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Sound and Sense : An Introduction to Poetry

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Sound and Sense : An Introduction to Poetry

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Sound and Sense : An Introduction to Poetry

  1. 1. AP* Edition Perrine’s SOUND & SENSE An Introduction to Poetry THIRTEENTH EDITION Thomas R. Arp Southern . -{C-thodist Uni‘ersit5-' Greg Johnson Kenneszlw State Universit'_. ‘ ViLh AP‘ Contributions by Donna Carlson Tamer , - _ WADSWORTH é‘»~ CENGAGElearning' J| usu'a‘: 'a - Brazil-japan - Korea - Mexicm Singapore - Spain - United Kingdomc United States ‘AF and Adv2.n. ::d fi.1£u1): ':1! I‘mgrun am m_-zistrzrul mtiemuh ti vb: Culiqge E! ‘JI’. ’J'. <.‘L‘ Ex. =mi: m-. cu Bftifj. which an 0:! mvafx-u] in due pnxi-J: :i-. ,-n ni= _u. lnln: :sm1: HI. 'L‘rS«1:, l]&xpg-: }.i'. :EL
  2. 2. zg WADSWORTH I ': CENGAGE Learning‘ AP Etfltlon of mm-. ex sound 6: 1011 vz: m.~. -um Cangagg lsurfrg éSen: AItldl'Poel. _ t-2t. .,; f.. :.§t. I2.. .° ‘”" " " f5L§'gpg§%; §§gtv~r : L‘ g 1 _ - flmmn k. Ar; n' Greg jotmmn 5'-G-‘E-i W 63 sdzmm out Lyn um Pzx-': .i1her: r. I.a¢v. =—= Rosenberg Dfirtlcprtefil 2 . cr: Helen 1n’ Ier Assixtzrx Id tar [rin Saw: » ah-an storage systems. exc= _ ‘. as per ma‘-:1 7 E4103 5-’ [IE 19- U ‘ed S323 Cvgfli ‘It u. ‘:2 -: u = Fe. ’ prcd ‘n‘v: r 1d teshrl-: ' ’ gy anistr. -:2. rmtact us at [Engage luming Custn. -net A Salu Suppcrl, 1-sown: -1-9106 F‘: -n this tax: or :1! requests on] re :1 v. -rm I’. ¢ll§ig%. I'. ol'If[IE ssto. -us F. -nhar p-2: Iv; -:3 t: Le51Int1S (:1 be main! tn :9?8-1'£391J3I§J-1 . 1439-DEISU-E SSA I. '.: xi«: o_. an -nd ]= p: r. lac: a ) Inlsrnaticnzlxsnzzzmuoznhsiien H£l[Ell. 'l. Fm 31:44‘ {Ii :11 tearr: 'ng so L vnrw. :eng: §:. (nrn ‘AP xnd A-: 'raz med Fixrerr I Erngrrn are r= z'st: re: i In5t! ur.1ors'P| »:a ' Iugin. c:n; -agemxn and! - . ‘ §S€IU. '(Ei. . Printed in the United States of America 1234567141312
  3. 3. Contents Preface xxi Professional Acknowledgments x. :i= Foreword [0 Students xxvi Preparing to Succeed on the AP‘ English Literature and Composition Examination xxix Part. One The Elements of Poetry 1 Chapter One ‘What Is Poetry! 3 Alfred, Lord Tcnriyson The Eagle 5 ‘rVilliam Shakespeare ‘Winter 6 “"ilfred Owen Dulce et Decomrn Hit 7 Reviewing Chapter One 10 Understanding and Evaluating Poetry 1 I William Shakcsfleare S11-all I contpare thee to a summer's (‘Lift 12 Robert Hayden The Vi1i[Iping 12 Emily Dirkirisan The last Night that She lived 13 Gu-cntlolyn Brooks The Bean Eaters 15 Dudley Randall Ballad of Birminglmm 15 William Carlos Willianrs The Red X"heclLarru-‘ 17 Lntvrence Fcrlingltetti Constantly risking absurdity 17 lnngsmn Hzrglics Suicide's Note E9 AP 1m'n'ngpruni_h1 intilttieti A. E. Housman Terence. this is stupiti stuff 19 Sir Philip Sidney Loving in math 21 AP writing prompt iiicltizleti Archibald Maclcish Ars Pnetita 22 Al’ ranting prompt included Suggestions for ‘C"'riting 23 Chapter TWO Reading the Poem 23 Thomas Hardy The . -'I: m He Killed 27‘ AP ti-filing prompt inclmierl Philip lnrkiii A Study of Reading Habits 28 A. E. Housman Is my team [viewing 32 AP u-'n'n'ng prompt inclndeil "AP and r—‘. lnn-: e.l Flacemsr. -t p'L¥_3'? lTI are l’€§iEIEff: .i. u': ~_': rr|1-‘ks Cu‘ the Ck-lkgc En= nn-: e Ewes. -.u. .2ri. m Eu: l.! . -aha-: h u-5 ntr imnlve-J in the rwuéxncri u‘. 511 ddti mt enjxsz. this r'niu; t.
  4. 4. vi (. ‘l). ITEN'Is Reviewing Chapter Two 3-1 Jnhn Donne Break nf Day‘ 34 Emily Dickinsm Th: :re". =. been :1 Dumb. in the Opposite Home 35 Ted Hughes Haxdt Roosting 36 kfuri Eran: 3l-‘hen in RDSIIE 37 Sylvia Plath . {i1'mr 38 Tlrmtlm Hardy The Ruinv. -if . »{aid 39 Limln Pustan Ethics 49 Adrianne Rich Storm Whrnings 41 Suggs: stiun5 for Writing 42 Chapter Three Denotation and Connotation 43 Emily Dickinson There is no Frigate 1ik'- *1 Bamk 43 ViI! ium Shakespeare V]1en tny love sxvears that she is madr: of math 43 Ellen Kay Pathedy of Mmlncts 46 AP luifing jrrumpr included Exercises 45 Reviewing Chapter Thr-‘:1: 49 Henry Rem! Naming of Parts 49 Langston Hughes CI()§§ 51 “’iHiaIn Vatdsum1h The world is £00 much with us 5] Raberl Frost Desert Places 52 Ruhr)‘ Olil-er Spring in the Clmstoorn 53 AP writing prmup: included John Donne A Hymn la Gad the Father 54 Elizabeth Bishop One Art 55 Sharon Old: 35/10 56 AF IL-Filing pvt. -mp: included Miller Williams . -‘I; -‘ Wife Reads the Paper at Breakfast on the Bilthtlay of the Scotthh Poet 5? Suggestions for Writing 57 Chapter Four Imagery 58 Robert Bmwning Meeting at Night 59 AP tm'u'ng pmmpt included Robert Bruwnirlg Parting at . -{omim 60 AP u'n'ti'ng pmmpt included Exercises 61 Rex-‘iewing Chapter Four 61
  5. 5. CONTENTS vii Gerard Lfunlcy Hopkins Spring 61 W'iHiam Curios “-"iHiaIn1s The Vid o"s Lament in Springtime 61 AP wiring prompt itasiu. -fed Eniiiy Dickinson I {aft :1 Firnerul. in III)‘ Brain 63 Adrienne Rich Living in Sin 64 Seamus Heaney The Forge 65 Robert Frost Afu: -I AppIe—Pici(ing 66 AP it-firing prompt irrciu. -fed Robert Hayden: Those Vvimet Sundays 6? Jane Flanders Shupping in TucI. 'z| lmx': 63 Seamus Hcuncy An August Night 69 Wallace Stevens The Snow Mam 69 John Keats To Autumn T0 Suggestions for Vtitin_r_g 7'1 Chapter Five Figurative Language 1: Simile, Metaphor, Personification. Apostrophe, Metonymy 72 Langston Hughes Hnrirzru 73 Robert Frost Bereft 74 AP 1:1-iring prompt included Emily Dickinson It Sifts [mm Leaden Sits-‘cs 75 Anne Bradstreet The Author to Her Book 7? John Keats Bright Star 73 Exercise 82 Reviewing Chapter Five 82 Richard “"I'[bI| r Mind 83 Emily Dickinsen 1 taste :4 liquor never brewed 83 Sylvia Plath Metaphors 84 Philip Larliin Ton-. L 85 Mary Oliver Picking Blueberries, Austcrlitz, New York. 1957 S6 Theodore Rot-(hire The Sloth 57 John Donne A Vnlcdicticm: Forbidding Mourning 58 Andrew Marvell To His Coy Mistress 90 AP writing prompt include. -i Billy Collins Introduction to Poetry 91 Suggcstiuns for Writing 92
  6. 6. viii COFTEIITS Chapter Six Figurative Language 2: Symbol, Allegory‘ 94 Robert Frost The Road Not Taken 94 WEI! W’l1itman A Noiseless Patient Spider 96 AP ulriiing pramjiz included Vil| iam Blake The Sick Rose 97 Seamus Hcm1e_' Digging 99 Robert Harriclc To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time E02 George Herbert Peace 103 Exercises 105 Re-'iewing Chapter Six 105 Richard VI'llmr The '(-'riter 106 AP writing prompt inclicdai Robert Frost File and Ice 10? Christina Rossetti Up«Hill 108 Robert Phillips Running on Empty 103 Binary Oliver 1112 Trum Bi. -at IC9 Emily Dlclainsun Because [ could not stop for Death 110 John Donne Hymn to God . -1', -' God, in My Sickness 111 Billy Collins Weiglning the Dog 113 AP writing prompt inclmicd Alfred, Lord Tet-mysmm Ulysses 114 Suggestions for Wfiting 116 Chapter Seven Figurative Language 3: Paradox, Overstatement. Undcrstatement, Irony l 17 Emily DI'ckiuson Much Madness is divinest Sense 118 John Donne The Sun Rising E19 Caxmlm: Cullen Incident 120 AP uniting frrampr intludzd Liargn: Picrcy Barbie Doll E22 'WI'| I|'1Im Blalu: The Chimney Sweeper 124 Perry Bysslu: Shelley Ozymzindias 125 Exercise E26 Re. 'ieving Chapter Seven 127
  7. 7. cowrsars ix “William “-’ortl. s1I. VJ11l1 A slumber did my spirit seal 127 John Donne Batter my heart, three-raersoned God 128 AP u-rixing prompt included Elisavietta Ritchie Sorting Laundry 128 AP urn-icing prompt includcci Billy Collins The History Teacher 130 Semnus Heancy Mid-Term Break 131 Mary Oliver A Bitterness 132 W. H. Auden The Unknown Citizen 133 Lucille Clifton in the inner city 134 Robert Bron. -ning hit-‘ Last Duchess 135 Suggestions for W-’riling 137 Chapter Eight Allusion 138 Robert Frost "Out, Out—" £39 ‘William Shakespeare from lflaebelh ("She shoultl h£l’E died licteaftet") H0 Rex-‘iewing Chapter Eight 14?. Mary Oliver Lilies 141 AP u-Titing prompt inclutieti e. c. Cummings in }ust— 143 AP writing prompt included John Milton On His Blindness 14‘? AP u-riting prronipz incimied Edwin Arlington Robinson Miniver Cheew 145 Sharon OM: Mi; Son the . -inn 146 AP writing pmmpt ivicltuiecl Briargaret Atwood -Siren Song 147 T. S. Elia: Journey of the Magi 148 ‘William Bullet Yeats Leda and the Swan 149 Suggestions for Writing 150 Chapter Nine Meaning and Idea 151 Astonymous Little Jack Homer 151 A. E. Housman Loveliest of Trees 15? AP writing prompt included Robert Frost Stopping by "oods on :1 Snow, ‘ Evening 153 AP mixing prompt inclruled Revieiring Chapter Nine I55
  8. 8. Bi COIITENIS Ralph Waldo Emerson The Rhodura: On Beéng Asked, Whence Is the Fiower! 155 Robert Frost Design 156 Emily Dickinson I never saw :1 Monr 15? Emily Dickinson "Faith" is a {me invention [57 c. c. Cummings 0 sweet spontaneous E58 .31.! ’ auriling prompt included “Fall Whitlnan When i Heard llli. ‘ L: -am'd Astronmner 159 AP 1:-vitingprampx in-zhcdad John Keats On the Sonnet 159 Billy Collins Sonnet 160 Natasha Trctltewcy Southcm History 161 AP u-filing prompt indmfed Rita Dove Kentucky. i833 I62 Viflium Bfalu: The Lamb 163 William Blake The Tiger 163 Suggestions for Writing 165 Chapter Ten Tone 166 Denise . Lev«: nm»' To the Snake 163 Emily Dicltillsun A l'12iE'l’l. )i’ i7elIuv in the Grass 163 Michael Dra)1rm Since thcIe’s no help 173 Billy Collins Picnic, Lightning 171 Re= ir. -wing Chapter Ten 1?} Wifliam Shakespeare My nxistress’ eyes [73 Alfred, Lord Tennyson Crossing the Bar 1?-l AP writing prompt intlndcd Tlunmm Hardy The Oxen 175 Emil)‘ Dickinson Om‘. dignity Lleizxys for all 176 Emily Dickinson ‘Twas wzmn—nt firs1—| ikc Us 176 John Donne The Apparition 177 John Donne The Flam H8 Richard Ebcrluirt For 21 Lamb 1550 AP unirirlg prompt ivlcltufcd Briary Olircr The Rabbit I50 AP u-n‘tI'ng prulrzpt indudcd Matthew Arnold Dover Beach 131 Philip Iarkin Church Going 183 Suggestions for Vtiti11g 185
