Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Safe System Approach: Considerations for Developing a Multi-Layered System

152 views

Published on

Offer Grembek, Safe Transportation Research and Education Center (SafeTREC)

Published in: Engineering
  • over $300k/year taking surveys? ✄✄✄ https://dwz1.cc/DU3z4dss
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • You should find best essay writing services with great knowledge at reasonable price.because you are a student so you have to find a writer with academic knowledge. I recommend HelpWriting.net for best services.try this.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

The Safe System Approach: Considerations for Developing a Multi-Layered System

  1. 1. The Safe System Approach: Considerations for Developing a Multi-Layered System Dr. Offer Grembek Presented at: TREC Friday Seminar @ PSU October 11, 2019 Presented by:
  2. 2. PG&E’s Public Safety Power Shutoff • Low humidity levels (20% and below) • Sustained winds generally (above 25mph with 45mph gusts) • Dry fuel on the ground
  3. 3. PG&E’s Public Safety Power Shutoff • October 10/08-10/XX • ~730,000 PG&E accounts • Across 34 counties Provide electricity.
  4. 4. Outline • Safer Vehicles • Safer Roads • Safer Speeds Safe System Safety Buffers Policy Implications • Design and Ops • Behavior • Protection • Measure Outcome • Measure System • Proactive
  5. 5. Goal of the transportation system? Provide mobility.
  6. 6. Goal of the transportation system? Provide mobility. Provide efficient, cost-effective, equitable, …, sustainable, and safe mobility.
  7. 7. So, is our transportation system safe?
  8. 8. So, is our transportation system safe? The fatality rate has demonstrated a downward trend for decades. We’re on the right track towards safety.
  9. 9. So, is our transportation system safe? No. It is not safe. USA: 37,133 Globally: Over 1,300,000 2017 Fatalities: California: 3,602
  10. 10. So, is our transportation system safe? No. It is not safe.
  11. 11. So, is our transportation system safe? No. It is not safe. First, or Second; Age > 1yr
  12. 12. So, is our transportation system safe? safe . system . a system in which people cannot die despite human error. Job, and Sakashita. 2016a
  13. 13. So, is our transportation system dangerous?
  14. 14. So, is our transportation system dangerous? dangerous. system . a system in which people can die with no human error (e.g., mine field, avalanche area). Job, and Sakashita. 2016a
  15. 15. Our system is not safe and also not dangerous
  16. 16. Our system is not safe and also not dangerous unsafe . system . a system in which people can die through human error Job, and Sakashita. 2016a
  17. 17. Our transportation system is unsafe unsafe . system . a system in which people can die through human error Job, and Sakashita. 2016a
  18. 18. Kinetic Energy Transfer Kinetic energy is the energy associated with the movement of an object and is determined by a combination of velocity and mass.
  19. 19. Traffic is multimodal Inherently different modes share the same network
  20. 20. Traffic Safety is multimodal Inherently different modes share the same network
  21. 21. Square matrix, X, of dimension n Multimodal Injury Matrix
  22. 22. Element xij represents the number of injuries that were suffered by mode i and inflicted by mode j. x23 Multimodal Injury Matrix
  23. 23. Injury crashes of two parties or less. Multimodal Injury Matrix: California
  24. 24. Multimodal Injury Matrix: California
  25. 25. Relative Vulnerability Matrix
  26. 26. Relative Vulnerability Matrix Pedestrians suffer 36.95 times more injuries than they inflict.
  27. 27. Policy innovation to move the needle safe . system . dangerous. system . V2.0 V1.0 unsafe system
  28. 28. Policy innovation to move the needle safe . system . dangerous. system . V2.0 V1.0 Vision Zero & Safe System challenge our ability to reach zero without a major change unsafe system
  29. 29. Multi-layered systems approach Mooren et al., 2011 safe . system . dangerous. system . unsafe system
  30. 30. System core: human tolerance to force Human tolerance to physical force Mooren et al., 2011 safe . system . dangerous. system . unsafe system
  31. 31. Safe System: safer roads, vehicles, speeds Mooren et al., 2011 safe . system . dangerous. system . unsafe system Safer Roads Safer Vehicles Safer Speeds Human tolerance to physical force
  32. 32. Safer Roads, Safer Vehicles, Safer Speeds https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIotGXqBH0Y Danny Bagwell Flips Violently At Daytona 1999
  33. 33. Safe System: safer roads, vehicles, speeds Mooren et al., 2011 safe . system . dangerous. system . unsafe system Safer Roads Safer Vehicles Safer Speeds Human tolerance to physical force
  34. 34. Speed management as a regulator • Vehicle speed is the most important regulating factor for safe road traffic since it is subject to road-user behavior • The kinetic energy that the human body can tolerate, forms the basic parameter in the design of a safe transport system
  35. 35. Fatality risk for collision speed, by crash type Source: Wramborg, P. 2005.” A New Approach to a Safe and Sustainable Road Structure and Street Design for Urban Areas.” Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Road Safety on Four Continents, Warsaw, Poland, October 5–7. 10% 20 mph 80% 30 mph
  36. 36. Fatality risk for collision speed, by crash type Source: Wramborg, P. 2005.” A New Approach to a Safe and Sustainable Road Structure and Street Design for Urban Areas.” Paper presented at 13th International Conference on Road Safety on Four Continents, Warsaw, Poland, October 5–7. 10% 20 mph 80% 30 mph Human tolerance to physical force
