We Are Traffic: Creating Robust Bicycle and Pedestrian Count Programs (4-14)

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**Revised thanks to participant feedback**
As agencies looking to improve bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure have learned, it doesn’t count if it’s not counted. Counting provides information on the level of intersections, paths and roadways—data already available for motor vehicles but lacking for non-motorized travelers. For the first time, Federal Highway Administration’s Traffic Monitoring Guide now includes a chapter detailing how to monitor bicycle and pedestrian traffic. These slides explain how to create a robust bicycle and pedestrian count program based on the new guidance. Agencies that show clear evidence of use are more likely to receive funding for projects, so join us and learn how to improve your existing count program or create a new one. Webinar youtube video can be seen at: http://youtu.be/PXzcJRvwPmc

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We Are Traffic: Creating Robust Bicycle and Pedestrian Count Programs (4-14)

  1. 1. We are Traffic: Creating Robust Bicycle and Pedestrian Count Programs Krista Nordback, Ph.D., P.E. Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium (OTREC)
  2. 2. Overview • Introduction • Traffic Monitoring Programs • Non-Motorized Count Programs • Conclusions & Recommendations
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Why measure walking & biking?
  5. 5. Why measure walking & biking?
  6. 6. Why measure walking & biking? • Funding & policy decisions • To show change over time • Facility design • Planning (short-term, long-term, regional…) • Economic impact • Public health • Safety
  7. 7. How many bike and walk? • Surveys – National – Regional – Local • Counts – Permanent – Short duration
  8. 8. What good are counts? • Funding! • Facility Level – Change Over Time – Planning and Design – Safety Analysis • Validate Regional Models • Prioritize Projects • Bicycle Miles Traveled (BMT)
  9. 9. Signal Timing Vehicle Delay Kothuri, S. M., Reynolds, T., Monsere, C. M., & Koonce, P. (2013). Testing Strategies to Reduce Pedestrian Delay at Signalized Intersections. A Pilot Study in Portland, OR. Paper presented at the 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.
  10. 10. Signal Timing Vehicle Delay Kothuri, S. M., Reynolds, T., Monsere, C. M., & Koonce, P. (2013). Testing Strategies to Reduce Pedestrian Delay at Signalized Intersections. A Pilot Study in Portland, OR. Paper presented at the 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Pedestrian
  11. 11. What? People actually bike here? Yes! 200 per day
  12. 12. What? People actually walk here? Yes! 400 per day
  13. 13. TRAFFIC MONITORING PROGRAMS
  14. 14. State Traffic Monitoring Metro Count Accessed 6/13/13 http://mtehelp.tech-metrocount.com/article.aspx?key=mc5805 Commonly inductive loops Permanent Counters Short Duration Counters Commonly pneumatic tubes
  15. 15. Colorado’s Permanent Counters
  16. 16. Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
  17. 17. Colorado’s Short Duration Traffic Counts CDOT OTIS Accessed 6/18/13 http://dtdapps.coloradodot.info/Otis/HighwayData#/ui/0/1/criteria/~/184.667/210.864
  18. 18. AADT
  19. 19. AADT
  20. 20. AADT
  21. 21. AADT
  22. 22. Use AADT to Estimate VMT Sum (AADT X Segment Length) over network to compute Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) COLORADO HIGHWAYS
  23. 23. Can we apply these methods to biking and walking?
  24. 24. AADB: Annual Average Daily Bicyclists AADT for bicyclists!
  25. 25. Traffic Monitoring Guide 2013: Chapter 4 for Non- motorized Traffic
  26. 26. NON-MOTORIZED COUNT PROGRAMS
  27. 27. The TMG 2013 Approach
  28. 28. The TMG 2013 Approach
  29. 29. National Bicycle and Pedestrian Documentation Project Manual Counts: 2 hours 5 to 7pm Tues, Wed, or Thurs in mid-September http://bikepeddocumentation.org/
  30. 30. Passive Infrared Counters
  31. 31. Inductive loop counters in bike lanes
  32. 32. Combined Bicycle and Pedestrian Continuous Counter
  33. 33. Permanent Counters • Pedestrian • Bicycle Infrared Video Image Recognition Radar Pressure Sensor Inductive Loop Video Detection Video Image Recognition Microwave Magnetometers
  34. 34. The TMG 2013 Approach
  35. 35. Permanent Count Program
  36. 36. Permanent Count Program
  37. 37. Geographic/Climate Zones
  38. 38. Urban vs. Rural
  39. 39. Annual Average Daily Bicyclists (AADB) Volume Categories 0 500 1,000 AADB ContinuousCountStations Medium High 600 200 Low
  40. 40. Traffic Monitoring Guide 2013 Update, Chapter 4.