  9. 9. CONTENTS xi Chapter Eleven Musical Devices 186 Ogden L ‘nth The Turtie 187 Va". H. Auden That night when joy began 189 Theodore Roclhite The Waking 190 Gerard Manley Hopkins God's Grandaur I92 AP m1'ring prompt included Exercise 193 Roviev. -'ing Chapter Eleven 19-} W'iih'am Shakcsjacare Blow. ialow, thou winter wind 19-1 AP urriring prompt inriuded Gwen-1r. iol_11 Brooks ". "e Real Cooi 195 Maya Angelou Woman ‘Work 195 Sharon Old: Rite of Passage E97 Erniiy Dickinson As inlperccptihly as Grief 193 AP u-fixing prompt iviriu. -‘fed Mary Oliver Music Lessons 19?: ViiiiunI Stafford Traveling through the dark 199 Mauro Stanton Song (After Slmkespearo) 200 Robert Frost Nothing Gold Con Stay 201 Suggestions for Wiriting 201 Chapter Twelve Rhythm and Meter 202 George Herbert Virtue Z07 Eretciiai 2I6 Rerix': = ing Chapter Tu-'e1'e 217 William Blake “Introduction” to Songs of Innocence 217 VVHII‘ Whitman Had 1 the Choice 218 Robert Frost The Aim W-"as Song 219 George Gordon, Lord Byron Sunzas Z19 Sgrivia Plath Old Ladies’ Home 220 AP writing prompt ir1cl1u. i.: ' hriuyu Angeian Africa 221 Linda Pasmn To a Daughter Leaving Home 222 AP -writing prompt inciuded Robert Browning Potphyrizfs Lover 223 Alfred, Lord Tennyson Break, hreak, break 225 AP mixing prompt included Suggeslions for W/ riting Z25
  10. 10. xii CONIENTS Chapter Thirteen Sound and Meaning 227 Annnyrnous Pease Porridge Hot 227 A. E. Housman Eiflit O'C1ock Z29 Alamndcr Pope Sound and Sense 230 Emily Dickinson I heard 3 F1y'l: u:2——when I dial 234 AP writing prompt incimisd Exercise 236 Reviewing Chapter Thirteen Z35 Vi| f-nnl Owen Anthem for Damned Youth 238 Margaret Atwood Landcrah 239 Pattirmu Rogers Night and the Creation of GeDg1': Iph3-' 24$) Maxine Kumin The Sound of Nia 1: 241 Adrienne Rich A11nt]ennifer‘s Tigers 24?. Gnluuy Kinnzil Blackberry Eating 343 land LI: uI1's Remembered Morning 243 AP writing prompt included William Carlos Williurrls The Dance 244 Silggestions for Vriting 245 Chapter Fourteen Pattern 246 George Herbert The Pulley 247 John Keats On First Looking into Ch2l[m1:m's Homer Z49 W'iiiiam Shakespeare That time of feat 250 Dylan Thmuu Do Not Go Gentle imo That Good . ‘-ighr 252 Exercises 253 Reviewing Clmpter Fourteen 254 W’i[| ium Shakespeare From Romeo and Julie: 25:; John Donne Death, be not proud 255 ViHI'um Butler Yeats The Folly of Being Cnmforted 256 Cloud: McKay The White City‘ 256 AP 1L-‘riringprurmfn included Claude McKay America 257 AP wailing prompt intiuiul Paul Laurence Dunbar We ‘Uear the Music 258 AP writing prompt incimiell Robert Frost Acquainted with the Ni“ L 258 Seamus Heuncy Viiiztnellr: for an . -"anniversary-' 259 Edwin Arlington Robinson The House on the Hill 260 Robert Herrick Deiight in Discmier 261 Ben Jonson Stiil so he neat 262 Suggestions for ‘Writing 262
  11. 11. CONTENTS xiii Chapter Fifteen Evaluating Poetry 1: Sentimental, Rhetorical, Didactic Verse 264 Reviewing Chapter Fifteen 26? God’: Vill for Yuu and Me 267 Pied Beauty 268 AP uwilitig prompl included A Poison Tree 263 The Must Vital Thing in Life 269 Lower New York: At Dawn 269 Composed upon ‘I-’estn1inster Bridge, September 3, 1802 270 AP {Liming prompt included Piano 270 The Days Gone By 271 The Engine 27} I like so see it lap the Miles ZTZ Vhen l have {ears that i may cease to be 273 O Solitude! 273 Suggestions fur Writing 273 Chapter Sixteen Evaluating Poetry 2: Poetic Excellence 275 John Donne The Canonizatiun 276 John Keats Ode on a Grecian Um Z78 Emily Dickinson There's 11 certain Slant of light 280 Robert Frost Home Burial 28} T. 5. Eliot The Love Song of}. Alfred Pmfxock 286 Whliatc Stcvcns Sunday Morning Z91 Langslan Hughes The Ve:1r3-' Blues 295 Eiizabelil Bishop The Fish Z96 AP writing pmrnpz included _ V V V’-"Fea. t,ur: ed'Pi: :etVs_ , _ _ Tl1efi)l£o1i= ingfJocn1s apjzear as iillmragisrris in iurimré chapters of the , 7 ' back, but these three poet: are represented by a sufficient number of ’ poems in uumm: snmlying than as iri1:lie1‘J1eiIlarIis£s. Apfwoachas io ' Vanal351's 'an: I uririgiiag are suggested an 1;. 307 4)] Pm-r’ Tum sf this book.
  12. 12. xiv CONTENTS Emily Dickinson A Light exists in Spring 354 A nmmw Fellow in the Grass Aglparcnliy with no surprise 355 As impentepzibly as Grief 198 Because I could net stop fnr Dvialil “Faith” is n fine invenrinn 15? I 1 died for Be:11m_r—hut was scarce X felt :1 Funeral. in my Brain 63 E heard :1 F11,‘ huzz—vhen I dicd I like :1 took nfrfigons: 355 1 like to sec it lap the Miles I never saw a Moor I57 I taste a iiquor never brewed 33 It Sifts from Le. -aclen Sic‘. -cs 75 Much Madness is divinast Same Om: dignity‘ delays for all 176 7 The last Night that She lived 13 There is no Frigate like .1 B001»: 43 V There's a certain Slant nf light 280 7 Thr: re’s been :1 Death, in the Opposite House 'Fvns v.1rrn——at fIrst———ii! z:: Us ' I76 153 no 355i 234 T 272T 1113 V , John Donne A Hymn to God the Father 54 A Valedictiunz Forbidding . -Iourning At the round eanI1's imagined comers Batter my heart, threevpersnned Gnd Break of Day 34 Death, be nut pmud 255 » Hg-"mu lo God My God, in My Sickness S5 356 T [:23 ill’ Song: Gu and with :1 filling star 358 The Apparition 177 ' The Cnnonization 276 The Fiea 173 , The Go0(f—. -{onm' 356 The Indiffererit 7357 V The Sun Rising ii‘) 7 Robert Frau V 7, » Acquainted wE: h the Night After Apple-Picking 66 Z58 ' ,35,
  13. 13. _B5Trf. ’ft H Bitches 362 , , , , Desei1PIace5 52 , Design "156 ii ’ , Fire aniHce EDI, A Home Burial 18} * Mending VnH 364’ V i 7 7 ' Nothing Gold Can Stay JOE ’ "Our, Out—"' , 139 , Stepping by ". ’0ods’on :1 SnmW;7E= e|j4ing 7 7153 The Aim '. "aé Suing 7 219 The Road Not Taken , 94 CONTENTS Cont§: mporaIV'y (§oi1ecti<: u:11E V 7 W39 [our cantenapafar) poets are r. -zfriesmtc. -i by at fang‘: six pbcms each, inclindsd at I-an'0:<s points in the book. The}: offer Sm. -fcnzs the appunitnity to sarnphz at greater Imgihs lhi v. L': rr§Li aflaocxs of their own time. Approaches to analysis and at-ririug arg s1cgge. §zed ugly 59. 307 of Pan Tm} of this book. 7 ' Billy Cnflins I; iLtrKi(1CtiGh—!0P<}I: lr§. ‘ 9} Oh, MyrGoVd! , 351" ' Picnic , Lightning 371 Sonnet 160 ' 4 The Ggvlden Years 35} The History Teacher I30 ‘I’ci_ghing the Dog 113 Scunm: Heumzju '1‘-n August Night ‘ 69 Digling 99 I-'oV1lm~. '7er7 172 7 Mid—TErIII Break 13} The Fqrge 65 Villunelle fox Anpixéefiary V2759 7’ XV
  14. 14. xvi CONTENTS Sharon Oids 3 Go Back to L-i:1§= '193? 386 ' My Soothe Man f 146' : ,, , , Rite ofPassnger 197 ~ ~ 7 , , ThePi:1nnEdC|1iit§V V357V V Tilt: Victims 385 , _ 35H‘) 36 ' ' Mary O| |'ucVr A Bittcmess 132 Lilies 142 ' Music Lexonsr V198 V ' V V V = V Picking Biuebetries. Austeriiu, New York, 195? ' 86' Spring in the Classroom: 53 , , , , , , , , The EIa1r: kSnaI<e I 7 389, V 7 7 7 7 The Rabbit [80, V V V V V V The Truro Bear T09 « ' ' . ... ... ... .. Part Two Writing About Poetry 299 I. Why ‘Vrile about Literature! 301 II. For Whom Do You Write? 301 111. Two Basic Approaches 303 I. Etplicatinn 303 2. Ancllgzis 30-E EV. Choosing aTopic 3B4 1. Papers That Focus on a Single Poem 305 2. Papers of Comparison and Contrast 305 3. Papers on :4 Number of Poerns by a Single Author 306 4. Papers on a Numlrcr of Poems with Some Feature Other than Authorship in Common 308 V. Proving Your Point 308 VI. Vtiting the Paper 319
  15. 15. CONTENTS xvii VII. Introducing Quotations (Ql—Ql I) 312 VIII. Documentation 318 1. Textual Documentation (TDl—TD5) 319 2. Paremherical Documentation (PDLPD6) 32] 3. Documentation l = Works Citoxl 323 4. Documentation of Electronic Sources 324 IX. Stance and Style (31-86) 326 X. Grammar, Punctuation, and Usage: Common Problems 329 1. Grammar (G1-G2) 329 2. Punctuation (Pi—P5) 330 3. Usage (Ul—U2) 332 XI. Writing Samples 33‘? - 1. Explication: "A Study of Reading Habits" 334 2. Analysis: Diction in "'Patl|5li-‘ of Manners" 337 Part Three Poems for Further Reading 341 Kim Adeilonizin Sonnenizio on a Line from Drayton 342 Nathalie Anclcuon The Miser 342 W’. H. Auden Musée des Beaux Arts 342 AP writing prompt inclmlerl Jimmy Santiago Baca Main Character 343 AP writing prompt inrlrided Aphru Balm On Her Loving Two Equally 344 D. C. Berry On Reading Poems to a Senior Class at South High 345 AP writing prompt incliirled Elizabeth Bishop Manners 346 AP u-11'ring prompt inclmtlzd Gwendolyn Brooks :1 song in the front yard 34? Elizabeth Barrett Browning Grief 348
  16. 16. xvii‘: Co. :Ti. 1'rs Anny Clcnnpitt Wirnc-55 3~lS Al’ u-‘rising prompt l1’! £llL2lE(l Lucille Clifton good times 349 Samuel Taylor Coleridge Kubla Khan 3-19 Al’ writing promfzt includeri Billy Collins The Golden Years 351 Billy Collins Oh, r-‘iy Goal! 35I Stephen Crane War is Kim] 352 AP writing prompt include-. ‘l c. E. clnnmings Buflalo Bill's Llclunct 352 e. e. cnnmiing: the Cambridge ladies who live in fumislied souls 353 2. a. cumming: Spring is like 21 perhaps hand 353 AP writing prompt include-cl Emily Dickinson A Light exists in Spring 35-‘l Emily Diclrirmoti Apparently with no surprise 355 Emily Dickinson I died for I5eauty—ln1r was scarce 333 Emily Dickinson 1 like a look of Agony-' 355 Jolm Donne At the round earth’: imagined corners 356 John Donne The G(xx. l«. -Iorrow 356 John Donne The lnulifilcrent 357 John Donne Song: Go and catch a falling star 358 Rita Dare Persephone. Falling 359 Paul Laurence: Dunbar Sympathy 359 Lawrence: Fcrlinglirtti Christ climlw: -d down 360 Carolyn Forché The Colonel 362 Rolnzrt Frost Birdies 362 Robert Frost Mentlittg l-"all 364 Allen Ginsberg A Supermarket in California 365 Thom Grnm From the ‘l"a‘e 366 R. S. Cjug-1111 Snow l/ liite and the Seven Deadly Sins 367 Thomas Hardy "Ali. Are You Digging on My Grave? " 369 Thomas Hardy Channel Firing 370 Thurnrls Hrmly The Sill}. -ll[€ET| S 371 Seamus Heoney §’ollo-‘er 322 George Herbert Love 373 A. E. Housman To an Athlete Dying Young 373 Langston Hughes Aunt Sue's Stories 37-1 AP ivriting prornpt im: lu. -;le. -I Langston Hughes Mother to Sun 375 Al’ wriririg prompt inciurlctl Langston Hughes Negro Servant 375