  37. 37. Speed limits for a safe system in Sweden 45 20 30 Most unprotected road users survive if a car travelling 20 mph hits them A safe car can protect occupants up to 45 mph in a head-on collision A safe car can protect occupants up to 30 mph in a side collision Source: Vision Zero and New Speed Limits in Sweden, Anna Vadeby, VTI mph mph mph
  38. 38. Speed limits for a safe system in Sweden 45 20 30 Most unprotected road users survive if a car travelling 20 mph hits them A safe car can protect occupants up to 45 mph in a head-on collision A safe car can protect occupants up to 30 mph in a side collision Source: Vision Zero and New Speed Limits in Sweden, Anna Vadeby, VTI Safer Vehicles mph mph mph
  39. 39. Rural speed limits for safe system, Sweden • 45 mph (70 km/h): default limit on rural roads • 50 mph (80-90 km/h): 2-lane roads (milled rumble strips in middle of road) • 65 mph (100 km/h): 2+1 roads with median barrier • 70 mph (110 km/h): motorways • 75 mph (120 km/h): motorways with high standard and low traffic flow 45 65 75 Source: Vision Zero and New Speed Limits in Sweden, Anna Vadeby, VTI mph mph mph
  40. 40. Rural speed limits for safe system, Sweden • 45 mph (70 km/h): default limit on rural roads • 50 mph (80-90 km/h): 2-lane roads (milled rumble strips in middle of road) • 65 mph (100 km/h): 2+1 roads with median barrier • 70 mph (110 km/h): motorways • 75 mph (120 km/h): motorways with high standard and low traffic flow 45 65 75 Safer Roads Source: Vision Zero and New Speed Limits in Sweden, Anna Vadeby, VTI mph mph mph
  41. 41. Urban speed limits for a safe system, Sweden Guidelines consider: • City's character • Accessibility • Security • Traffic Safety • Health and Environment 30 20 40 Based on: Vision Zero and New Speed Limits in Sweden, Anna Vadeby, VTI. Original Values have been converted from kph to mph and rounded. mph mph mph 20 mph 30 mph 40 mph 45 mph
  42. 42. Urban speed limits for a safe system, Sweden Guidelines consider: • City's character • Accessibility • Security • Traffic Safety • Health and Environment 30 20 40 Based on: Vision Zero and New Speed Limits in Sweden, Anna Vadeby, VTI. Original Values have been converted from kph to mph and rounded. mph mph mph 20 mph 30 mph 40 mph 45 mph Safer Roads
  43. 43. Safe System: alert and compliant users Mooren et al., 2011 safe . system . dangerous. system . unsafe system Alert and compliant road users Human tolerance to physical force
  44. 44. Who is this safe/r road user we design for? Goody two shoes minion Error-prone minion CarlPhil
  45. 45. Who is this safe/r road user we design for? Safe systemUnsafe system Goody two shoes minion Error-prone minion CarlPhil
  46. 46. Safe/r road users and speed Speed limits and Misjudgment
  47. 47. Safe/r road users and alcohol Alcohol and Misjudgment Diminished performance below 0.08 BAC may not be accounted for in perception reaction time assumptions for current design standards Legal Itani, I., Grembek, O., In preparation
  48. 48. Safe System: safer roads, vehicles, speeds safe . system . dangerous. system . unsafe system Mooren et al., 2011 Safer Roads Safer Vehicles Safer Speeds Alert and compliant road users Human tolerance to physical force
  49. 49. Where do we go from here?
  50. 50. Cyclist Safety Considerations We would want alert and compliant riders, to make trips using safe bicycles, on safe street design with adequate separation from safe motorized traffic driven by alert and compliant drivers, all of which are governed by safe speeds, and supported by effective cyclist protection, and the medical emergency system, when needed.
  51. 51. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services
  52. 52. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services Protective capability of the system
  53. 53. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services Protective capability of the system Design
  54. 54. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services Protective capability of the system Design Operations
  55. 55. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services Protective capability of the system Design – (behavior) Operations – (behavior)
  56. 56. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services Protective capability of the system Design – (behavior + warning) Operations – (behavior + warning)
  57. 57. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services Protective capability of the system Design – (behavior + warning) Operations – (behavior + warning) Protection – (behavior + warning)
  58. 58. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services Protective capability of the system Design – (behavior + warning) Operations – (behavior + warning) Protection – (behavior + warning) Emergency medical services
  59. 59. Safety Considerations 1. street design 2. street operations 3. street-user behavior 4. street-user warning 5. street-user protection 6. emergency medical services Protective capability of the system Combined
  60. 60. Integrated buffers of a safe system • Analyze levels of kinetic energy that road users are exposed to across different parts of the network. This will be done by mode and will be used to establish the desired capability of the system. Level of Kinetic energy for each pair
  61. 61. Policy Implications Level of Kinetic energy carried by the users
  62. 62. Policy Implications Protective capability of the system Policy Level of Kinetic energy carried by the users
  63. 63. Summary • Understand what is a safe system approach to road safety • Recognize the different roles of the core protective opportunities provided by a safe system • Appreciate the policy opportunities created by adding non-crash safety considerations
  64. 64. Thank you! Offer Grembek, grembek@berkeley.edu Research presented is based on various efforts funded by:

×