defintion and if we understand about this concepts we can know a thing belongs to cube or not. A cube is a three-dimensional figure with six square faces. An odd number is whole number that is not divisible by 2. {1, 3, 5, 7, … }. 2. Odd number is a concepts, because we can know a number is a odd number or not with definition of odd number. Principles Example: 1. Diameter divides a circle to be two part with equal measure. 2. Radius of circle that equal or congruent is congruent. b. Procedural Knowledge 1. How to add 233 + 56. Step 1: Make number in line from, take oneth, tenth, hundredth in one column, then put a line under, and put symbol of adding beside. Like this: 233 56 + Step 2: Add number in equal column, from right to left. Then put the result under line with equal column. Like this: 233
  3. 3. 56 + 289 ; so the result of 233 + 56 is 289. 2. How to multiply 234 x 2 Step 1: Make number in line from, take oneth, tenth, hundredth in one column, then put a line under, and put symbol of adding beside. Like this: 234 2x Step 2: Multiply number under with each of number above from right to left( 2 x 3; 2 x 3; 2 x 2) and put the result in equal column under of line. Like this: 234 2x 468 ; so the result of 234 x 2 is 468.2. Please give one example for each way in creating a diversity responsive curriculumin teaching mathematics :a. a. Teach content about diversity Select objectives that focus on developing skills for a diverse world Example: Statistics is the study that seeks to try to process the data to get the benefit of decisions in life. · Consider using carrier content related to diversity when teaching any subject Matter 1. what is statistic? 2. How to use statistic? 3. What is population and sample? 4. How to collect data?b. Teach content that is complete and inclusive Example : statistical learning · Include all contributors, voices, and perspectives when teaching subjects Students ordered to study outdoor to collect data in around school, like is types of motors, flowers etc. and then students ordered to report their result.
  4. 4. · Emphasize similarities, avoid focusing only on differences When students find the different opinion, may be like, there is student collect data, example flower base on color, types. So teacher must equate their opinion that everyone have understanding self. · To be thorough in your coverage of topics After they collect data, students will understanding what the statistic and can process the datac. Connect the content taught to students’ live Select examples, images, and metaphors connected to students’ experienced and cultural backgrounds If the teacher asks students how many of them play baseball or enjoy baseball, the majority of boys in the classroom will more than likely raise their hands. The teacher can utilize this concept by using an overhead transparency, chalkboard, or other advanced technological device. In a baseball diamond, the distance between each of the three bases and home plate are 90 feet and all form right angles. If a teacher draws a line from home plate to first base, then from first base to second base and back to the home plate, the students can see a right triangle has been formed. Using the Pythagorean Theorem, the teacher can then pose the question, "How far does the second baseman have to throw the ball in order to get the runner out before he slides into the home plate?" (90)^2 + (90)^2 = c^2, or the distance from home plate to second base. 8100 + 8100 = 16,200. The square root of 16,200 is approximately 127, so the second baseman would have to throw it about 127 feet. Learn about your students’ cultural backgrounds and about the community in which you teach He could teach mathematics by means to students, exemplify the real for example in learning may be done by means of a discussion groups. Here will happen good communication between one group with the other group which they are filling with each other and teachers give some about a job to in charge by students with his students must resolve the question of give and students will come to the emergence of culture learn good and efficient.
  5. 5. Teachers also required to be used colloquially so clearly understandable bystudents.Consider skill diversity Individuals have diversity and distinct each thinking pattern as well.Here prosecuted for creativity can develop students teachers can connectlearning this with props to be in use students.Students in give instruction concerning props and students will make yourselfprops seemed compliance with the wishes but according to their teacher is inwant to have no different.Capability of workmanship ( surgery ) and procedures to be overrun by studentswith speed and precision, for example, surgery count the set of operations.Some skill set of rules or prescribed by instruction or procedures sequentialcalled algorithms, e.g procedure complete system of linear equations twovariables.Engage students by using content based on their interests If students feel lesson taught considered important students will askedthe teacher for arranging extra courses so that teachers can teach studentssubjects lacking in understand the students outside school hours to get in teachin depth.Help students learn the skills that will allow them to learn more efficiently Students will prefer lessons if they like a teacher who teaches.Here teacher in charge to be taught properly and not monotonous.For example, in learning trigonometry teachers could bring students outsidethe classroom and directly into the field.Teachers could sampled counting the height of a tree with a knowing mannerlong between one point and the point where it was.