  17. 17. c-r>x? EN'rs xi: -: Langston Hughes Theme for English B 376 Randall Jamcll The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner 377 Ben Jonson Oh, that joy 50 soon should waste 378 Ben Jonson To Celia 378 Jenny Joseph Warning 378 Al’ u. -11'tir1g prnmpr iritirtdeni John Keats La Belle Dame sans Merci 3?9 John Keats Ole to :1 Nightingale 351 Philip Larkin . '-Xubnde 353 Andre Lorrie Black Mother Vum:1n 38-'3 Al’ writing prmnpx iritimled llrlarinnrie Nluore Silence 383 Pat l'Iora Immigrants 356 Sharon Ohls I Go Back to May I937 386 AP writing prompt inciuderl Sharon Olds The Plnnne-. .i Child 357 Sharon Olrls The Victims 385 Mary Oliver The Black Snake 389 Dorothy Porlccr Résunié 389 Limln Puslun i am learning to almndtrn the world 390 Margc Piercy Sentimental Poem 393 l-Large Piercy A “York of Artifice 39} Sylt-in Plath Mud Girl’s Love Song 391 Sylvia Plath Spinster 392 Sylvia Plath Wluthering Heights 393 Ezra Pormtl -Salurntinn 394 Adrienne Rich Poetry‘: E 395 Erlrein Arlington Robinson The Mill 393 Edwin Arlington Robinson Mr. Floods Pam; 396 Eel win Ariinginn Robinson Richnnl Can; 398 AP at-vit: '11g prompt irltltrtleil Tlreodore Roethlce l knew :1 womzrn 398 Theodore Roiztllltc rl3= Papzfs V:1lt: 399 Chn‘slina Rossetti Sum -‘SN Michael Ryan Letter from an Institution = lL-"0 Anne Sexton Young 401 Villr'arn SllLll(L‘5f)f. '(lr£ Let me not to the marriage of true minds 432 Gary Short -Stick Figure 432 Charles Sinlii: Evening ‘i«’;1lk 403 Charles Sirnic Gray-‘headed Sclmolchiltlren 40-1: DuI. 'id R. Slavitt Rzrptures 494
  18. 18. XX CDNTENTE Str. -vie Smith Nor Waving But Drowning 405 GtlT_‘ Soto Small Town with One Road 405 Edmuml Spenser One day‘ I wrote her mime upon the strand 406 Wallace Stevens Anecdote of the la: 407 Wlallace Stet-‘ens The Death of a Soldier 407 Vallm: e Stevens Disiilasionrnent oi Ten O'Ciocl: ‘I03 Alfred, Lord Tennyson The Oak 408 Dylan Thomas Fern Hill 409 John L'[ulil(c Exlliasketlaall Player hlona Van Duyn In Bed with a Book ‘ill David “lagmier Return to the Swiunp 412 1’a[t Whitman A Sight in Camp in the D.1§-‘break Gray and Dim 4 i3 Whit Whitrnan To a Stranger ‘EH Walt lVlIitman Wlioever You Are Holding Me Now in Hand 414 William Carlos llrlilliarns Spring and All 416 William Wzmlsworth I ivandered lonely as a cloud 41? 410 Al’ mixing jirromfit included “rlilliai-n Whrrlsworth ll. -ly heart leaps up when l heholtl 413 William Wonlsu. -orlh The Solimry Reaper 418 William Butler Yeats The Lake Isle of Innisfree 419 ‘William Butler Yeats Sailing In Byzantium 419 lvllliarn Butler Yeats The &c<}nLl Coming 4.7.0 lVilliam Butler Yeats The Wild Swans at Coole 421 Practice AP Writing Prompts for Poetry Poetry AP—l Glossary and Index of Literary Terms {-23 index olAurhors, Titles, and First Lines 433 Cop; -Tights and Acknowledgrnents -H9
  19. 19. Preface In preparing this thirteenth edition of P21113123 SO: fl'h'. ‘l and Sense, we have stri-‘en to be true to the principles established by Laurence Pcrrine more than fifty years agu while acknowledging the evolving nature of poetry. V'. ’e have been guided not only by our own experience but by the helpful suggestiuns of many teachers who have contributed the results of their classroom experience. Many of them are identified in the “Prriifisional Acknowledgments" listed here. They have helped us in replacing more than twenty«fir-‘e percent of the poems printed in the previous edition. In keeping with Perrine's principles, the book works to balance the classic with the contemporary, to represent a wide diversity of poets, and to emphas ze the itrtpnrtanctz of the close reading oipoetrg as the avenue to enjoy and appreciate it. Although there are many llourish— ing approaches to poetry and its effects, we Izelieve that the initial step mast he understanding the elements through which poetry presents itseif. This book is addres d to the student who is beginning a serious investigation of poetry. Ve have attempted to offer that student a suf- ficient grasp of the nature and variety oihpoerry, some reasonable means for reading it with appreciative understanding. and a few primary ideas nfhow to evaluate it. One important principle establislied in the earli- est editions of the hook is the need for conciseness and compactness, so that the book will have a friendly, welcoming appeal and will not seem daunting in its cornpreliettsiveness. In matters of theory, in an intro- ductory‘ textbook some issues are undoubtedly simplified, but none we hope seriously so, and some more sopliisticatcd theoretical approaches have had to he excluded in the interests of space. Classroom reach- ers ofcautse may supplement the basic materials here with their own insights. Another principle is that the elements of poetry are presented in a progressinn in which each new topic builds on what preceded it. The separate chapters gradually introduce the student to the elements of poetry. putting the emphasis always on how and u-h_'. How can the reader use the_<e elements to get at the total meaning of the poem, to interpret it sensibly, and to respond to it adequately! l.7hj, ' does the
  20. 20. xxii PREFACE poet use these elernents-3 Vl1at values have they for the poet and the reader? The organization and structure of the book reinforce the step-hy- step approach to untletstanding paetry. Part One consists of sixteen chapters nf definition and discussion. Each chapter contains two parts: (I) :1 dL= cussion (tithe topic indicated by the chapter title. with illustra- tive poems. and (2) 21 relevant selcction oi’atltlition: tl poems with studs, ‘ questions for further illustration of the topic. A heavy line in the text and in the tahle of cnntents indicates the division hetwcen the two parts of each chapter. Also in each chapter we include a list of review topics for the materials. and -.1 list of sugestions for writing about those rnraterittls as they are illustrated elsewhere in the hook. The presentation of poetry‘ in the whole Luck is similarly divided into two parts: Part One consists of the sixteen discussion chapters; Part Three contaitts :1 selection of 1'. -oents for further reading. witlmut study questions. Part Two, "‘i"riting about i"c-etry, " ernhnices the important a§uInp- tiun that the fuilest understanding and appreciation of :1 poem arises from a reader's ability to express in language its meaning and emotional effects. The process of finding the right wortis to rnake these clear, and the additinnal Ci: lIil}" that results from the correct and effective presen- tatinn of these ntaterials, is a significant part of making a poem part of one '5 experience. This AP“ edition contains helpful {eantres for students preparing for the A? English Litertlture and Cornpositiun Examination. There are ftirtyvflve A? practice prompts akin to the poetry‘ essay question students will find on the AP Literature Exam. There is also an intro- duction tn the AP course and exam that offers strategies that students can use both in preparing for the exam and [(1% it. Although the Ecol: ernp izes the stud’; of poems, not poets, we have continued the practice of representing some poets with at suffr- cient number of poems in the chapters and in Part Three to support the study of them as individual poecs. In this edition, there are three such “Featured Poets": Irihn Dunne from the Renaissztnce, Emiitj Diclzimon from the nineteenth century, and Robert Frost from the modern era. The table of contents gathers the titles of their poems in a boxed forrrtat for easy reference. This edition also presenns i “Contelnporary Collection, ” four poets represented by six or Innre poems each, placed thrnughout the text. These too are identifnxl in :1 boxed fonnat in the table of contents. Among them for the first time is Pulitzer Pri. ze-winnimrx: -c1t‘iar1,'0iivet:
  21. 21. PREFACE xxiii Finally. to provide an introduction to the further works of individ- ual peers. the book contains at least Lhres: poems each by IS’l!1'| [Y—SEVEIl f| (It'. ‘E§, both classic and modern. These puems can easily be referencerl in the index til the b An Instructor's Manual has again heen prepared to autcumpnny this llc-(alt, available to all teachers who adapt the hermit for their class The manual contains an analytical article on even; puem, suggesting app-ranches to interpretation and some information that places the pnems in their contexts. Most of these articles are the work of the two authors who prepared this edition, but some were written by the man who originated the first cditinn, Lallrence Perrine. For this cditiun, there is a corresponding Teacher's Guide for AP courses. which includes information and lesson suggestions for teach- ers in the AI’ course. E2;-am’i E’ Cornputer’ and Online Testing for this tirm offers over 2&3 poetry questions that will help students practice for the multiple-choice sectiun of the AP exam. Teachers also have the optic-n to easily generate their own que as within the ExarnView “Quick Test Vi: ard. " In addition. teachers whu adopt the l'K. Kllv{ can request ClSL§fl’(I()! Tl Practice Exercises, which includes a set of additiunal muItiple—v: hr_ice questions. A lest-preparation tnanual. Fast Track to :1 5: Prépslnhgfor the AP‘ English Lileramre and Compusirian E. ‘rrrr1it1au'm1_. is also availahle. It includes an introduction for srudenn about the exam, chapters on each type of questiun. and (Wt) carnpiete practice 18. 5. ll can be purchased either with the text or sepamtely. Through the thirteen editions of a bcsulr that originated in the middle of the twentieth century, Sound and S» 5-: has evolved in man; -' wa_ _. responding to shill: in interest, concern. and taste expressed b_-' its users. However, certain abidig principles remain as relevant tn this new century-‘ as they were in the last. Aruong these are the cnnvio tinn that the close reading of a text is basic In the understanding and apprer: ltiun of poetry; that to understand the means h_= which a poem aclti 5 its ends is an essential part 0! experiencing it fully; and that mg poetry‘ is important to the deveiopxnent of the whole person. T. R. A. and G. ].
