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Trick or Treatment? Impact of Route-Level Features on Decisions to Walk or Bike

Joseph Broach, Ph.D. Candidate, Portland State University

Some travel routes attract people walking and cycling, while others may scare them away. What features of street environments are most important, and how do available routes affect decisions to bike or walk on a specific trip?

Research to date has focused on either large-scale areal measures like "miles of bike lane nearby" or else has considered only shortest path routes. Neither method is suited to capturing the impact of targeted route-level policies like neighborhood greenways. This session will present a new technique for measuring bike and walk accessibility along the most likely route for a given trip. The method is applied to travel data, and results provide new insight into the relationship between route quality and travel mode choice.

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Trick or Treatment? Impact of Route-Level Features on Decisions to Walk or Bike

  1. 1. Joe Broach PhD Candidate, Urban Studies and Planning Presented at the CTS FridayTransportation Seminar Series October 31, 2014 in Portland, OR photo: Jason McLaren Trick or Treat(ment)? Impact of Route-Level Features on Walk and Bike Decisions
  2. 2. Photo by Oliver Smith Google 2014 October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 2
  3. 3. October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 3
  4. 4. A little backstory 2007: BikeGPS study Over 150 Volunteers with bike-mounted PDAs 2009-2011: Bike Model 1.0 Route choice model 2010-2013: Family Activity Study (FAS) Over 1,000 adults and children, wearable GPS 2012-2015: Bike Model 2.0, Ped Model 1.0 Route and Mode Choice October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 4
  5. 5. Why a new study? 1. Replication 2. Pedestrians 3. Sample 4. Network 5. Mode Choice October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 5
  6. 6. New data October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 6
  7. 7. October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 7 Study Participants Multnomah County Families w/ Children Median Annual Household Income $50,000-$75,000 $57, 143 %Female Adults 62.4% 58.7% %Female Children 47.9% 49.0% %Married Couple Families 58.5% 64.6% %White, Non-Hispanic Adults 84.9% 68.7% %Four-year college degree or higher 59.8% 37.5% (age 25+) %Renters 19.2% 37.8% Vehicles per licensed driver 0.98 - Interested but Concerned Cyclists 32% -
  8. 8. Bike route choice October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 8 1. “Label” alternatives 2. Calibrate detours 3. Terrain (LiDAR) 4. Traffic 5. Intersections 6. Facilities
  9. 9. October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 9 off-street path bike boulevard bike lane (>5k/day) any street (>5k/day) moderate (10-20k/day) traffic, no bike lane heavy (20-30k/day) traffic, no bike lane very heavy (30k/day) traffic, no bike lane upslope 2-4% upslope 4-6% upslope 6%+ bridge w/ path bridge w/ bike lane stop sign traffic signal turn crossing light (5-10k/day) traffic, no signal crossing moderate (10-20k/day) traffic, no signalcrossing heavy (20k/day) traffic, no signal left turn across moderate (10-20k/day) traffic, no signal left turn across heavy (20k/day) traffic, no signal -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 To compensate for listed feature, cyclist willing to ride... FAS BikeGPS % less % more
  10. 10. Surprisingly consistent results • Non-commute trips • Female cyclists • Facilities • Slope • Traffic • Buffered lanes? • Cycle tracks? • Burnside Bridge? October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 10
  11. 11. Some differences • Commuting • Traffic • Bike lanes • Delay • Alleyways & Unpaved streets October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 11
  12. 12. Ped route choice October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 12 • Alternatives: random walks around the shortest path • Complex crossings • Blockface land-use and design • Walking to destination or transit • 0.25 miles and up
  13. 13. Attribute Distance Equivalent Per additional… turn +54 m unsignalized arterial crossing +73 m collector crossing w/o marked crosswalk +28 m Change in perceived distance along… ten percent upslope +99 % unpaved or alley +51 % busy street (collector or larger) +14 % neighborhood commercial −28 % Increase in detour cost… traveling with another family member +85 % October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 13
  14. 14. Compared with cyclists • Facilities • Intersections • Wayfinding/Inertia • Traffic • Adjacent Land Use • Detours • And…traveling with others? October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 14
  15. 15. Stay tuned this Winter… October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 15 Origin/Destination Built Environment Route-level Built Environment Tour Attributes Route Time/Cost Walk/Bike Route Choice Walk/Bike Networks Shortest Path Motorized Networks Mode Availability Mode Choice Sociodemog. Attitudes Trip Context Presented Today Completed Task Coming Soon!
  16. 16. Application: crosswalk location October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 16 50m Bus stop Bus stop Model suggests this crosswalk may be too much of a detour for peds.
  17. 17. Biking the new bridge: October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 17 Photo: M.O. Stevens (CC) Tilikum Crossing’s cycling potential may be limited by its steep grade (>4%).
  18. 18. Some thanks are in order • Jennifer Dill, John Gliebe, dissertation committee • (O)TREC & Robert Wood Johnson • Metro & PBOT • Geostats (Westat) • Grad students October 31, 2014 CTS FridayTransportation Seminar, Portland, OR 18
  19. 19. photo:Greg Raisman jbroach@pdx.edu

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