  6. 6. The of learning students will not be creative thinking and was bored with learning usually only on doing in the classroom.3. Please give two examples for each level understanding in teaching mathematics :a. Introductory knowledge 1. In Geometry figure lesson, At this stage students know about two dimensional figure, eg square, triangle, circle, etc and three dimensional figure eg sphere, cube, cone etc. Children can select and show the shape of geometry figure. They can give definition from a figure. Students have knowledge about classification all of geometry figure. 2. In Algebra lesson Student must know use the symbol as a "substitute" to define constants and variables, In the algebra of 2a, 2 is called the coefficient, while a so-called variable (variables). Students must know basic form of algebra. It is taught to students who are presumed to have no knowledge of mathematics beyond the basic principles of arithmetic. In arithmetic, only numbers and their arithmetical operations (such as +, −, ×, ÷) occur. In algebra, numbers are often denoted by symbols (such as a, n, x, y or z).b. Develop a thorough understanding of important knowledge and skills 1. In Geometry figure lesson, At this stage students will understand and know the properties of geometry figure, as in a cube of side there are have 6 pieces, while there is 12 ribs. Students at this stage have to determine the relationship between the related geometry with another geometry. They analys elements of geometry. Teacher give formula to find Perimeter, Area and Volume of Common Shapes. Student know from where formula of geometry figure. After that student can find area of geometry figure with a formula. They can calculate that. 2. In Algebra lesson,
  7. 7. Students know the general formulation of arithmetical laws (such as a + b = b + a for all a and b), and thus is the first step to a systematic exploration of the properties of the real number system. Student know different and definition of Identity elements, Commutativity, and Associativity in algebra. Student can finish binary operation. It allows the reference to "unknown" numbers, the formulation of equations and the study of how to solve these. (For instance, "Find a number x such that 3x + 1 = 10" or going a bit further "Find a number x such that ax + b = c". This step leads to the conclusion that it is not the nature of the specific numbers that allows us to solve it, but that of the operations involved.)c. Strengthen students’ understanding of previously learned information 1. In Geometry figure lesson Teacher give a real concept about geometry figure. Teacher give question story for their exercise. Student reads task story before find a formula of geometry figure. 2. In Algebra lesson, After that, teacher can explain about polynomial or quadratic equation. A polynomial is an expression that is constructed from one or more variables and constants, using only the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication (where repeated multiplication of the same variable is conventionally denoted as exponentiation with a constant nonnegative integer exponent). For example, x2 + 2x − 3 is a polynomial in the single variable x. An important class of problems in algebra is factorization of polynomials, that is, expressing a given polynomial as a product of other polynomials. The example polynomial above can be factored as (x − 1)(x + 3). A related class of problems is finding algebraic expressions for the roots of a polynomial in a single variable.
  8. 8. Student can find the formulation of functional relationships. (For instance, "If you sell x tickets, then your profit will be 3x − 10 do, or f(x) = 3x − 10, where f is the function, and x is the number to which the function is applied.")4. Please give one example for each analysis in teaching mathematics : a. Subject matter outlines b. Concept analysis c. Principle statement d. Task analysis answer : a. The example of subject matter outlines : Topic : trigonometry Class :X Subject matter outlines : 1. Angle and its unit 2. Value of angle trigonometry 3. Identity of trigonometry 4. Formulas of trigonometry at triangle b. The example of concept analysis From the topic at point a so the concept analysis of teacher when he/she plan to teach are: o the first concept must to understanding student are: 1. What is the trigonometry? 2. What is angle? 3. What the unit of angles?
  9. 9. o After students understanding about concept trigonometry and angle, the next concept must understanding of students value of angle trigonometry: 1. Comparison of trigonometry at rightriangle. 2. Value of angle trigonometry at coordinate area. 3. Formula comparison of angle trigonometry in every quadrant 4. How to draw the graph of function trigonometry? o Next step give understanding about identity of trigonometry: 1. What is identity of trigonometry? 2. How to method identity of trigonometry?c. The example principle statement. Principle statement to help understanding students about this topic is involve students with make a game or study in outdoor, like to measure the high od tree etc. d. The example of task analysis: Students ordered to find the high of tree with known the elevation angle based on trigonometry concept.