  22. 22. Professional Acknowledgments The follawirxg instructors have offered helpful reactions and sug— gestions for this thirteenth edition of Pcrrinc's Sound and Sense: llnl-en Anderson ; L': .1-J Uni‘. gin Susan Bass Nari: mm. Higl-. Sflcd Slerhen Bernstein l. -‘r: a'1¢ni 7,‘. Q-Y. -I‘_. ‘L‘| .$ Adrian Blevins Crib) Ctflkge James B<zbr. ‘.: |.: L-‘r. , -_. c l. :I. L‘an‘| :Ls-. ':: JD.1:'irr.2I. £l. Clnrismpluer E-renmn . 'm'r. ‘k111t€. " Hi; -K &h1‘-l Eieanm Bzmrn (_‘. l)' Cal 2 c-[$.11 Fr-1:-= .': nI Lori Brown "'r. ulL-. 'I ("': :rI: ‘: 'I’. ' Hay-‘I 3:. -‘kt! Joe Caxrilhers l"‘L""_’. ".t-n Cc-E51 Sun Tlmrms Ciarl: hnyru H55‘. S. :‘. a.3l Dnuglas Cule S: ;t'. '-. ' C. :n: :r. :.! Cri-I-' icy Cnilsge Temple Cone us. .'a: u.' Ac. m'v. '|]I Patricia Conquest ‘I”r‘. ‘fiaUi HI'_. jl S: .E: .;i Deborah Cummitss H. -m-2 . a am 11:53. scina Rebecca Daniel Fania-sE= ;urg S5-an High Sch: ‘l Linda Davey 1:. .. am»: Saba . -iaryfielh Delsieo . -i1emi2 Cdisge Diane DiDnn_»1 Etvuns Hg‘! :*ix. .*. J . ‘Iichael Dom] Cflsgz Ellen L: _2;m~l‘mn: ne Bvssalz L‘n. ‘m: it_ julie Eltlel Dgsrn I-ix}-,4. Sc'r2.v: :l Lalie E'. lurmL~ . <.: i.«»,4 . _-, um; ,-: nga. .: 1r, ,r. .r. ..u; ~.. Ta. -fandagja .1: Ezfison Jayce Hen A: r.mL'u Cal‘: ge Eileen Hildenluand Lnru-. i:la' Ca. Sch? -:4 Krissen Isabelle Ccimlu-Gmrru C-3.-. 'L-rm-m':3 Cc. " Danna Kilgute-Kirnble 'fiI: :i SL1: = rn L-'n: ' V’ Rifreu Kinpoimer M-5'iay crxege {lruce Larne-§' L': L'~m cam; 1.Lz_n-_= z Hg. S5310:-I lvlarjor§' Lang: Wasmn Oregon Una. 'r' Dmny I. :w. -rence Crflsge Bum‘ Sim-L-‘p (7:. m: S: h;-of
  23. 23. i-Ro}‘i5sIoKAL ACKN(J'I_'EDGllEl‘TS XXV Kamille Le; -.1: L‘. -_ Ph; 'i. '.; .~s . .iarl( Luce Bars 1:-u: Sci‘: m-. ' Al Luther Co-3.‘Jge Rig}. ScE5c. ' Tiffany . l:1<l. ' : r‘. i-2&3! . lelrxl'y Mar’ i Hetninger H557! Schxl Ailrielle Mitchell i'z. -nrerlu Cali. -gc M gr Ann Martha ‘K: £111 C-: -:1r2c. ‘.‘c'. i.' Sam L-'r. iunn‘: ;s Patrick O'CLInnell Game-n L‘r. I|¢. vs: 'ry Sally Pfeifer svt Sp: -lune E-xi "J eh-oils ]r-an R2 as N. r.'n‘. :.rs: AL: ':uv. ~.1 Cu. -.1-nurc': ;; Kim Rogers Mutauari Rgglx-r. r.[ Sc}. -ac! Rebecca Rug E In: T. Rt-Ems. "-.1 HI': '. 5:} - Thornas Snnll lip Oxlmn c. -.-m. ..u~, . Crrlkge Darla Srnyth G. W-'. Hahn mg. &1‘-ml And Snlcmtin U ' Tavngu Hail: Spencer S. "-: v.‘iaa. s:e. n OiJr. ’-. t=: r: SSE L. '.1.‘ren: .:; c Mark Stanford I'. :;~; .rr £2 H-glr Stimuli jrayce Suaplren Gusmim . o‘. :ir-if-iau Col‘: -,1: Barbara Swavelin Tr. -neg rm mi-». .i David Tack F. -.1’; -3 Nari‘. Bruce Taylur Lv'r. n.ms: -_. - .1,’ Wucrnuin. Em: C-‘. n'. ~e Jeff Thum. -as LCHS Lauryl Tucker lL". :I£: .r Ccliege Kathleen Walmn L: lTl"’qE C-: 'rrr. ur| .’ry C5125: Steve rsc-n El Rena Hrgfi Sdsacl Lia Vil5un SL'N'l' C1.-K312 . :l P Stephan’ Wool! NOVAS 'L. .1;: m-.
  24. 24. Foreword to Students “Pvt: never been good at poetry. " Most teachers have heard this statement repeatedly iimtn students like you as they hegin :1 course in the serious study of poetry. The patient teacher kztmvs what you me: |n—th: tt there is something apparently rnysterious or even intimi- dating about trying to experience the full range of what :1 poem can mean or be. And the teacher believes you, because reading poetry is it learned skill and you may not have ltatl the practice or opporttlrtity to learn that skill. just ll: ‘nu might not have mastered the skiils necessary to bake a pie or dive offthe IL‘--meter pimforln or win at poker. if this is your situation, this book is for you. On the other hand, you may feel that your experience with poems has developed for you the sensitivity to respond fitily and to live vicari- uusly within the world that a poem represents. If this is your situation, this lzoal: is for you too. Here's why: bath the beginner and the more experienced reader of poems can profit from a hook that provides a step-hyastep method tbr understanding how :1 poem does what it does and of judging its accom- plishment. All t. {us——teachers, beginners, experienced students—krmw how we feel when We first read through a poem. We prulsahly start by drinking "I like this” or "this pnern doesn’r say much to me" or "'wl1at in the world is this supposed to mean! " Under normal circumstances, if you could, you’tl either act on your filst reaction and read the poem again, or you'd attempt to discover its meaning. or you'd drop it and go on to do something more pleasurable. However, _'ou’re in a special situation. ‘r’ou’re taking :1 course (either hy your own choice or because you're Iequifird to), and one of the rules of the game is that you're $llFf2()SELl to move from your initial reaction to some sort of "serious” response that will satisfy your teacher. If you like the poem and mint to reread it, your teacher will pester you with wanting to know u-by ‘nu liked it, and might even insist that you offer reasons why (tther people should like it too. If you are truly a little bit curious about it or think that it is a waste of time, your teacher wili lead (or nudge, or l'. I-ash) you into firtding things in the poem that might change your initial opinion. In any case, the terms nfyour special situation. as :1 student in a course with -.1 grade on the horizon, make it necessary for you to hm-‘e more than an initial reaction. Ymfil need
  25. 25. FOElL'()[ZD rt) STUDENTS . to develop an Lmdersraneling oi the poem. and you'll need to sliow in discussion or writing l. ‘-(Jill what you unzlerstamf and how the poem led you to that understanding. Tliufs where this book will help. ln addition to :1 systernntic guide for discovering how and wliat n poem means, we’= e provided you with a-estions for writing at the ends of the chapters and staurlar-‘ls for V, ur written work in Part Two of the hook. Vlu; is tvri mg inipommt? It's the most straigltrfonvard vzt§, 'of sort- ing out your feelings and ideas, putting them into shape, and nailing down your own experience. All writing Ill. ‘-0l][ literature has : Lluulrle inotive—it sharpens your grxp of the ‘i)Il(, and it helps you to lead other people to share your experience. Writing nlaour liienrturc is writ- ing persuasively. and persuading others to see what you see helps you to see it more clearly. So at the most basic level, we want this book (and your course) to help you with reading and writing-_-. l-lowever, you have every right to ask, “‘l/ liy read and write about poetry? " That's 21 good question, hecaiuse in our 'orl: .l there are so many vays of gaining expetitrice and insigh: into our lives and the lives of others that focusing on one resource lizised on the spoken and written mml may seem narrow and old-fashioned. Ve're willing to grant that, and we'll go even furI: her: in a sense. literary study is Elitisf, and turning to poetry as :1 source of experience will set you apart from the rnajority of people. As you'll see as you proceed through this hook, poetry is the most compact anti emotionally stimulating of literary experiences, able to deliver the most insight in the smallest amount of space. a richly pow- erful w~ me the hearts and minds of many different kinds of people in malty drffemm situations. ‘We challenge you to hold it up to the several other sources of insight into human heliztvior with wlrich you might be lamiliar—f| lms. television drama, radio and television tall»: shows, Courses in psychologi; or sociology. Eil‘Cfll'0l'| [,l[lg on other people, or quarreling and making up with people who mean something in you. All of these have limitations when you compare them with the compacted experience and wisdoin of poetry. Poets are e pens in seeing, feeling, understamling. and expressing. In ages before literacy, poets were the only means to | ruth. s beyond inilivirlual experience, and they can still help us to enlarge our limited lives. You can understand and hcnefit from poetry, and you can [mm to express your thoughts and feelitigs about the experience it conve " by writing persuasively about it. in short, you can be "good at poetry. ” Turn [0 Chapter 1 to hegin.