  41. 41. Permanent Count Program
  42. 42. Daily Patterns 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% 180% %ofAADB Colorado Example (Bikes only)
  43. 43. Hourly Commute Pattern 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 12:00AM 1:00AM 2:00AM 3:00AM 4:00AM 5:00AM 6:00AM 7:00AM 8:00AM 9:00AM 10:00AM 11:00AM 12:00PM 1:00PM 2:00PM 3:00PM 4:00PM 5:00PM 6:00PM 7:00PM 8:00PM 9:00PM 10:00PM 11:00PM %ofAADB City of Boulder Example (Bikes only)
  44. 44. Hourly Non-commute Pattern 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 AverageHourlyVolume Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Source: Pam Johnson, PSU
  45. 45. Permanent Count Program
  46. 46. 12 Possible groups Commute Non-Commute In Between 3 Daily Patterns
  47. 47. 12 Possible groups Commute Non-Commute In Between 3 Daily Patterns 2 Weekly Patterns Commute Non-Commute
  48. 48. 12 Possible groups Commute Non-Commute In Between 3 Daily Patterns 2 Weekly Patterns Commute Non-Commute 2 Annual Patterns Commute Non-Commute
  49. 49. 12 Possible groups Commute Non-Commute In Between 3 Daily Patterns 2 Weekly Patterns Commute Non-Commute 2 Annual Patterns Commute Non-Commute
  50. 50. 12 Possible groups Commute Non-Commute In Between 3 Daily Patterns 2 Weekly Patterns Commute Non-Commute 2 Annual Patterns Commute Non-Commute
  51. 51. 12 Possible groups Commute Non-Commute In Between 3 Daily Patterns 2 Weekly Patterns Commute Non-Commute 2 Annual Patterns Commute Non-Commute
  52. 52. Commute Urban Plains Non-commute Mountain Non-commuteHigher Week- ends? Rural Mtn Trail? Weekly Pattern Location Yes Yes NoNo
  53. 53. Permanent Count Program
  54. 54. Factoring Method Adapted from Traffic Monitoring Guide AADB = Cknown* D * M Cknown = 24-hour count D = Daily Factor M = Monthly Factor
  55. 55. Factoring Method Adapted from Traffic Monitoring Guide AADB = Cknown* D * M Cknown = 24-hour count D = Daily Factor M = Monthly Factor
  56. 56. Monthly Factor M = AADB MADB where MADB = Ave daily bike count in that month
  57. 57. Monthly Factor M = AADB MADB where MADB = Ave daily bike count in that month June = 500 1,000
  58. 58. Monthly Factor M = AADB MADB where MADB = Ave daily bike count in that month June = 500 1,000 = 0.5
  59. 59. Monthly Factor M = AADB MADB where MADB = Ave daily bike count in that month June = 500 1,000 = 0.5 Daily counts in June are twice AADB.
  60. 60. Groups: Mountain Non- Commute Front Range Non- Commute Commute January 3.9 1.5 February 3.2 2.0 March 1.3 1.2 April 2.2 1.1 1.1 May 1.0 0.8 0.9 June 0.5 0.8 0.7 July 0.4 0.8 0.8 August 0.5 0.7 0.7 September 0.7 0.8 0.8 October 1.7 1.0 1.0 November 1.5 1.4 December 2.5 2.3 Colorado Monthly Factors
  61. 61. Permanent Count Program
  62. 62. How many counters/group? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314 PrecisionofMonthlyFactors Number of Counters Non-Commute Factors Commute Counters Average
  63. 63. Permanent Count Program
  64. 64. The TMG 2013 Approach
  65. 65. The TMG 2013 Approach
  66. 66. The TMG 2013 Approach
  67. 67. Short Duration Count Program
  68. 68. Short Duration Count Program
  69. 69. Turning Movement Counts
  70. 70. Segment Count A B
  71. 71. Short Duration Counters • Pedestrian • Bicycle InfraredManual Manual Pneumatic Tube Counters
  72. 72. Traffic Monitoring Guide 2013 Update, Chapter 4.