  26. 26. Preparing to Succeed on the AP* English Literature and Composition Examination Every Mar-', more than 3{. ‘0.Dt. '’) students sit down to a rigorous exam in ciose reading and analirtical writing about literature: the AI" English Literature and Composition Examination. In Z0[l the number of students taking the exam was 367, 962, and the numbers keep rising. For most of these students, the exam is the culmination of a classroom course in AP Literature; however, other students may ltave been home— schooled, may has-‘e taken an online course. or may have decided to take the exam independently-'. These test-takers hope to demonstrate that they are ready for the rigors oi college composition and literature courses. In addition, many hope to perform well enough to earn college credits and waive introductory coliege composition courses. You are most likely among the many‘ students stuiiying AP Lit- erature (or a similar course of intense literature study), and you may wonder just what you can do to best prepare for this rigorous exam. You ll1El_’ have heard that the exam is challenging; you may wonder how you wiil fate or even whether or not you should take the exam. Mann; test prep books are available, including Cengme Learning's Fast Track to a 5: Preparing for the AP‘ English Litemrtrre and Compasifion Examination, which wiil take you step—by«step through the exam process. and you can find abundant tips online; an entire industry‘ has been built around Al” preparation in all subject areas. And it is trite that there are good test-taking strategies you can {earn to help you succeed. Familiarizing yourself with the test format will no doubt allow you to enter the exam room with more confidence than if you have no idea what you will face. This chapter aims to provide you with an overview of the exam and some good working strategies that will help you succeed. Yet more important than any specific strategy or technique is intel— ligent analysis based on close reading. A5 AP Literature teacher Martin Beller states, to perform weli on the AP Literature Exam you need to be up . -and Adramed Placement Progmn are xa_»; ..mr ttslerrtzrls re .1: otter; Entnnte Er: mi11:= L'-oti i‘. cu.1£. {L'cli. u:tsrn14 amt. -ta ir| I.lae§rodtr: li: .t1r. ‘f, maass mi endone. Ll1iS}Tl'n. rlIJC{. XXIX
  27. 27. .L‘:4 E‘P. Et'ARI. ‘Iti m SUCCEEH on rite APLE "lit smart"'—intuitiva, nlvscrvant. sensitive, and s illed at teatlittg and anal; ng literature Does that mean you should just throw up your hands and figure your “lit smarts" ate :1 matter off-ate or genes, that nothing can chtmge your AP Lit tlestin ' "ut at all. No matter Imw nattttnlly smart. you are, you can tleielup your literary LQ. through careful and close reading and rel: -aalirtg and lay leaming to write well al: ~;)ut litcratutc. The College Board states that students’ reading in p1’x2[. |tII'-ltl€}l‘| for this exnttt artist he "vi. '.lc and deep. " Tb read witlely means to have studied literature from all genres : u'u. l a mnge of eras. To read deeply means to read with insight and imdetstanding: to look beyond the surface mt; -zming. The College Board 5 _, gests that you shmtld have experience with literature from the sixteenth tltmugh the twr-nty lllil century. This reading should ideally I1 over your entire high . tout career; the sltills you will build from this in-depth reading and study develop and itttprove over time. The lrest way to succeed (in the Al’ Litemtun: Exam is not hy trying to study tit. ac-zm itself hut by reading and untletstzmding the kinds of material the exam c()vers—poetry, firtion, and drama of literary excel- lence. By familiarizing yourself with :1 wide range of good Iiterattutc in all llIL’Sl3 genres, you are preparing to read. compreheml. and analvre an excerpt 01' shot: tvatl: of literature §-‘ou’ve never seen l: et'0rc—om: of the tzsks the AP Literature Exam will demand of you. You will be able to read short pm: es, such as those appearing in the E: -:am's multiple choice suction, quickly and with attention to tune, diction. and other elerursuts of literature that often loan the lrasis of these quatinrts. The qualities tllt: exam tests are those tlurt pc tent, focusctl readers of excellent lit- emture can dcvelctp over tim ensitivity to nuance, attention to detail. a solid “‘()1’l(il'k§I ncahulary, and the skills oi critical analysis. You are far better off devc g these 5 ills than ag0ni: irtg over what the current year's exam will cover or trying to secortd guess the test nkvelopers. Yml have at your fingertips this moment a valuable umurce to help you develop l. l'll‘£C very skills: Pr. -rrt'tte’s Srrmtzl and Sense. This E001»: prtwitles zmalys . and guidance that will prepare you well for the complex questions as on the multiple choice portion of the AP l. i(EI7l[1!J'K'3 Exam as well as for writing the exattfs free response r-say qttesrinns. Read the chapter anal closely as you study‘ the poems assig, -1'1e: .l in your class. If you are as ‘Litiid to dn5IT: ( the questions that accompany the poems, ;tnsi'erthr: rt1 in depth in detail rather tlitm rushing through them. These: questions do not for :1 quick "right ztnswcr" but are geared to point you Et't’. 'll(l a solid understzmding and irtterpretaticm of the poem. Many quatinns can lead tn lively, intense class rliscttssions— tliscttssions of the meanings of word choices, poetic vuitze, and imerv prctation. Such tfisatssitsm, in tum, prepare you to find and 51 port your ('l-‘I1 itkzas al. ‘'}1.tE tt work of literature. :1 skill you will use during the
  28. 28. PREPARING TI) strccaen on Tm: APLE xxxi AP Literature Exam. The text’s incisive questions point you toward the most significant elements ol El given poem. Ru. -atl each poem hoth silently and aioud, and return to each poem for at ieasr one more reading as you study the text analysis or work through the questions. Muse over even those qumtions that are not assigned in your chm. and let them lead you to comprehension and deeper insigh. ‘'. "ritir1g about the poems is also an excellent way to learn. As soon as you have read a poem, write a resymnse in_'o11r journal. Use the questions to guide your joumal writirrg. or write your immediate and genuine response. Return to your journal often as you sort through your reactions to the ambiguities and layered meanings found in good poems. All these stepa——rea<ling. rereading. discussing. responding to questions, and = ririr1g—are the h: L<ics every good reader of literature knows and follows. They are the most effi. -cti= e way of becoming not just. an expert on the AP Literature Exzun. but an expert reader who is solidly prepared to take this exam. Although Sound mui Sense is a poetry IL-xt—and in your class you will undmibredly supplement it = it. h reading from other genres—a good formdatiorr ir1 poetry will help you to rear} well in all genre“. Poetry is often the most difficult of the gxnres, and developing the ability to read and cornprclwnd poetry will carry nrer and help you to read more effec— tively in the other genres. The literary elements you will leam and study as the tools ufpoerry analysis——-such as point ofview. tone, figurative lan- guage. and paradox—can play a sigrificant role in other literary genres as well; there is nothing to analyze in other literature that isn't found in poetry, often in a comprexsed and focused manner. If you can read and analyze poetry well, you can read and analyze just about anytlring. Of course, your reading to prerxare for the AP Literature Exam needs to extend beyond poetry. As previously stated, your reading and stutly needs to reflect all genres of imaginative literature——noyL-ls, short fiction, and plays as well as poetry. An examination of the components of the AP Literature Exam will clarify where each of these genres fits into your weIl—halanccd study of literature. The Exam The Multiple Choice Section The tlLree—hoLrr exam consis of two parts: -.1 one-hour multiple choice section and a two-hour essay section. During the first section of the exam, you will have one hour to answer 55 multiple choice questions. The multiple choice section usually includes four excerpts or poems, although some exams include five. You wili Le asked to read each of
  29. 29. xmtii PREPARING 1'0 soccezo on re; APLE these excerpts or poems and ansi-‘er about 10 to 14 multiple choice questions hosts} on them. These questions often test your ability to recognize and discern tone; for exampie, you may be asked which offive possible tones is reilected in a pzmage or poem. Often these questions test your ability to work through convoluted syntax simply to deter- mine what is being said in a lengthy sentence or .1 stanta of poetry. You may he tested on your ability to infer it literary character's traits or pur— pose based on the information provided in :1 passage. Some questions may test your ability to recognize literary devices such as Ittetaphor, apostrophe. or oxymoron. However, these questions are always based on the context of the passage or poem; ihr example. you may be asked about the effect or impact of a particular device or choice of words. Thus, while familiarity with literary terminology is important and oiten useful in the multiple choice section of the exam, the ability to discern how literary elements function within a work is more essential and it-iil more likely result in a better test outcome. The Free—Resp0nse Essay Questions The essay portion ol the AP Literature Exam lasts two hours and con- sists of three freedesponse essay questions or prompts. Althoufit the suggested time allotment is 40 minutes per essay, you xvii} have access to all three essay prompts and may write them in any order and allocate your two hours however you choose. Question 1: Poetry Question 1, the poetry question, may be based on a single poem or excerpt of poetry, or it may require a cornparisomconrrast esay about two poems. You will receive a prompt that asks you to address specific aspects of the poem. Although the prompt asks one unified question. it usually includes two or more steps. For example, one step may asi: an incisive question about the poem‘: meaning or significance, and another step will almost always ask you how the literary devices in the poem contrilmte to the meaning. It might be helpful to think of these steps as the '‘-‘hat’' and the "how" of the question. it is essential to read and answer the prompt thoroughly. Question 2: Prose Question 2 usually includes an excerpt from prose fiction and is there- fore often referred to inlormall ‘ as the " . l’0Sl. ‘ uestion. ” However. the if I‘ 1 passages provided for analysis in past years have come from plays and
  30. 30. PREPARING 1:: success: on THE APLE xxxiii nonfiction (though rirely in recent years), as well as from novels or short stories. In a few cases, :1 complete short story, usually a very brief one, has formed the basis of this question. You may he asked to look at details of characterization, including how two or more characters relate to each other, and you may be asked how certain details in the excerpt contribute to its overall effect. .-[any prose questions from past years have asked students to analyze the effect of setting, dialogue, comic effect, and other basic literary elements. In all cases you will he expected to find 3 connection l. c-tween the locus of this question and the literary work's overall meaning. Question 3: The "Open" Question Question 3, the “open question. " is often 21 favorite of students because of the choices it offers. This question consists of :1 general prompt. usually dramatic or character-based, that you wili apply specifically to any one novel or play of literary merit. Although the question usually stipulates "novel or play. " in past years the question has included "epic poent, " and if you can write -'Eil about an epic poem, you may do so without fear of penalty. Following the question. the College Boztttl provides .1 list of novels and plays that are applicable to the year's particular question. You need not choose your selection from this list, however, and often many of the more interesting and well-written tesponses are based on a literary work from ou r e the list. Some AP Lit teaches a" 'ise their dents to cover the list of choices as they read the qu on and consider what novel or play that they know well will wotl: l, st However, other students prefer to peruse the list in the hopes that they will rccognce a title they know and aLout wlrich they can write well. ‘l/ riting the Exam: Tips for Success Answering Multiple Choice Questions The key to success on the multiple choice questions is your ability to read and comprehend :1 wide range of literature of all genres from the sixteenth to the twenty-first century. No one knows what pas= :1_t; e_< will appear on the multiple choice exam and. although familiarity with the question format is helpful. practicing many old multiple choice tests is unlikely to help you as much as improving your overall ability to umlerstttnd literature. It is important to read the p: ts— sage carefully and to teatl the questions and all the options closely.
  31. 31. -' l‘FIEi': flING ro succrrzu or: “rm: APLE You will want to read sluwl_-‘ eruutglr I0 discern significatit details but quitkly enough tn finish the 55 questions in the hunt pmvitled. This is where smite gtmetice can be helpful. You will want In achieve a IJEICL‘ that allmts you to read the fcu1r pa '! f'‘5 and nlsu answer 55 questi<ins—abuur .1 question every 4L- seconrl. You also need to learn hm’ ED eliminate the distmctets—the wrung answers. As you read thrtiugh the choices, try to eliminate the ones that are oht-‘iuuslg-' wrong at first 50 that ', ‘(}u can narrtnv in clinic " Note that there is nn penalty fur wrong zzttsx-xe ‘ ‘nu sirnp y J<m‘t get credit for them. 50 _-'mt should nnswer every question. even if gnu l'I'. I‘i. ‘ to guess, Being able tn rake clialleng I-' multiple choice tests in~'nl'es nut only grind reatiittg but also gout! critical thinking as you ’DFl>{ thmugh the syntax (if the. questinns and tmssihle answers. After you finish the multiple choice (}l. §t“. S(’i(}[L‘-, you will need to use the break prn ‘flied (0 clear ynur head so that you can do your very lrest on the free response esstiy questions. You can futd simple multiple choice qu-‘ titans at http wmv . cnIlegr: honrd. c<irt1!studentftesting_. 'apIenglish__lir nmfuhttnllenglit (click on the downlnatl iinl; irtiniecliiitely after the title). F01’ example, the first sample excerpt you will see is fmin Henry Fielding-‘s Tbmjones. Read the pass we first and then refer back to it as ' in answer the qur. -s~ time. The opening paragraph of the passage ten 3: Mr. ]unes_. of whose personal acctimp hments we have hitli— ertn said very little, was, in reali _, Line of the hantlsoniest youtig fellows in the wnrltl. His face, besides being the picture of health. llllil in it the most apparent nmrks of sweetness and gnarl-nature. These qualities were indeed so cl1ri. t:icteristir: :tl in his countenance. that, while the spirit and sensibility in his eyes. thnugh they must have been perceit-‘etl by an accurate ohsu rver, might ltave escaped the nntice (if the less discerning, 54> 5E! ’(! t|,4-[[5-‘ was this gtxitinature painter] in his look, that it was retnarlzed by almost every one who saw him. Nntice that the first two sentences mention Mr. ]cmes‘s hIIIl(. l3()l'llt'. ’ face, especiallv, -' the sweetness and gaiod nature that are most nt>tice— able. The first multiple choice question asks 3-‘nu to focus rm the thin] sentence, beginning in line 5: The structtrre of the sentence beginning in line 5 does which of the ftilltiwingl (A) It stresses the rzirictt-‘ of hit. }unes's personal rnrriliutes. (B) It implies that Mr. Junes is ti less ctnnplicuted persunality than the s[‘. e:tl{et sug
  32. 32. PEIEPARIKG T0 st: ccE}: n ()3: Tu}: APLE xxx? (C) lt disguises the prominence tit’ . -it. ]oncs's sensitive nature and emphasizes his less reatli discerned traits. (D) it rellects the failure of some observers to recognize . -lr. ]ones’s spirit and sensibility. (E) It belies the straightfonvztrd assertion made in the previ- ous sentence. The ccrrect ansii-‘er is “ti” Notice that the question asks you to look closely at the structure of the sentence. ‘We can readily eliminate ‘‘:1'‘ because the sentence is not stressing variety: it is dealing only with the spirit and sensilzility in Mr. }r)nes's eyes. We can also eliminate “it” because the sentence is sumv sting at compiication—| h:tt is, that the spirit and sensibility‘ are only apparent to those who are discerning. The answer "C" is clearlg-' wrong: the sentence does just the opposite. And “e" is clearly‘ wrong because the sentence supports and builds on the assertions in the previous sentences; lE Lines nut “l. !elie"' them (show them to he untrue). This leaves us with “II. ” the correct answer. The sentence tells s that tlmugh some astute ol; scr-‘era 9:13 this quali _' in Mr. lanes. it “might have escaped the name of the less Liisccrning. “ This Ls clearly the CCKIECE response. This example demonstrates the importance of a solid vocahularg and how important it is for _-'ou to follow the ideas through the syntax of complicated lines and sentences in bath poetry and prose. Although practicitg :1 few multiple choice questions can help you altar}: -en these abilities, the most iinpurtant quality is an ability to read with discem~ ment and strong critical thinking. Only intensit-‘e close reading and : tn: :l5's}is of p0L’}E1If of pa sages from prose literature can help you In: if ' ere op t is a ‘ it}: Preparing the Free—Response Essays The key to writing three solid ess; . s is often sultunetl up in a mnemonic for“Al”'—: _uldress the nmlnpt. Read each question slowly and carefully-'. You are alltnved to write on the green test sheets, and most students find it helpful to underline parts of the question in under to ensure that they have covered all steps. For Questions I and 7, which are hased on poems and passages or stories provided for you, it I. -. helpful to annotate the poem or passmze. underlining pertinent phrases that _-'ou ntay want to cite as you wnre your essay. Yaur handwritten essay is cnnsirlered 3 draft so dun’: W011}-‘ about crossing off words or phrases or, if you must. starting over (keeping the time factor in mind). If you need to insert a sentence or two. or even a full paragraph, try to do so clearly, boxing
  33. 33. xxxvi FREPAEINIS T0 succrzo OK ‘In! APLE the inserted material and pointing to where it goes; the exam readers wiil make every effort to follow your thinl<'rng. Read through ail three quest ions quickly helore deciding on the order in which you wiil answer them. Although you may choose any order, many teachers as well as former AP students recommend that you begin with the essay you feel you are able to answer best. This will boost _-‘our confidence as you touch the retnaining questions, but more importantly. if you do go over the suggested time allotted for each essay (-10 minutes). you will at least have spent the greater proportion of your time on _-‘our strongest essay. You don't want to find yourself facing the question you know best with only l5 minutes left. You are advised to spend exactly 40 minutes on each question, l! ll| ’. these are general guidelines, anal the exact allrr cation of your two hours is up to you. Think (and Plan) Before You Write Despite the time pressure of the exam, most students are also better off resisting the temptation to plunge right into the writing. in addition to the close reading and annotating almady recommended, you might want to jot down a tough outline or plan for your writing. Although insightful reading and interpretation of literature is the focus of this exam. it is also a test of “T ng skills. It is important that you write in an organized fashion with a clear thesis. The exarn readers are instmcteil to treat your essay as a draft and normally disregard minor errors. but you should nonetheless write as accurately and eloquently as you can. Avoid 513'. -ruling too much time on an elaborate introduction, especially une that is urelared to the topic and that is intended as an “attention» getter. " You wiil want to write a brief and pertinent introduction that does not merelxj repeat the prompt, but you will also want to stay clear of what exam readers and teachers call “dawn of time" intros (“For as long as literature has existed, authors have written about J. As you respond to the question, IIy to write analytically. answering the specific question and supporting your insights with details and. for Questions 1 and 2, direct citations. Be sure that you explain quoted passages; integrating quotations effectively into your own sentences is an excellent skill, but you don't want to become so enamored of this technique that you end up just repeating a literary pasage, thereby creating : In essay that is heart, ‘ on quotations but light on analysis. Try to demonstrate why words or Fines you cite are significant and how they “address the promrtt. " As you cite passages. you need not inclurle line nurnlxers, as you would in : t reseatchmtl essay, because the readers have the passage right in front of them and will know it well.
  34. 34. l‘5~‘. EP. —R1NG TL) suceern ON 1115 APLE x . Answer All Three Essay Questions One point may seem obvious. but it is worth remt-mlrering. For all three essays, he sure you write something. Sometimes students lose track of time, spending all their time on two essays. Wear a watch or keep one close by in case your exam room has no clock. (You will not he allowed to have your cell phone with _-'ou. ) If you should decide to go over the suggested time for one or even two ess save enough titue to write at least a brief third essay. it is always surprising to exam readers to see exam l. ~onks in which students evidently‘ put forth considerable effort on two essays, only to leave the third one blank. In a vorst«case scenario. even if you only have time to write a paragraph, you might still earn a score that could make :1 difference in your nvemli exam results. The complex scoring formula includes a multiplier for each of the essays so even a low score will boost your overall score more than skipping an essay. Furtliermore. it should go without saying that the “something" you write needs to be relevant to the question. Although most of you know and respect this point, a few students each Year give in to the temptation E0 write off—topic papers. n complaints or papers venting their frustrations. These off-topic EA. ays receive the same score as a blank paper, wltereas spending that same time making an effort. even toward answering the lnLS[ challenging question. might yield positive results. Giving up won't do an hing for you, but staying with a task that seems daunting can help you develop your mental and emotional stamina. Writing Question 1: Poetry As you read and prepare to answer Question I, the poem; question, read the poem once liefore you read the prompt, and then read it again, slowly, with the prompt in mind. Poetry is intended to be read aloud, to he heard, and although you can’I read the poem aloud dur- ing the exam, you can read it to yourself as if you were ltearing it read aloud. Allow the voice in your head to help you mentally “hear" the poems sounds and rliylhtns. For many students, :1 higiystaltes test is more I‘1ErVE<iI1Lll! Cing than fun, but if you try to enjoy the poem as you mentally “listen" to it, you may find enjoyment and relaxation that will open the door to better understanding and a better essay. Ask yourself, “Wlio is the speaker in the poem? " and listen closcls-' to that speaker's poetic voice. Comider I’-‘lly’ the poet chose this speaker and wltt-' the speaker is itnportant in conveying the meaning of the poem. You will find that one part of the prompt addresses meaning
  35. 35. xix viii Puat'Aau: ~I(: TU succzzv on rtu: APLE and another atltlresses poetic devices or elements, and the prompt may point you in the direction of some devices that contribute [0 the Ineaning of the poem. Meaning First lt is al-‘ays helpful to zultlress the meaning of the puetu flrst—-—it is the “I= h:1t, ” the essence of the poem and of the prompt. The devices are the “l1ow"—tl: ev; help us to see how the poet conveys nietming. A stuck-nt who amwers the "tnctming" portion of the poem? question wiI. lat)ut 11;; devices will always fare better than one who mltiresses only Llevlccs (lE‘«'(}l&l of meaning. The best 1:52-{rs include both, and of these, the very best integrate the discussion of meaning and technique a lesh: without lzelnboring devices. Axvoid stating a "latmdry li devices. such as "the poet uses Lliction, tone, anti imagery to. ... " For example, an analysis of the poet's (fiction (won! choices) mat; he an effective means (if addregiug the prompt, but focus on the meaning of the poem and the wurtls as the duortt-': t}' to discussing this element. Keep in mind, too, that when the prompt says, “analyze how the poet uses devices (or elements) such as, " the words “such as” diet you the choice to choose other elements not indicated in the prompt. The prompts are user-friendly; that is. they give you strong indicators of what will lead to a goat! essay; therefore. $01: may Well want to discuss those rim-‘ices suggested by the prompt. But if the prompt points toward "paratiuz-1"’ and you either don’! see paradox in the poem or have tempo- rarily forgzatten whztt paradox means. choose another literary element you can tliscu§ intelligerttly and that is clearly significant in the poem. It cannot be emphasizetf strongly enough that any devices you choose to discuss are secondary‘ to meaning. Don’: t.1’t2l[1’. a list of devices you think you understand and than [Ff to twist anti mold them to fit the prompt. Thinking ahout the poet’: techniques as tools of the craft as opposed to "dirt-'ices"’ may help you avoid this pitfall and write an inte- grated essay‘ that answers the prompt well. A Sample Question 1: “A Story” A close look at the 2011 Question E prompt might clarify‘ the pro- cedure for you. The poem, "A Story" ht-‘ Li—Young Lee. can be found online at Al’ Centrai imp: /Iwwte. collegelwoarthcc-tnlstudentftesting! apfenglish_litlsamphtmlienglit by clicking on the link for the 3.01! free response questions. The pmtnpt fur the 2011 poetry questitm reads: "The inllulving poem is by the contemporary poet Li-Young Lee.
  36. 36. PREPARING 'l'(} SUCCEEI) LIN 1115 APLE xxxix Read the poem carelulii-'. Then write a ~'elI-rleveltypetl essay in u-‘hich _-‘nu analyze how the poet conveys the cumplex relationship of the father and son through the use of lireranf devices such as point of View and structure. " If you consider the prompt as “lrien: lh_. —that is, a solid direction to help t_-nu, not intimidate v, '(}u—§= ou will realize that every wort} is important. The first sentence tells us that Li-Young Lee as a conterrapman-' poet. thus implvi g that the situation and theme of the poem may‘ involve crmtempurary concerns. Underline or circle the -‘01'tl “con1emporan. "‘ to remind you to loolt for a contemporary situa- tion as you read the poem. The second senlence reminds you that you need to write a well- develnped essay, one with a solid thesis statement that tlues not merely echo the prnmpt. and which is clearly organized and stlpparted. You are asked to "anah_-‘ze, " which means to examine the structure or makeup of sometllirlg (In this case the poem) clu. =.clv, ' and methodically for the purpose of interpretation or explanation. This word reminds you that your answer should include the 01.-'en1ll meaning of the poem and show how the poet creates that meaning. You may want to underline “well- rieveltapetl” and “'anal~, 'ze, " hut the essence of the prompt comes in the next sentences. You are asked to analyze "how the poet conveys the complex relationship of the fatlter and the son. " The word “complex, ” which appears frequently; in AP prompts. is significant. it tells you that there is something in this relanionsllip that is colnplicalerl and that may not be ohvious on a first reading. In this poem, Slltll a reminder is p:11'[iCulEIrl§~' important ls: -cause the poem may at first seem deceptively act: "“'hlc. You should write about the relationship of these two char- acters in all its complexities. cluding. in this case. the firhefs mental projection of their future relationship when the son a young man looking lb: car ke You rriiglit want to underline "contpiex relation- ship" and the words "father" and “son. ” The final phrase “throt1_; _:h the use of literary" tic-vicu: s such as paint of View and structure” is alsn important. Aithough you lcnuw that the phrase “such as" allows you In examine the literary eietnents you are most cnrrflnrtahle with (perhaps tune or (fiction). you might want to at least take a clnse look at point of View and structure, which work closely together in this poem. The {mam is stmcturcd with three distinct voices, or speakers: :1 narrrtur ciescrihing events in the third person; the father, whose concerns are expressed in the first person; am} the sun. also speal-Ling p1ainri-'elv, ' in the ll. l'5I person. But it is ue= er enough merely to identify these devices; good writers show how these disparate points of view work together to suggest the father's tongue-tietl anxiety", his worries as he projects lrinaself into
  37. 37. xi PREPARING TD SIICCEED oz»: rut APLE the future, and the “silence" (the highiy significant last word of the poem) that is present despite the father's deep love. Like the third» person narrator who introduces the characters and then steps aside, we are observers. Watching the father struggle with the worries about the future that prevent him from holding last to the present. Notice how the stmcture of the poem also leads us to jump thrmh time from the present to the future fraught with contlict and distance anti then back again to the present. ‘4’hile this is not the only approach to this poem, it is one that will work for you if you make the best use of the prompt itself. This approach can also keep you from falling into the traps that ensnare so tIl3l'I}‘ student Ti'[i! IS. If you see the three voices in the poem. you will resist the temptation to think only from the child's point of view—untletstandahle because you are young but LllS|51l’DL15 for this poem—or to fall into another weal: approach and give advice to the father (or to any character in literature you are examining). Likewise, the prompt does not ask you to praise Li-Young Lee for his contemporary awareness or his moving scenario. Stick to the prompt, and slum‘ how Lee, or any poet reprtsented on at given year's exam, commi ties his theme. Writing Question 2: Passage Analysis (Prose) The Value of Annotation Question 2, the prose question, also demands careful reading, pianning. and annotating of a iiterary pagage before you write. You've heard this before, and it may tempting to shrug it off, but this is highly impor- tant: you need to notice anti keep track of significant details. Again. you will he rnalting a connection between the "what" (the content) and the "how" (the literary elements). The passage, most often an excerpt from a novel or short story. is often the equivalent of about two Per- rirtu: ’s pages and may involve complicated syntax, detailed plotting, or complex characterization. If the passage is short, you may need to pay close attention to its suhtexr—ro what is lreing said between the lines or “beneath the text" as opposed to explicitly. in event, you will once again need to read the passage carefully. As with ali of the essay questions, it is crucial that you read the prompt carefully. paying close attention to the different parts of the question. Annotating both the prompt and the passage will help you to stay focused on both the dif- ferent steps within the question and those aspects of the passage that are most impornmt in responding to the prompt.