  73. 73. Short Duration Count Program
  74. 74. Potential Selection Criteria • Variety of facility types Path On-street
  75. 75. Potential Selection Criteria • Variety of land uses – Central business district – Residential – School/University • Technology related criteria
  76. 76. Short Duration Count Program
  77. 77. Count Duration 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0 200 400 600 %ErrorofAADBEstimates Count Duration (hours)
  78. 78. Count Duration 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0 200 400 600 %ErrorofAADBEstimates Count Duration (hours) 1 week
  79. 79. Short Duration Count Program
  80. 80. Schedule Counts 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Absolute%ErrorinAADB Estimates Month
  81. 81. Schedule Counts 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Absolute%ErrorinAADT Estimate Month May to October best for Midwestern Climate
  82. 82. The TMG 2013 Approach
  83. 83. Factoring Method Adapted from Traffic Monitoring Guide AADB = Cknown* D * M Cknown = 24-hour count D = Daily Factor M = Monthly Factor
  84. 84. AADB
  85. 85. VMT for bicycles
  86. 86. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
  87. 87. Summary • Traffic Monitoring Guide Approach: – Permanent Count Program – Short Duration Count Program – Compute AADT for Bikes and Pedestrians
  88. 88. On-line Guide www.pdx.edu/ibpi/count
  89. 89. Recommendations • Both permanent and short duration count programs are needed. • Continuous counters are needed! • Prefer 1 week short count • Short duration counts in high volume months – May to October (Midwestern climates) • Integrate bike/ped counts into traffic data for preservation and access
  90. 90. Balance Permanent and Short Duration Programs PERMANENT COUNT PROGRAM SHORT DURATION COUNT PROGRAM
  91. 91. Iterative Process
  92. 92. Iterative Process
  93. 93. Example
  94. 94. 1st Year PERMANENT COUNT PROGRAM SHORT DURATION COUNT PROGRAM 1 Permanent Counter 20 Manual Count Sites
  95. 95. 2nd Year PERMANENT COUNT PROGRAM SHORT DURATION COUNT PROGRAM 1 Permanent Counter 12 Automated Short Duration Sites (one week per site + transfer time) Rotate 1 counter all summer
  96. 96. 3rd Year PERMANENT COUNT PROGRAM SHORT DURATION COUNT PROGRAM 5 Permanent Counters 24 Automated Short Duration Sites (one week per site + transfer time) Rotate 2 counters all summer
  97. 97. 4th Year PERMANENT COUNT PROGRAM SHORT DURATION COUNT PROGRAM 6 Permanent Counters 60 Automated Short Duration Sites (one week per site + transfer time) Rotate 5 counters all summer
  98. 98. 10th Year PERMANENT COUNT PROGRAM SHORT DURATION COUNT PROGRAM 14 Permanent Counters 360 Automated Short Duration Sites (one week per site) on 3 year rotation Rotate 10 counters all summer on 3 year rotation
  99. 99. On-going Work • Colorado, Vermont, Minnesota, Oregon, North Carolina, Washington State DOT’s are developing programs. • TRB Bike/Ped Data Subcommittee https://sites.google.com/site/bikepeddata/home • FHWA to include bike/ped counts in Travel Monitoring Analysis System (TMAS) • NCHRP 07-19: Bike/Ped Data Methods & Technologies • Google Group for future discussion! • OTREC’s Bike/Ped Data Archive
  100. 100. TRB Bike/Ped Data Subcommittee
  101. 101. Questions? Krista Nordback Nordback@pdx.edu 503-725-2897 Guide to Bicycle & Pedestrian Count Programs http://www.pdx.edu/ibpi/count

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