  38. 38. PREPARING ‘F0 succeeo are THE APLE xli Many previous prose questions have left most of the specific ans1ly— sis choices to the writer. Several of these past questions provided a pas- sage and then asked how the author of the passage used Izmguage to achieve his or her eifect. For example, the 1995 prose question directs students to read "Eleven" hi, ‘ Sandra Cisrieros and then to “Ifiite an essay analyzing how the author, Sandra Cisneros, uses literary tech» niques to characterize Rachel. " In this Case, your only specific direc— tion is to focus on characterization. What is Rachel like? How (literary techniques) does Cisneros create Rachei and show her to us! The 2005 prose question directed students to read :1 very short story. "The Birthday Party. ” and then. in the essay, to "show how the author uses literary ilevices to achieve her purpose. ” Your only specific direction is to focus on purpose: why did the author write this piece? What does she want you to think about as you read it? And how does she create her effect (literary techniques)? A Sample Question 2: From t/ Iidtilemarch However, if the prompt does provide you with .1 clearer direction, he sure to take advantage of this by reading and annotating the prompt closely. The 2011 QliI‘_‘Ii0Il 2 prompt, based on (I fairly challenging passage fmtn George Eliot’s nineteenth-century novel Middlznurch (also found at the link For 20“ free response questions at hrtp: fIww= collegehoard. corn]stutIenrftestinyap)'english_Eit[san1p. html? englit, offered considerable help to the student writers: The following passage is from the novel Nliddiztrlarch by George Eliot, the pen name of Mary Ann Evans (1319-1880). In the passue, Rosaruond and Tertius Lydgate, a recently married couple, confront financial difficulties. Read the passage carefully‘. Then write :1 well-developed 55:1‘; in which you analyze how Eliot portrays these two characters and their complex relationship as husband and wife. You may wish to consider such literary devices as narrative perspective and Election of detail. Finding Complexity The prompt offers insight into the content of the passage immediately by introducing the characters. Rosamond and Tertius Lydgzrte, and prox-“(ding the context that they are newly married and confronting
  39. 39. xlii PR2J'AK[. ‘lG TL) SCCCEEIJ o. -t ‘nu. APLE fire’-lncinl diificulties. You should tmrlerline tl ‘Sit facts. Underline as well “ltm-. = Eliot portrays these two characters” and “complex relation- ship. ” The fact that the two charactets are newly ntarried is ent>rnu)usly helpful, and you should keep in mind the difficulties of adjusting to life with :1 new paruter as you read the passage. Notice the wort} “complex" again, which refers in this case to complexity of meaning as opposed to technique. Rtmsatnond and Tertius, like real and complicated hutrian beings, do not EIlViI ‘s react to each other in pretlictahle ‘ElVjS. It is the marl: oi it superior ter, such as Eliot and others likely to he repre- sented on the AP Literature Exam, to ret al human nature in all its ambivalence. And it is your job to uncover the arnltigtrities and contra- dictions that infuse the shifts and turns in the dialogue as you analyze the passage It is not enough, ever, It imply repeat the word "complex" as in “Thai cutnpiex relationship. You nettl to sl1.tm' with examples -and specific quotations from the passage where this complexity lies. This protnpt aL<o gives you some helpful tiirection at you analyse how Eliot reveals this complex relationship. You are mired to refer to her literary techniques sticit as narrative perspective and selection of tlet-ail. Again, the phrase "such as" offers you the option of consider- ing other literary techt Lies. such as tigtitatire language. or tone, hut you sltoulti realize that the two Stlggeslfltl eletnents are key to grappling with this p'. L$age. ‘"aIIati. 'e perspective, anotlter term for point ofview (though perhaps .2 tghtly lzrmtlerl, is partitzularly signifiatnr in helping us to see the cotnplexirr of the relatiurtsltip. In this passage. the omni- scient narration heigss direct and then redirect our sytnpadties. By my» Eng cl se attention it! the nuanced shifts of consciousness throughout the (tr. . : ge, you are not only examining nart.1tiye perspective in detail, you are also resp0ni. ling to the prtitnpfs question about the tttrlrrietl cot: ple’s "complex relationsltip. “ Supporting Your Thesis Throughout the Essay It is important to remain alert as you read the passage and as you write your asay. Too many-' exam writers seem to tnalte up their minds alzotlt the direction of a p gze after rentlir mlv a few sentences. thus missing the very suhtletie it holds. Read with an open mind and pen in lutml. underlining specific details, shifts, and atnlgiguities as you go. Keep in mind at all times that: you are m1nl_s'zt'I1g~—nnt merely surnrnarizing—the passage as you look for key details and cimliuns that support wltat the prompt is asking. To prevent falling into the trap of too much plot sumrtmry, ask yourself if your examples from the pint are examples in service of your thesis. Do they support your analy" of the
  40. 40. PREPARING 10 SEJCCEEI3 on 7115 APLE xliii characters (or whatever the given year's prompt is asking of you). or are you starting to summarize the passage merely for sumtnary's sake? Pay close attention to the way you open and close your paragraphs-—a plot summary wil simply take off with another plot element; that is. it will tell what happened next. .‘-n anal; -’sis Il'i: -‘ll uses plot developments only to exempliiy an analytical observation will first make the point about theme or chatructerizatiori and then follow it with the example. Vi/ tiring Question 3: The “Open” Question The novels, plays, and epic pnents you read and study throughout your AP Literature course will prepare you to answer this question. Most Question 3 topics are thematic in nature. although many in past years hex-‘e also dealt with such litemry €lL‘II1EI1[S as setting, cliaracrerizatiun, or symlmlisni. The work you choose as the basis for your essay should he of strong literary merit. Young adult novels and bestselling com- mercial novels are not appropriate choices for this question primarily he-cause they do not provide you with enough depth of Cl‘. iI".1ClL’ rizarion and richness of theme to write a solid essay. Students who choose such works usually find rheruselt-‘es writing mere plot summary and little to no analyst Vh:1t Is “Literary Merit"? The question of just what constitutes it work of "literary merit" is a cltallenging one, and educators continue to debate the relative merit of the most conternporary works. The classics you have read in school—-canonical titles {min the s ‘tr; -enth through early twentieth cer1tury—ha~'e left .1 lastintr literary imprint. Aithougli these books may be challenging to read, their enduring qualities leave readers with much to discuss. With contetriporary novels. :1 good question to ask yourself is how rnucit you would glean from :1 novel if you were to reread it. Challenging -'orl: s of literary merit can he read over and over again; each time the reader gains :1 new perspective or insight. Popular commercial fiction usually does not stand up to more than one reading, and there is usually littie to d'L= .cuss beyontl plot. Characters may he stereotypical and one-ditnensiurtal. lacking the “complexity” that comes into play in so many of the AP Literature Exam questions. If you are in doubt. lool: up reviews of the work and see What critical reviewers from The New York Times and The New York Times Book Rest-ietu say aisout the work. Ask your teacher's opinion, or perhaps sticit to the works _-'ou have studied in your AP class. AP Lit teacher
  41. 41. xliv‘ PREPARING to success) (IN ‘HIE APLE Sandra Effingcr, whose AP website contains many valuable resources, has includes} a list of all the worlzs suggested by the College Bonn] since 1971; see lItrp: Ifltomepnge. mac. corr| fmse{fie/ AP, l.‘Ptitlc5.lItml. The list contains tirnr: —l1onorecl classics and many contemporary novels that suited a given year's prompt, but clearly those -'0Fl>LS that have appeared most often are multilayered and appropriate for many different prompts‘ The text; that have appeared most frequently ([5 times or more} art: lm= isil)lc Man, i"utl1»: ring Heights, Crime and Prmislim. -:m, Great Expectations, Jam: Eyre, and 1‘. -lob}; Dick. Oicourse. it is also essential that the novel or play he a suitable choice with which to answer the pmnipt. It will help you to be well prepared to -Tile about =0Il§5 that are varied in content. style, theme, and literary era. Several experienced AP Lit teachers suggest liar-‘i g :1 focus list of possibly three to five novels or plays that you can write about efti: ctivcl_r in mind, including :1 Slinl-tespetrre plat-' and two or more novels that contmst mnricedly in style and sulsstnnce [perhaps at least one that is canonical and one that is a high-quzility cruitemporary-‘ work). Prior to the exam, review the major characters and the plot and theme of the worl-ts of Eitcr-an)-‘ merit you have chosen for your focus list so that you don't have to spend too much precious writing time trying to remember details. Hnwex-‘er, if the three or so works you iuu-‘e selected do not seem to suit the prompt, do not In; -sirate to abandon your plan and to choose something else you l-(now. There is little worse than twisting or distorting the question to fit what _'r}u’'e :1lre.1ti)' decided to unite about nhtzml of time. Readers readily spot these attempts, which do not c-flectively show‘ your ability to think critically and creatively under the titne pressure. Choosing an Appropriate Work Read the question closely, thinking as you read of different full—Ic-ngth worls of literature that can allow you. once again. to address the Qrtrrnpt. Before looking at the list of novel and play titles that are ptovitled, quickly‘ write down 'llCll: V€[ titles from your focus list apply to the thrust of the question. Then you ll: l-‘C two choices. if you are certain that you will use one of these titles. skip the list of suggested titles altogether and lregin planning _-‘our 9S: .l}'. However, if you are still :1 hit undecided, let the list of suggested titles jog your memory of the novels and plays ', ’r¥.1 know. Circle or place a check mark by titles you are considering. Be sure to Lhinl; (Ii~VflIl£S that you lznow well and can discuss thoroughiy, hut don't be afraid to think creatively‘ about hour :1 worl; might etlecrively answer the 1l1EIIli1IiC question. Be sure that with
  42. 42. PRIPARING ‘FD succecn on THE : l’i_E : (l-‘ the work you choose you can answer ail parts of the question; more imtmrtantly, make certain that the “work as a whole“ (an oft-repeated phrase in Question 3 prompts) relates meaningfully to the question. For example, the 2009 Form B AP Literature Exam Question 3 asks exam writers to choose a novel or play that focuses on political or social issues’ Ifyou were to choose a novel where a political issue is only periphemi, you would not be able to answer that portion of the question that asks you to apply how the social or political issue "contributes to the meaning of the work as a whole. ” Similarly. the 2002 AP Literature Exam Quesv tion 3 asked students to write about :1 nova! or a play with a "'moral| t= ambiguous character" who “plays a pivotal role” in :1 work. If you were to choose: :1 Cl| £1['dClCF who is morally ambiguous but whose role is not central to the wotk. you would be unable to answer the question fuily. But what ifyou don’t see anything 3-'ou’‘e studied on the list of sug- gested titles. or you don’t even recognize any of the titles? Don't allow yourself to become frantic or depressed; keep in mind that this is only zl Suggested list. Panicking will only prevent you from thinking clearly. instead. czdnily ask yourself, “Vhat have I read! " Mentally review the works you do know, those you liave studied in school or even read on your own, and you will find you probably know more than one work that could apply to the prompt. The Al’ Literature Question 3 is always written in sufficiently broad terms to apply‘ to a wide range of choices. Most students who have taken an Al‘ Literature course, as well as previous courses in English, will be able to recali a novel. plat}, or epic poem that suits the question well. If you are undccidetl among works, choose the one that wouid elicit the best €1<Sil§«'fl’fiIn you: trust yourself and your knowledge hase. A Sample Question 3: The Search for Justice The 2011 Question 3 prompt. like many other, focuses on a thematic concern: the issue of justice‘ The complete prompt is: In a novel by Villiam Styron. a father tells his son that life “is a search for justice. " Choose :1 character from a novel or play who responds in some significant way to justice or injustice. Then write a '€ll'L'l|2l‘iil()p€d essay in which you analyze the character's understanding of justice, the degree to whicli the character’: search for justice is succi*_= sl'ul, and the significance of this search for the work as a whole. You may choose a work from the list below or another work of comparable literary merit. Do not merely summarize the plot.
  43. 43. xl-‘i PREPARING II) SCCCEEI) ON THE APLE It is essential to choose a novel. play. at epic poem in which the search in! ’ justice or response to injustice imhuc-5 the entire wtlrk. To answer this question, think closely almut what the word “justicc"' means, just as _-‘nu would consider in smite depth the meaning of any thematic word included in the open qut. -stitm prompt. For example. if you were to apply the justice ptoutpt In Jane Eyre, you could certainly find -.1 justice component in the novel. l? l.lE this would not mean ]ane‘s falling in love with Rochester. Rochestcfs treatment. of his psychotic Mfr: and his refusal to trust lane are clear instances of injustic _ .1ne"s tlepattilre ftc-in Thumfield Hall rcilects her fl: E]'Z~! }E1SE to this injustice and a search for the justice she later realises. }a§= Gatsl ‘s yearning for Daisy and his desire to recapture the past are not a "search for justice” in The Great Gatsby, but consider how Fitzgerald pmtraes the effects of wealth and social inequality-': Tom and Da '5 wealth either cumpletely di. ~stmv, 's people like Myrtle and George '‘i. "iIstm. or le ax-‘es them behind to "ch: ztn up" the Buch-unans' messe5—a clear social injustice. Determine a focus for your novel that truly explores justice: taciai inequality in Ini. =isi? .-la Mint, individual conscience and the conseqtiences of criutinul action in Crime and Puriisltmcnt, the lasting injustice of slzwen, ‘ in Belated. the enduring questions of justice in The Merdtunt of Venice and King Lear. Heart ufDa7imess could nuke a compelling choice ii you were to focus on Marlow, not Kuttz: he sure to think incisiveh; alzout the character and whether or not he or she is Iflllf engaged in the pursuit of justice. All these works ate clearly relevant and rich with examples that sup- port the question. Helping Yourself with More Annotation As with Questions I and 2, it is a good itlt-:1 In III! I'l' up the pmlnpt hefure you izegin to write. It is also an effective me of your time to draft a good thesis statement, one that incotprn-ates what i Red hy the prompt hut dues rm: mimic the prompt iiitectly. You may want to devme some time tn :1 hrief outline or iist of ideas keeping in mind that your ahilitg-' to write clearly and well is also being tested. You don"t want in marble incuherentlt-', and even a hrief outline will help you stay on track. In this prompt, you might want to underline the wot-'. is “cl1ar'. tc- let, " “justice or injustice, ” search for justice, " and “1ne:1ning of the work as a it-'hole. " The phnse "the meaning of the I‘nIl-: as :1 whole, ” which appear III ahnost :41! Question 3 prompts, reminds you to include the boo overall thematic purpose. li justice or injustice pl’L‘I'. l(lm. inil! I.‘. S in the ram-‘cl, this task should be an integral part of yuur analysis. It is not necessary‘ to explicitly call attention to this phrase (as in “the meaning
  44. 44. PREPARING ‘r0 EL‘-CCEED on THE APLE Xlvii of the work as a whole is. . . ") if you have clearly exmnincil the thematic thrust of the book. In fact, it is a sign of wca 11655 to repeat the actual u-‘onls of the prompt um closely or Inn often, and the phrase "the mean— ing of the work as a whole, " hen rernoveii from the prompt and placed into your ess -', can seem awlm rd and iurccti. lt is more important tn ensure that you have managed this task than to call explicit attention to it. Similarly, if your essay deals in orally with justice nr injustice, you need not sprinitle the wonl "justice liberally tlirmigltmit the essay; an eloquent discussion of justice as demunsmrted within a vell»choscn novel will L-flecrively announce itself. Underline the rr. -minder to avoid more pint summary. Vvitlt this p: -rticul. -1r e prompt, avoiding plot summary is a challenge because it can be I ficult to discuss the search for justice or the experience of injustice without alluding to plot. }ust rem Ernlscr that you need to keep the issue of justice fit-ml_-' in mind, again using your plot examples to support your point about the nverarcltirag theme of justice. Don’: allow yourself to ahamlon the justice theme and write only about "what hap- pelted next" (rnereiy pint); hi)we-‘er, do not hesitate to use compelling examples {min the plot and. especially, from the author's characteriza- tion to support your points lt needs [0 be clear that these are, incleed, examples in support of your thesis nlmut jastice—<)r whale vet the Qu : - tiun 3 topic i: —and that the plot details are not the main thrust of your essa *sl< "l1ot-'3" and ‘‘why? '’ and try to answer these questions as they relate to plm: clerelopments. Since this challenge applies to both Question 2 and 3, as you prepare for this exam you will benefit from miting cs: ys of analysis that focus on theme, chm-acteri ziun, serring, or other literary elements in which you call on plot details only as sup- porting details in your writing. More Reminders for All Free Response Essays A few more iinportant reminders apply to all three free response essays. Relnemhet to focus on what is actually present in the novel, play, passage, ur poem. If you lznou-‘ a work well, or read a p {E astutclt, ou will find sufficient conrent with which to address the prompt. You need not 5 eculnte on what would have happened in the book or the passage if something else had not llrrpjlcncd. The word “happened" should alert yuu that y u are considering only plot (though this speculation of what might have been different is limit- less); ntore importantly, yuur task is to anal the content Lhat is present. not to go off into the realm of speculation. Spcculating about how the novel or the passage might have been written cliilerently dues
  45. 45. xlt-‘iii PREl‘. RlI~I[} TCI sueczrn ON THE APLE not serve you well and robs you of time you can devote to win: the author does have to say and horn he or she says it, Your st ' = of writing and level of diction are also an important consideration. You may study vocabulary extensively in your AP class (:1 study that will certainly pay off as you answer the multiple choice questions}, but the lite response es’ ‘ s are not the place to grand_tand and show off your i<nt>wled, r;e of Gl. EC|1i’é! words. ‘l. ’rite eloquently and cogently, but most ofaii cleariy. You should also take care to avoid slang and colloquial diction. Stating that the father in "A Story" (Question i) needs to “chill out" or llmt King Lear "freaks out in the sierra” does not do justice to your own knowledge of literature and ability to analyze; such colloquial diction is at hest a dismiction. In addition to your style of writing, consider your handwririnv. At this point. the AP Literature Exam free response asays are still liamlwritten. altlzougli you prolzalily write most ofyour papers for school on a compiiter. You should practice writing at Ieas- some essays. especially timed writings, by hand, writing them as ciezarly as you can. If you have very small handwriting. prac- tice writing larger so that your work can he read. Readers are told to "‘re-'ard students l or what they do well, " and it is true they will make every efiorr to decipher and read poor or overly small handwriting. But many times the effort it takes the e, In reader to put your work under a Inicroscope and decipher such writing will call attention to minor llaws and lapses that may otherwise miss the reader’s attention. At the least, it may disrnict the reader from the valid ideas you are communicating. ln addition to taking advantage of your best writing voice and your clearest handwriting. allow at least a few minutes to proofread your exam. .-linur errors may not affect your ovemll score, but an acctimiilariun ofermrs, especially those you can find easily and correct, could distract from your message and result in a lower score than you deserve. Finally, although length alone is not a criterion, high—scoting essays almost always exceed two Iianclwritten pages. It is not the length that earns the high score; essa 's that ramble on without saying anything for three or four pages are not successful. it is a matter of having something wurthwhiie to say and saying it completely, with good reasons, details, and examples supporting :1 solid thesis. Vr1'r- ing .1 sulficicntly long and substantial essay is not something you can suddenly leam to do while taking the exam; rather, this ability will be nurtured throughout your AP Literature class and reilects your ability to write long, sustained essays of literary analysis in addition to the timed writings you will practice based on AP prompm. The prrunpics included in this hook include some that are suitable for
  46. 46. PREPARING T0 succrzn o. r THE APLE xlix timed writings and others that might be better used for longer, more fully developed essays, including those you work on at home and over time. Both kinds oi writing will help you develop the ability to Write essays of appropriate length and substzmtial content for the AI’ Literature Exam, fust as the readirrg, discussion, and analysis oi'litera— ture throughout all yum English classes contribute [0 your ability to become "lit srnart" and able to amalyre and write quickly and astutely. Regardless of the score you ultimately earn on your AP Literature Exam, these qualities will trike you far in coliege and later, no matter what profession you choose. Scoring the Essays: The Scoring Guide An understanding of the essay scoring process can help you feel more cumfortnlrle ulzout the exam and the validity of your store. More sig- nificantly, it can help you as you write your essays. An exam reader who is exclusively reading one of the three essays scores your essay on El U~9 point scale. The exam reader and table lender will searcli through your booklet to find your ess ys regardless of the order in which you write them. and they will leaf through hlnnk pages. too, to ensure that they read everytliing you provide. The scores you receive are not arbitrary or capricious on the part of the exam reader but rellect careful training. Readers do not add up or take off points. They score holistically. determining which of the descriptors on the scoring guide most closely matches what you have Written. Examining scoring guides from past years‘ exams, as well as generic scoring guides that some teachers have developed. can help you learn where you need to improve as you write practice essays. A score of seven, for example, means something specific and there are clear and exact descriptors that raise it up to more than :1 five or a six. Past years‘ scoring guides are available at the College Board website: http: ]f'ww. collegeho:1rti . comlstudentftestingfuplen_glisli_litfsamp. htrnlTenglit (scroll down to “scoring guidelines"). An nnline search will readily supply generic scoring guides that apply to Al’ Literature timed writing. Vhen your teacher scores your in—clas5 writings ith a scoring guide. read each score point descriptor carelully to leam how you can improve your essays and raise your scores. Above all. take comfort in the direcv tive readers continually receive E0 "reward students for what they do well. " Readers want to help you earn ti1El! £‘. S[ score you can and are delighted to read fine and sllbstantive essays that reveal students’ airfl- ity to analyze unfamiliar passages and to showcase their lznmvledge of excellent literature.

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